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Severe obesity

Martha Y Kubik, Jayne A Fulkerson, John R Sirard, Ann Garwick, Judy Temple, Olga Gurvich, Jiwoo Lee, Bonnie Dudovitz
Rising levels of severe obesity among children, worsening disparities by race and ethnicity and reluctance of primary care clinicians' to provide obesity management to children are compelling reasons to consider alternatives to primary care management of childhood obesity. The Students Nurses and Parents Seeking Healthy Options Together (SNAPSHOT) trial will test the efficacy of an elementary school-based, school nurse-led, healthy weight management program to reduce excess weight gain among children, 8- to 12-years old with a body mass index (BMI) ≥75th percentile, by increasing healthy dietary practices and physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviors...
October 17, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Nadia Panera, Barbara Barbaro, Claudia Della Corte, Antonella Mosca, Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifaceted disorder that ranges from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis, which may evolve toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is currently considered a "global" and "epidemic" disease, whose prevalence is progressively increasing even in pediatric age. The incidence of NAFLD is very high in overweight/obese children, and a greater risk of disease progression is associated with severe obesity, highlighting the role of nutrition...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Wei-Ting Tseng, Tiao-Lai Huang
BACKGROUND: Patients with psychiatric disorders in critical condition are difficult to treat. In this study, we report on a patient with underlying schizoaffective disorder who developed catatonia, cardiac arrest, and pulmonary embolism, as well as a successful treatment strategy. CASE PRESENTATION: The inpatient is a 41-year-old morbidly obese male with schizoaffective disorder whose clozapine dosage was titrated from 100 mg to 175 mg due to auditory hallucination and agitation...
October 19, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Hae Sang Lee, Jong Seo Yoon, Kyu Jung Park, Jung Sub Lim, Jin Soon Hwang
Long-term effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on bone health remain unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the possible association of bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple sites with T2D after correcting for several potential confounders such as age, sex, Tanner stage, and BMI known to affect BMD in adolescents with newly developed T2D. In this cross-sectional study, 17 children and adolescents with T2D and 59 age, sex, and BMI-matched controls were included. All subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure regional and whole-body composition with Lunar Prodigy at the time of initial diagnosis...
October 19, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Paolo Marzullo, Alessandro Minocci, Chiara Mele, Rezene Fessehatsion, Mariantonella Tagliaferri, Loredana Pagano, Massimo Scacchi, Gianluca Aimaretti, Alessandro Sartorio
BACKGROUND: Regulating thermogenesis is a major task of thyroid hormones (THs), and involves TH-responsive energetic processes at the central and peripheral level. In severe obesity, little is known on the relationship between THs and resting energy expenditure (REE) before and after weight loss. METHODS: We enrolled 100 euthyroid subjects with severe obesity who were equally distributed between genders. Each was examined before and after completion of a 4-wk inpatient multidisciplinary dieting program and subjected to measurement of thyroid function, REE, fat-free mass (FFM, kg) and percent fat mass (FM)...
2018: PloS One
Yuemei Zhang, Michael Greco, Mark J Macielag, Christopher A Teleha, Renee DesJarlais, YuTing Tang, George Ho, Cuifen Hou, Cailin Chen, Shuyuan Zhao, Jack Kauffman, Raul Camacho, Jenson Qi, William Murray, Keith Demarest, James Leonard
A novel series of 6-benzhydryl-4-amino-quinolin-2-ones was discovered as cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonists based on the high-throughput screening hit, compound 1a. Structure-activity relationships were studied to improve in vitro/in vivo pharmacology and restrict distribution to the peripheral circulation. We adopted several strategies such as increasing topological polar surface area, incorporating discrete polyethylene glycol side chains and targeting P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to minimize access to the brain...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Margarida Vieira, Graça S Carvalho
School-based programmes for preventing childhood obesity have been shown to be effective in improving eating habits and nutritional status, but few intervention programmes with a controlled design have included an economic evaluation. In this study, we conducted a cost-consequence analysis to evaluate the costs and the health benefits of the 'Planning Health in School' programme (PHS-pro) implemented in the Northern region of Portugal to 449 children of 10-14 years old. Previous study has showed that after PHS-pro, several anthropometric measures significantly improved in the intervention group (height, waist circumference and waist-height ratio) compared with the control group, followed by significant improvements on soft drinks, fruit and vegetables daily consumptions...
October 18, 2018: Health Promotion International
C Borghi, U Indraccolo, G Scutiero, P Iannone, R Martinello, P Greco, F Greco, L Nappi
OBJECTIVE: Endometrial cancer (EC) is a complex gynecological neoplasm with several clinical, histopathological and genetic features. Different hormonal, metabolic and biochemical axes are involved in pathogenesis. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for this disease and the role of local and systemic effects of adipose tissue, especially in the promotion of subclinical chronic inflammation, is an important issue. Indeed, inflammation is related to the pathogenesis of different tumors, including EC...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Julian Merz, Philipp Albrecht, Sunaina von Garlen, Ibrahim Ahmed, Daniel Dimanski, Dennis Wolf, Ingo Hilgendorf, Carmen Härdtner, Katja Grotius, Florian Willecke, Timo Heidt, Heiko Bugger, Natalie Hoppe, Ulrich Kintscher, Constantin von Zur Mühlen, Marco Idzko, Christoph Bode, Andreas Zirlik, Peter Stachon
Sterile inflammation of visceral fat, provoked by dying adipocytes, links the metabolic syndrome to cardiovascular disease. Danger-associated molecular patterns, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are released by activated or dying cells and orchestrate leukocyte infiltration and inflammation via the purinergic receptor P2Y2 . The gene expression of ATP receptor P2Y2 did not change in several tissues in the course of obesity, but was increased within epididymal fat. Adipose tissue from P2Y 2 -/- mice consuming high-fat diet (HFD) contained less crown-like structures with a reduced frequency of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs)...
