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Bertram Baenziger, Najia Nadi, Ramon Doerig, Peter Proemmel, Brigitta Gahl, Daniel Hodel, Oliver N Hausmann
BACKGROUND: There are only a few prospective clinical trials investigating the effects of different anesthetic techniques on clinical outcomes after lumbar spine surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes in patients receiving general (GA) and regional anesthesia (RA) for lumbar spine surgery. METHODS: This was a single-center, 2-arm, trial in which 100 patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery were randomized to receive either RA or GA (50 per group)...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Ivona Elez Garofulić, Zoran Zorić, Sandra Pedisić, Mladen Brnčić, Verica Dragović-Uzelac
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was optimized for fast and effective isolation of blackthorn flower polyphenols. The effects of ethanol concentration (50% and 70%) in extraction solvent, ultrasound amplitude (50%, 75%, and 100%) and extraction time (3, 6, and 9 min) were evaluated. UPLC-MS2 was used to determine phenolic profile of blackthorn flowers extracts. A total of 28 different phenolic compounds were identified, belonging to the classes of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonol glycosides and flavanols...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Bikash Kumar, Nisha Bhardwaj, Ansar Alam, Komal Agrawal, Himanshu Prasad, Pradeep Verma
A cellulase producing fungus Schizophyllum commune NAIMCC-F-03379 was isolated from decomposed leaf sample of Lantana camera. The nutritional components (wheat bran, magnesium sulphate and calcium chloride concentrations) and physical parameters (temperature and pH) were optimised by response surface methodology for enhanced cellulase production by S. commune NAIMCC-F-03379. The optimized medium contained: 1% (w/v) wheat bran, 0.3 g/L MgSO4, 0.8-1.0 g/L CaCl2 , optimum temperature and pH were 25 °C and 5 respectively...
October 17, 2018: AMB Express
Noor Khan, Pilar Martínez-Hidalgo, Tyler A Ice, Maskit Maymon, Ethan A Humm, Najmeh Nejat, Erin R Sanders, Drora Kaplan, Ann M Hirsch
Fusarium is a complex genus of ascomycete fungi that consists of plant pathogens of agricultural relevance. Controlling Fusarium infection in crops that leads to substantial yield losses is challenging. These economic losses along with environmental and human health concerns over the usage of chemicals in attaining disease control are shifting focus toward the use of biocontrol agents for effective control of phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. In the present study, an analysis of the plant-growth promoting (PGP) and biocontrol attributes of four bacilli ( Bacillus simplex 30N-5, B...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gebreyohannes Zemicheal, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial effects of the crude aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Vernonia adoensis in Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss albino mice using Peters' 4-day suppressive test. RESULTS: The number of mice used for the toxicity test was 20 (5/group) and for each extract and control groups 5 mice per group was used. The aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of V. adoensis leaves indicated statistically significant (P < 0...
October 17, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Zhenzhong Yang, Haitao Tang, Qing Shao, Anna Rita Bilia, Yi Wang, Xiaoping Zhao
Flower of Abelmoschus manihot (FAM) is clinically effective to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a relatively high dosage. To improve the efficacy and the compliance of patients, macroporous resins were adopted to enrich and purify flavonoids from FAM, which are thought to be the major renal protective constituents in FAM. After screening six different kinds of macroporous resins, HPD-100 was selected for its great adsorption and desorption capacity. Then, orthogonal design tests were used to optimize parameters in the processes of impurity removal and flavonoids of FAM desorption on column chromatogram...
October 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Massimiliano D'Ambola, Antonio Bosco, Andrea Ariano, Laura Rinaldi, Ammar Bader, Alessandra Amadesi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Lorella Severino
The anthelminthic efficacy of the crude extracts of Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) R.Br (Acanthaceae) against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep was investigated using the in vitro egg hatch inhibition assay. Faecal samples were collected from sheep with naturally occurring infection of GIN ( Trichostrongylus spp., Chabertia ovina , Cooperia spp., Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia spp.). Crude leaf extracts of H. forskaolii was obtained using increasing polarity solvents: n -hexane, chloroform, chloroform:methanol 9:1, methanol...
