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Daniel Miguel Ángel Villalobos Acosta, Brenda Chimal Vega, José Correa Basurto, Leticia Guadalupe Fragoso Morales, Martha Cecilia Rosales Hernández
The amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ1-42) peptide is produced by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by sequential reactions that are catalyzed by γ and β secretases. Aβ1-42, together with the Tau protein are two principal hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that are related to disease genesis and progression. Aβ1-42 possesses a higher aggregation propensity, and it is able to form fibrils via nucleated fibril formation. To date, there are compounds available that prevent Aβ1-42 aggregation, but none have been successful in clinical trials, possibly because the Aβ1-42 structure and aggregation mechanisms are not thoroughly understood...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bert Andersson, Lilin She, Ru-San Tan, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Krzysztof Mokrzycki, Matthias Siepe, Alexander Romanov, Liliana E Favaloro, Ljubomir T Djokovic, P Krishnam Raju, Piotr Betlejewski, Normand Racine, Adam Ostrzycki, Weerachai Nawarawong, Siuli Das, Jean L Rouleau, George Sopko, Kerry L Lee, Eric J Velazquez, Julio A Panza
Aims: Hypertension (HTN) is a well-known contributor to cardiovascular disease, including heart failure (HF) and coronary artery disease, and is the leading risk factor for premature death world-wide. A J- or U-shaped relationship has been suggested between blood pressure (BP) and clinical outcomes in different studies. However, there is little information about the significance of BP on the outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the relationship between BP and mortality outcomes in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy...
August 2, 2018: European Heart Journal
Goutam Ghosh, Sarah J Belh, Callistus Chiemezie, Niluksha Walalawela, Ashwini A Ghogare, Mariana Vignoni, Andrés H Thomas, Sherri A McFarland, Edyta M Greer, Alexander Greer
There is a major need for light-activated materials for the release of sensitizers and drugs. Considering the success of chiral columns for the separation of enantiomer drugs, we synthesized an S,S-chiral linker system covalently attached to silica with a sensitizer ethene near the silica surface. First, the silica surface was modified to be aromatic rich, by replacing 70% of the surface groups with (3-phenoxypropyl)silane. We then synthesized a 3-component conjugate [chlorin sensitizer, S,S-chiral cyclohexane, and ethene building blocks] in 5 steps with a 13% yield, and covalently bound the conjugate to the (3-phenoxypropyl)silane-coated silica surface...
August 16, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Xiaojun Ma, Yudong Li, Xinyu Zhang, Changxin Wang, Yifan Li, Biying Dong, Yihan Gu
Balancing the relationship between economic development, energy utilization, and environmental protection has become an important task in China's Strip Planning and Construction. This article takes the annual panel data from 2005 to 2015 as the research object firmly grasps the research basis of the Economy-Energy-Environment (3E) System, and focuses on building a new research framework from both internal and external perspectives of the eco-efficiency index to achieve the exploratory research on regional ecological efficiency changes and influencing factors...
August 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xie Jun-Min, Zhu Kun-Peng, Zhao Yin-Kai, Zhang Ya-Qin, Fan Xiao-Fan, Zhu Xiao-Yu, Wei Li, Wang Bin
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a new surgical method of U-shaped myometrial excavation and modified suture approach with uterus preservation for diffuse adenomyosis. Methods: From January 2012 to December 2014, 198 patients with diffuse adenomyosis were surgically treated using this novel procedure in Zhengzhou Hua-Shan Hospital. Degree of dysmenorrhea, menstrual blood volume, serum CA 125, and uterine size before and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after surgery were compared...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ashkan Hashemi, Sormeh Nourbakhsh, Samaneh Asgari, Mohammadhassan Mirbolouk, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
BACKGROUND: To explore the association between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP respectively) and pulse pressure (PP) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality events among Iranian patients with prevalent CKD. METHODS: Patients [n = 1448, mean age: 60.9 (9.9) years] defined as those with estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 , were followed from 31 January 1999 to 20 March 2014. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were applied to examine the associations between different components of BP with outcomes...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Uygur Esat, Oguz Poyanli, Mutlu Brahim, Çelk Talip, Akpinar Fuat
BACKGROUND: This study compared the biomechanical properties of three different fixation methods of tension band wirings, used in the treatment of medial malleolus fractures. The first method used an innovative "handmade bent pin" for cerclage fixation. The second method used a U-shaped K-wire to attach the cerclage to the medial tibial cortex. These two novel fixation techniques were compared with the traditional tension band wiring technique which is fixated to the bone by a screw...
