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Yutaka Konya, Moyu Taniguchi, Masahiro Furuno, Yosuke Nakano, Nobuo Tanaka, Eiichiro Fukusaki
The separation mechanism of amino acid enantiomers using a chiral crown ether-bonded stationary phase, CROWNPAK CR-I(+), and acetonitrile (ACN)-rich mobile phases (MPs) was studied. The retention factors of proteinogenic l-amino acids (except proline) formed U-shaped plots against the ACN content in the MP with a sharp increase at a high ACN content, while d-amino acids showed much smaller increases or monotonous decreases in retention within the same range. The use of an acidic, highly organic MP with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) provided a high enantioselectivity with a short separation time from the contribution of the increased binding of the ammonium group of the analytes to the crown ether functionality of the stationary phase and electrostatic repulsion counteracting the hydrophilic partition mechanism...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Michael J Gibney, Susan I Barr, France Bellisle, Adam Drewnowski, Sisse Fagt, Sinead Hopkins, Barbara Livingstone, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Luis Moreno, Jessica Smith, Florent Vieux, Frank Thielecke, Gabriel Masset
The International Breakfast Research Initiative (IBRI) set out to derive nutritional recommendations for a balanced breakfast using a standardized analysis of national nutrition surveys from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, UK and the US. In all countries, the frequency of breakfast consumption by age was high and U-shaped with children and older adults having a higher frequency of breakfast consumption. Breakfast contributed 16% to 21% of daily energy intake. In all countries, breakfast was a carbohydrate- and nutrient-rich meal, providing more carbohydrates (including sugars), thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, potassium, and magnesium, and less vitamin A, fats and sodium relative to its contribution to daily energy intakes...
October 18, 2018: Nutrients
Richard J Cooper, Zachary M Battams, Sally H Pearl, Kevin M Hiscock
Metalled roads have been shown to act as a major pathway for land-to-river sediment transfer, but there currently exists limited research into mitigation solutions to tackle this pollution source. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of three roadside constructed wetlands, installed in September 2016, at reducing sediment enrichment in a tributary of the River Wensum, UK. Two wetland designs were trialled (linear and 'U-shaped'), both of which act as settling ponds to encourage entrained sediment to fall out of suspension and allow cleaner water to discharge into the river...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Susan A Kayser, Catherine A VanGilder, Charlie Lachenbruch
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure injuries has declined over time. However, it is unknown if this decline is consistent for different stages of pressure injuries. It is also unknown if risk factors differ between superficial (stage 1 and 2) and severe (stage 3, 4, deep tissue, and unstageable) pressure injuries. OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in prevalence of superficial and severe hospital-acquired pressure injuries from 2011 to 2016. To evaluate differences between risk factors associated with superficial versus severe hospital-acquired pressure injuries...
September 8, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Angela C Brown, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Nataliya V Balashova, Nestor Mas Gómez, Kaye Speicher, Hsin-Yao Tang, Margaret E Duszyk, Edward T Lally
The oral bacterium, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, which is associated with localized aggressive periodontitis, as well as systemic infections including endocarditis, produces numerous virulence factors, including a repeats-in-toxin (RTX) protein called leukotoxin (LtxA), which kills human immune cells. The strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans most closely associated with disease have been shown to produce the most LtxA, suggesting that LtxA plays a significant role in the virulence of this organism...
2018: PloS One
Frank Pennekamp, Mikael Pontarp, Andrea Tabi, Florian Altermatt, Roman Alther, Yves Choffat, Emanuel A Fronhofer, Pravin Ganesanandamoorthy, Aurélie Garnier, Jason I Griffiths, Suzanne Greene, Katherine Horgan, Thomas M Massie, Elvira Mächler, Gian Marco Palamara, Mathew Seymour, Owen L Petchey
Losses and gains in species diversity affect ecological stability1-7 and the sustainability of ecosystem functions and services8-13 . Experiments and models have revealed positive, negative and no effects of diversity on individual components of stability, such as temporal variability, resistance and resilience2,3,6,11,12,14 . How these stability components covary remains poorly understood15 . Similarly, the effects of diversity on overall ecosystem stability16 , which is conceptually akin to ecosystem multifunctionality17,18 , remain unknown...