October 16, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Prescilla Perrichon, Edward M Mager, Christina Pasparakis, John D Stieglitz, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Warren W Burggren
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill coincided with the spawning season of many pelagic fish species in the Gulf of Mexico. Yet, few studies have investigated physiological responses of larval fish to interactions between anthropogenic crude oil exposure and natural factors (e.g. temperature, oxygen levels). Consequently, mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos were exposed for 24 hours to combinations of two temperatures (26 and 30°C) and six concentrations of oiled fractions of weathered oil (from 0 to 44...
2018: PloS One
Li-Ting Kao, Sudha Xirasagar, Herng-Ching Lin, Chao-Yuan Huang
To date, few epidemiologic studies have investigated the relationship between pioglitazone use and prostate cancer. The available studies show conflicting findings. This case-control study explored the association between prior pioglitazone usage and prostate cancer using a large, population-based data set. Data were derived from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 in Taiwan, a population-based sample of National Health Insurance enrollees with longitudinal claims data since 1995. Cases were 3513 patients with prostate cancer aged over 40 years, and the controls were 3513 patients without prostate cancer, matched with prostate cancer cases on age, and having a medical care utilization episode in the year of the index prostate cancer (1 control per case)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
J Wen, A Helmbrecht, M A Elliot, J Thomson, M E Persia
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the total Valine (Val) requirement of first cycle laying hens from 41 to 60 wk of age. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 laying hens were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 15 replicate groups of 3 birds for each experimental unit. A Val deficient basal diet was formulated with corn and peanut meal with analyzed Val, Lys and crude protein concentrations of 0.515, 0.875, and 13.38%, respectively. Synthetic L-Val was supplemented to the basal diet in 0.070% increments to generate experimental diets containing 0...
October 16, 2018: Poultry Science
V De Giorgi, L Salvati, A Barchielli, A Caldarella, A Gori, F Scarfì, I Savarese, N Pimpinelli, C Urso, D Massi
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown an increasing incidence of cutaneous adnexal carcinomas (CACs) over the years. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate incidence and survival of CACsand investigate their association with other skin neoplasms. METHODS: Population based study. Data on incident cases of CACs were obtained from the Tuscany Cancer Registry (TCR) between 1985 and 2010. In order to determine if the occurence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among patients with CAC is higher or lower than expected in the general population, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated...
October 16, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
G S Castañeda-Ramírez, M Rodríguez-Labastida, G I Ortiz-Ocampo, P G González-Pech, J Ventura-Cordero, R Borges-Argáez, J F J Torres-Acosta, C A Sandoval-Castro, C Mathieu
Nutraceutical plants provide nutrients for the animal as well as secondary compounds that can affect the biology and survival of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Current screening of nutraceutical plants is based on in vitro evidence of anthelmintic (AH) activity against different life stages of GIN, but nutritional information is omitted or scarce. This study proposes an integral in vitro screening protocol to identify the nutraceutical value of the foliage from plant species consumed by small ruminants, using Haemonchus contortus as a biological model...
October 16, 2018: Parasitology Research
Haley J Appaneal, Aisling R Caffrey, Maya Beganovic, Sanja Avramovic, Kerry L LaPlante
Background: Though recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common and poses a major clinical concern, data are lacking regarding mortality among patients who survive their initial CDI and have subsequent recurrences. Risk factors for mortality in patients with recurrent CDI are largely unknown. Methods: Veterans Affairs patients with a first CDI (stool sample with positive C. difficile toxin(s) and ≥2 days CDI treatment) were included (2010-2014). Subsequent recurrences were defined as additional CDI episodes ≥14 days after the stool test date and within 30 days of the end of treatment...