August 11, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Fa Chen, Jing Wang, Jinfa Chen, Lingjun Yan, Zhijian Hu, Junfeng Wu, Xiaodan Bao, Liangkun Lin, Rui Wang, Lin Cai, Lisong Lin, Yu Qiu, Fengqiong Liu, Baochang He
OBJECTIVE: Limited evidence exists on the roles of serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in oral cancer risk. We aimed to preliminarily explore the association between serum Cu and Zn levels and oral cancer risk with relatively large-scale samples. METHODS: Serum Cu and Zn levels of 344 oral cancer patients and 1122 matched healthy controls in this case-control study were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). RESULTS: Restricted cubic spline revealed the U-shaped relationship between serum Cu or Zn levels and the risk of oral cancer...
August 14, 2018: Oral Diseases
Travis J Wiltshire, Sune Vork Steffensen, Stephen M Fiore
During collaborative problem solving (CPS), coordination occurs at different spatial and temporal scales. This multiscale coordination should play a functional role in facilitating effective collaboration. To evaluate this, we conducted a study of computer-based CPS with 42 dyadic teams. We used cross-wavelet coherence to examine movement coordination, extracted from videos, at several scales, and tested whether the observed coordination was greater than expected due to chance and due to task demands. We found that coordination at scales less than 2s was greater than chance and at most scales (except 16s, 1m, and 2m), was greater than expected due to task demands...
August 10, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Yuan Hua, Shi-Heng Tao, Bao-Zhen Hua
A new species of Panorpidae, Panorpabashanicola sp. n. , is described and illustrated from the Bashan Mountains in central China. The new species is characterized by the following characters: vertex black, with two pale longitudinal stripes and four pale rounded spots; vein 1A ending before the origin of Rs; meso- and metanotum pale, and the pale color extending to tergum III in V-shape; male epandrium emarginate distally in deep U-shape; hypovalves without basal stalk, completely represented by a pair of short hypovalves, extending to distal third of gonocoxite, with five black stout setae in distal portion; paramere simple, S-shaped; a bundle of long hairs between dorsal and ventral valves of aedeagus; dorsal valves of aedeagus much longer than ventral valves and curved ventrally, with distal portion foot-shaped; female medigynium twice as long as wide, with stout axis extending over one-third its length beyond main plate...
2018: ZooKeys
Christina Wraw, Geoff Der, Catharine R Gale, Ian J Deary
Objective: We investigated the association between intelligence in youth and a range of health-related behaviours in middle age. Method: Participants were the 5347 men and women who responded to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) 2012 survey. IQ was recorded with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) when participants were aged 15 to 23 years of age. Self-reports on exercise (moderate activity, vigorous activity, and strength training), dietary, smoking, drinking, and oral health behaviours were recorded when participants were in middle age (mean age = 51...
July 2018: Intelligence
Santiago Nava, Lorenza Beati, José M Venzal, Marcelo B Labruna, Matias P J Szabó, Trevor Petney, María N Saracho-Bottero, Evelina L Tarragona, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Maria M Santos Silva, Atilio J Mangold, Alberto A Guglielmone, Agustín Estrada-Peña
The aims of this work were to re-describe all parasitic stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu stricto, to select and deposit a neotype, and to characterize some of its diagnostic molecular traits. A male of R. sanguineus s.s. collected in Montpellier, France, was designated as neotype. The diagnostic characters unique to the male of R. sanguineus s.s. are: spiracular plate elongated and subtriangular in shape with a dorsal prolongation narrow and usually visible dorsally, with the dorsal prolongation narrower than the width of the adjacent festoon; punctations of the scutum moderate in number and unequal in size; marginal groove conspicuous, deep and punctate; posteromedian groove distinct and elongated, and posterolateral grooves often sub-circular, shorter than posteromedian groove; adanal plates long, wide, and subtriangular in shape, with a clear concavity in its inner margin and posterior margin broadly rounded or truncated; accessory adanal plates with the posterior end pointed, narrower than the width of adjacent festoon...
August 2, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Hualong Yang, Helen S Du, Le Wang, Alex Deng
INTRODUCTION: In the past decades, the average weight of residents has increased significantly. Weight management has become an important issue in our society. With the developments of mobile technology and applications, mobile health applications (m-health apps) provide a convenient platform for users to engage in weight loss tasks and control their body weight. However, due to the lack of proper motivators, engaging in weight loss tasks on m-health apps is stressful for the users. The aim of this study is to understand why users engage in weight loss tasks, and to be specific, we establish an empirical model to examine the effects of social motivators (social support) and personal motivators (body condition) and their interactive relationship on the level of user engagement using self-determination theory...