October 17, 2018: Nature
Ila M Linares, Antonio W Zuardi, Luis C Pereira, Regina H Queiroz, Raphael Mechoulam, Francisco S Guimarães, José A Crippa
OBJECTIVE: Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the non-psychotomimetic compounds of Cannabis sativa, causes anxiolytic-like effects in animals, with typical bell-shaped dose-response curves. No study, however, has investigated whether increasing doses of this drug would also cause similar curves in humans. The objective of this study was to compare the acute effects of different doses of CBD and placebo in healthy volunteers performing a simulated public speaking test (SPST), a well-tested anxiety-inducing method...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Florence R A Hogg, Mathew J Gallagher, Suliang Chen, Argyro Zoumprouli, Marios C Papadopoulos, Samira Saadoun
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We recently developed techniques to monitor intraspinal pressure (ISP) and spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP) from the injury site to compute the optimum SCPP (SCPPopt ) in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). We hypothesized that ISP and SCPPopt can be predicted using clinical factors instead of ISP monitoring. METHODS: Sixty-four TSCI patients, grades A-C (American spinal injuries association Impairment Scale, AIS), were analyzed...
October 16, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Miaomiao Peng, Jiaoyue Zhang, Tianshu Zeng, Xiang Hu, Jie Min, Shenghua Tian, Ying Wang, Geng Liu, Limin Wan, Qiulan Huang, Shengqing Hu, Lulu Chen
AIM: To assess the causality between alcohol intake, diabetes risk and related traits. DESIGN: Mendelian randomization (MR) study. Subgroup analysis, standard instrumental variable analysis and local average treatment effect (LATE) methods were applied to assess linear and nonlinear causality. SETTING: China PARTICIPANTS: 4536 participants, including 721 diabetes cases. FINDINGS: Carriage of an ALDH2 rs671 A allele reduced alcohol consumption by 44...
October 16, 2018: Addiction
Robert A Marino, Ron Levy
Dopamine (DA) plays a critical role in cognition, motivation and information processing. DA action has been shown to both improve and/or impair cognition across different receptor types, species, subjects, and tasks. This complex relationship has been described as an inverted U-shaped function and may be due to the differential effects of DA receptor activation in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We have investigated the effects of selective DA agonists on cognitive performance in healthy monkeys using a touch screen running tasks from the CAmbridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Masaki Muramatsu, Toshihide Mizutani, Kei Sakurabayashi, Maho Maeda, Takashi Yonekura, Hiroshi Nihei, Yoji Hyodo, Kazunobu Shinoda, Seiichiro Shishido, Ken Sakai
Aneurysm of autogenous arteriovenous fistula is a common complication in patients receiving hemodialysis. We present a novel method for repair of a case of aneurysm of arteriovenous fistula resulting from stenosis. A 52-year-old woman presented with aneurysm formation of the left upper arm arteriovenous fistula, with related numbness in the left hand. Clinical examination revealed a tense, pulsatile aneurysm above the brachiocephalic anastomosis. Ultrasound examination revealed an aneurysm (50 mm × 25 mm) with proximal stenosis and an arteriovenous fistula flow rate above 1200 mL/min...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Brian H Hill, Colleen M Elonen, Alan T Herlihy, Terri M Jicha, Richard M Mitchell
We analyzed ecoenzyme activities related to organic matter processing in 1879 streams and rivers across the continental U.S. as part of the USEPA's National Rivers and Streams Assessment. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry was used to construct models for carbon use efficiency (CUE) and decomposition ( -k ). Microbial respiration (Rm ) was estimated from sediment organic carbon stocks, CUE and -k . The streams and rivers were classified by size (headwaters: 1st -order; streams: 2nd -3rd order; small rivers: 4th -5th order; big rivers 6th -7th order; and great rivers ≥ 8th order) and condition class (least, intermediate and most disturbed), and grouped into nine ecoregions...