August 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Madamanchi Geethangili, Shih-Torng Ding
The genus Phyllanthus (L.) is one of the most important groups of plants belonging to the Phyllantaceae family. Phyllanthus urinaria (L.) is an annual perennial herbal species found in tropical Asia, America, China, and the Indian Ocean islands. P. urinaria is used in folk medicine as a cure to treat jaundice, diabetes, malaria, and liver diseases. This review provides traditional knowledge, phytochemistry, and biological activities of P. urinaria . The literature reviewed for this article was obtained from the Web of Science, SciFinder, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar journal papers published prior to December 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lajos Fodor, Bence Solymosi, Ottó Horváth
Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic to humans and harmful to the environment. On the other hand, H₂S is produced in large quantities in some industrial processes like the refinery of crude oil and the sweetening of natural gas. Nowadays, H₂S is usually burned to sulfur and water in the Claussprocess wasting the energy of hydrogen stored in H₂S. Progress in the area of photocatalysis results in considerable development of the heterogeneous photocatalytic conversion of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen gas. In this work, photocatalytic hydrogen production from alkaline sulfide solutions was investigated, utilizing various ZnS/CdS composites modified with PdS as cocatalyst...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Stuart Linley, Andrew Holmes, Timothy Leshuk, Wanis Nafo, Neil R Thomson, Adil Al-Mayah, Kevin McVey, Kanwartej Sra, Frank X Gu
Targeted nanoparticle binding has become a core feature of experimental pharmaceutical product design which enables more efficient payload delivery and enhances medical imaging by accumulating nanoparticles in specific tissues. Environmental remediation and geophysical monitoring encounter similar challenges which may be addressed in part by the adoption of targeted nanoparticle binding strategies. This study illustrates that engineered nanoparticles can bind to crude oil-impacted silica sand, a selective adsorption driven by active targeting based on an amphiphilic polymer coating...
October 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Nabeel Khan, Chinmay Trivedi, Himanshu Kavani, Elina Medvedeva, James Lewis, Yu-Xiao Yang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk of herpes zoster virus infection is increased among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The herpes zoster vaccine (HZV) is therefore recommended for these patients, but little is known about its effectiveness, resulting in low use. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the national veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VAHS) from January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2016. We collected data from 39983 veterans with IBD who had not received the HZV by an age of 60 years...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Julio Federico Camperio Ciani, Jorge Guerrel, Eric Baitchman, Rigoberto Diaz, Matthew Evans, Roberto Ibáñez, Heidi Ross, Eric Klaphake, Bradley Nissen, Allan P Pessier, Michael L Power, Caitlin Arlotta, Donna Snellgrove, Brad Wilson, Brian Gratwicke
Spindly Leg Syndrome (SLS) is a persistent animal welfare issue associated with the rearing of amphibians in captivity. We conducted two experiments to investigate the effects of diet, water composition and overfeeding on prevalence of SLS in newly metamorphosed harlequin frogs (Atelopus spp.). In our first experiment, we offered 400 full-sibling tadpoles of Atelopus certus isocaloric diets in treatments of 31%, 37%, 42% and 48% crude protein respectively. Tadpoles fed higher protein diets metamorphosed faster, but the incidence of SLS exceeded 80% in all treatments leading to the conclusion that variation in dietary protein was not responsible for causing SLS...
2018: PloS One
Saara Ahmad, Rehana Rehman, Saida Haider, Zehra Batool, Fatima Ahmed, Saad Bilal Ahmed, Tahira Perveen, Sahar Rafiq, Sadia Sadir, Sidrah Shahzad
OBJECTIVE: To determine the various constituents of commercial, broiler chicken feed and the presence of these constituents in their meat. METHODS: The experimental study was conducted at the Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research laboratory, Karachi. Samples of commercial broiler chicken feed and meat were collected in 2015 from a large poultry farm that supplies chicken meat to various suburban areas of the city. Another set of organic chickens were bred in an animal house...
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Catherine R Lesko, Bryan Lau, Geetanjali Chander, Richard D Moore
OBJECTIVE: Describe all-cause mortality associated with history of injection drug use (IDU) after a validated diagnosis of four non-communicable disease (NCD) diagnoses: 1) end-stage liver disease (ESLD); 2) end-stage renal disease (ESRD); 3) cancer; or 4) myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. DESIGN: We followed 4 cohorts of persons in continuity HIV care in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic with a validated diagnosis of ESLD (n = 67), ESRD (n = 187), cancer (n = 424), and MI or stroke (n = 213) from 1996 through approximately 2014...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
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