August 10, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Geum Joon Cho, Hye Jin Yoo, Soon Young Hwang, Jun Choi, Kyu-Min Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sung Won Han, Tak Kim
BACKGROUND: A recent concept is that obesity, assessed by body mass index (BMI), is not always a sign of poor health. Thus, in order to use obesity metrics in clinical decision making, it is important to clarify the relationship between waist circumference (WC), a proxy for abdominal obesity, and mortality. METHODS: Data were used from 8,796,759 subjects aged between 30 and 90 years, who had participated in the Korea National Health Screening Examination between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009 and survived at least 1 year post screening...
August 10, 2018: BMC Medicine
Cosetta Minelli, Diana A van der Plaat, Bénédicte Leynaert, Raquel Granell, Andre F S Amaral, Miguel Pereira, Osama Mahmoud, James Potts, Nuala A Sheehan, Jack Bowden, John Thompson, Debbie Jarvis, George Davey Smith, John Henderson
BACKGROUND: Observational studies on pubertal timing and asthma, mainly performed in females, have provided conflicting results about a possible association of early puberty with higher risk of adult asthma, possibly due to residual confounding. To overcome issues of confounding, we used Mendelian randomisation (MR), i.e., genetic variants were used as instrumental variables to estimate causal effects of early puberty on post-pubertal asthma in both females and males. METHODS AND FINDINGS: MR analyses were performed in UK Biobank on 243,316 women using 254 genetic variants for age at menarche, and on 192,067 men using 46 variants for age at voice breaking...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Alessandro Gasparini, Marie Evans, Peter Barany, Hairong Xu, Tomas Jernberg, Johan Ärnlöv, Lars H Lund, Juan-Jesús Carrero
Background: Small-scale studies suggest that hyperkalaemia is a less threatening condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD), arguing adaptation/tolerance to potassium (K+) retention. This study formally evaluates this hypothesis by estimating the distribution of plasma K+ and its association with mortality across CKD stages. Methods: This observational study included all patients undergoing plasma K+ testing in Stockholm during 2006-11. We randomly selected one K+ measurement per patient and constructed a cross-sectional cohort with mortality follow-up...
August 6, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Mingjun Jiang, Yongqiu Zou, Qinghua Xin, Yuanfa Cai, Ying Wang, Xueying Qin, Defu Ma
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To establish the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and risks of mortality and disability among the Elderly. METHODS: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar were searched systematically until December 2017 for relative studies reporting the hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality or disability across different BMI categories...
July 26, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jian-Bing Wang, Qiu-Chi Huang, Shu-Chang Hu, Pei-Wen Zheng, Peng Shen, Die Li, Huai-Chu Lu, Xiang Gao, Hong-Bo Lin, Kun Chen
BACKGROUND: A J-curve association has been demonstrated for blood pressure (BP) and all-cause mortality, but data on longitudinal change of BP and mortality in Chinese population are limited. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study to examine the association between BP (at baseline and longitudinal change) and risk of mortality in Yinzhou District, Ningbo, China, based on the Yinzhou Health Information System. At baseline, a total of 181 352 subjects aged over 18 years with at least one BP examination record were recruited through the Yinzhou Health Information System...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Vincenzo G Fiore, Dimitri Ognibene, Bryon Adinoff, Xiaosi Gu
Addiction is characterized by a profound intersubject (phenotypic) variability in the expression of addictive symptomatology and propensity to relapse following treatment. However, laboratory investigations have primarily focused on common neural substrates in addiction and have not yet been able to identify mechanisms that can account for the multifaceted phenotypic behaviors reported in the literature. To fill this knowledge gap theoretically, here we simulated phenotypic variations in addiction symptomology and responses to putative treatments, using both a neural model, based on cortico-striatal circuit dynamics, and an algorithmic model of reinforcement learning (RL)...
July 2018: ENeuro
Josep Lupón, Giovana Gavidia-Bovadilla, Elena Ferrer, Marta de Antonio, Alexandre Perera-Lluna, Jorge López-Ayerbe, Mar Domingo, Julio Núñez, Elisabet Zamora, Pedro Moliner, Patricia Díaz-Ruata, Javier Santesmases, Antoni Bayés-Genís
BACKGROUND: Long-term trajectories of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in heart failure (HF) are incompletely characterized. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine LVEF trajectories in HF with reduced LVEF (<40%) and mid-range LVEF (40% to 49%) and the prognostic impact of LVEF dynamic changes over 15-year follow-up. METHODS: In this prospective, consecutive, observational registry of real-life HF outpatients, the authors performed 2-dimensional echocardiography at baseline and on a structured schedule after 1 year and then every 2 years up to 15 years...
August 7, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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