November 1, 2017: Limnology and Oceanography
Arch Creasy, Joseph Lomino, Giorgio Carta
The gradient elution hydrophobic interaction chromatography of a monoclonal antibody that exhibits U-shaped retention as a function of the ammonium sulfate concentration is investigated for overloaded conditions at protein loads up to 30% of the column equilibrium binding capacity. Protein load and gradient slope affect both elution peak shape and protein recovery during the gradient. Higher protein loads result in tailing peaks with near 100% recovery that transition to fronting peaks and incomplete recovery as the protein load is reduced...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Beatriz W T Coelho, Michael S Engel
Males of the neotropical bee genus Ruizantheda Moure sensu lato (Halictinae: Caenohalictini) differ from those of other caenohalictine genera in having the outer gonostylar plate with a large membranous region that extends to the ventral region, and the ventral gonostylar lobe retrorse. These features permit the placement of six additional species described here, four of which are new, in the genus in this broader sense. The males of these six species share the following characteristics: profemur swollen; mesofemur exceedingly swollen; mesotibia slightly swollen with flat, minutely ridged ventral area and small apical tooth; S4 shortened medially, commonly largely hidden under S3, with transverse median depression and apical margin emarginate; apicolateral lobes of S4 with tuft of branched setae and stout, simple, recurved setae on margin; S5 with U-shaped gradulus and setal patch, sometimes inconspicuous; outer lateral expansion of penis valve bilobed, and median posterior margin of volsella strongly angulate...
May 1, 2018: Zootaxa
Shipher Wu, Wei-Chun Chang
The present study re-assesses the characters of the Oriental genus Lobogonodes Bastelberger, 1909 based on all 8 species, including the newly described L. shiushioui sp. nov. and the distinct species L. dactylotypa Prout, 1940 stat. rev.. Three synapomorphic characters based on the male genitalia are proposed: the presence of a sclerotized subscaphium, the U-shaped connection between the juxta and anellus lobe and the saccus process pointed anteriorly. A new key to the species in this genus is provided.
June 13, 2018: Zootaxa
Miroslav L Djordjevic, Marta Bizic, Borko Stojanovic, Marko Bencic, Vladimir Kojovic, Gradimir Korac
PURPOSE: Severe hypospadias repair still presents a great challenge. We evaluated a novel approach of using a specially shaped buccal mucosa graft for simultaneous ventral tunica grafting and new urethral plate creation, in combination with longitudinal dorsal island skin flap, as a one-stage repair of severe hypospadias. METHODS: Between July 2014 and September 2017, 26 patients (aged from 12 to 22 months) underwent scrotal hypospadias repair. Short and non-elastic urethral plate is divided...
October 10, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Rizwana Yasmeen, Yunong Li, Muhammad Hafeez, Haseeb Ahmad
The theme of paper is to explore the trade-environment relationship and the role of institutions for 117 countries from global standpoint and five regions: Sub Saharan, European, Middle East and North Africa, Asia and Pacific, and Latin America and Caribbean, using the panel data span 2002-2014. By considering the endogeneity problem, to validate the nature of trade-environment nexuses, we applied the GMM first difference model in two steps. Likewise, Dumitrescu-Hurlin panel causality analysis is employed to affirm the causal relationship among the concern variables...
October 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kai Nagase
Extant research regarding humor appreciation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder has been equivocal. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the severity of autism spectrum disorder characteristics and humor appreciation in typically developing individuals. We hypothesized that the severity of autistic traits would have a U-shaped linear relationship with humor appreciation. Eighty typically developing undergraduates between the ages of 18 and 22 years ( Mage  = 20.20; SDage  = 1...
October 9, 2018: Psychological Reports
Mehmet Akif Destek, Samuel Asumadu Sarkodie
Climate change has become a global phenomenon due to its threat to sustainable development. However, economic development plays a complementary role in both climate change and sustainability. Thus, the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is critical to climate change policy formulation and development strategies. Accordingly, this study examined the validity of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis by investigating the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, and ecological footprint for the period from 1977 to 2013 in 11 newly industrialized countries...
October 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zachary A Marcum, Rod Walker, Jennifer F Bobb, Mo-Kyung Sin, Shelly L Gray, James D Bowen, Wayne McCormick, Susan M McCurry, Paul K Crane, Eric B Larson
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and non-HDL-C levels at specific ages and subsequent Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. DESIGN: Prospective population-based cohort study. SETTING: Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older with no dementia at ACT Study entry. We identified separate, partially overlapping subcohorts of ACT participants who were eligible for each age band-specific analysis (50-59, n = 1,088; 60-69, n = 2,852; 70-79, n = 2,344; 80-89, n = 537)...
October 5, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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