October 18, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
Cora Weigert, Miriam Hoene, Peter Plomgaard
Regular physical activity not only improves the exercise capacity of the skeletal muscle performing the contractions, but it is beneficial for the whole body. An extensive search for "exercise factors" mediating these beneficial effects has been going on for decades. Particularly skeletal muscle tissue has been investigated as a source of circulating exercise factors, and several myokines have been identified. However, exercise also has an impact on other tissues. The liver is interposed between energy storing and energy utilising tissues and is highly active during exercise, maintaining energy homeostasis...
October 18, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
H Borgeraas, L H Barstad, R Størdal Lund, J M Fredheim, J K Hertel, J Hjelmesæth
Objectives: Early obesity onset is a risk factor for specific comorbidities in adulthood, but whether this relationship is present in men and women with severe obesity is unknown. This study aimed to examine whether obesity onset in childhood or adolescence, as compared with adulthood, is associated with higher odds of comorbidities in men and women with severe obesity. Methods: A cross-sectional study of treatment-seeking men and women with severe obesity attending a tertiary care centre in Norway, from 2006 to 2017, was performed...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Giorgio Ivan Russo, Tatiana Solinas, Daniele Urzì, Salvatore Privitera, Daniele Campisi, Andrea Cocci, Marco Carini, Massimo Madonia, Sebastiano Cimino, Giuseppe Morgia
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Countries following a Mediterranean-type dietary pattern, has been reported to have lower PCa incidence and mortality compared with other European regions. A population-based case-control study has been conducted from January 2015 to December 2016 in a single institution of the municipality of Catania, southern Italy. A total of 118 PCa and 238 population-based controls were collected...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
Mary F O'Leary, Graham R Wallace, Edward T Davis, David P Murphy, Thomas Nicholson, Andrew J Bennett, Kostas Tsintzas, Simon W Jones
Adiposity and adipokines are implicated in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with age and in several chronic disease states. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of human obese and lean subcutaneous adipose tissue secretome on myogenesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells derived from both young (18-30 yr) and elderly (>65 yr) individuals. Obese subcutaneous adipose tissue secretome impaired the myogenesis of old myoblasts but not young myoblasts. Resistin was prolifically secreted by obese subcutaneous adipose tissue and impaired myotube thickness and nuclear fusion by activation of the classical NFκB pathway...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fernanda do Carmo De Stefani, Priscila Saia Pietraroia, Miguel Morita Fernandes-Silva, José Faria-Neto, Cristina Pellegrino Baena
The obesity paradox has been described in several observational cohorts and meta-analysis. However, evidence of the intentionality of weight loss in all-cause deaths and major cardiovascular events (MACE) in prospective cohorts is unclear. We analysed whether involuntary weight loss is associated with increased cardiovascular events and mortality. In a systematic review, we searched multiple electronic databases for observational studies published up to October 2016. Studies reporting risk estimates for unintentional weight loss compared with stable weight in MACE and mortality were included...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuanjun Dong, Sabrina Berens, Wolfgang Eich, Rainer Schaefert, Jonas Tesarz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the body mass index (BMI) distribution in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) based on the Rome III criteria and to evaluate the association of BMI with symptom severity and quality of life (QOL). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in patients visiting our outpatient functional gastrointestinal disorders specialty clinic. IBS diagnosis was made based on Rome III criteria. IBS symptom severity was investigated using the IBS severity score system...
October 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Christopher M Mulligan, Rachel C Janssen, Peter R Baker, Bryan C Bergman, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Kenneth N Maclean, Hua Jiang, Tyler A Dean, Diana L Takahashi, Paul Kievit, Carrie E McCurdy, Kjersti M Aagaard, Jacob E Friedman
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk begins in utero in offspring of obese mothers. A critical unmet need in this field is to understand the pathways and biomarkers underlying fetal hepatic lipotoxicity and whether maternal dietary intervention during pregnancy is an effective countermeasure. METHODS: We utilized a well-established non-human primate model of chronic, maternal, Western-style diet induced obesity (OB-WSD) compared with mothers on a healthy control diet (CON) or a subset of OB-WSD mothers switched to the CON diet (diet reversal; OB-DR) prior to and for the duration of the next pregnancy...
September 28, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Isis Henriques de Almeida Bastos, Erivaldo S Alves, Cláudia Daltro de Sousa, Gabriela B Martins, Elisângela de Jesus Campos, Carla Daltro
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for several chronic diseases, and scientific evidence suggests an association between obesity and oral diseases. In this study, the authors estimated the prevalence of risk factors for caries, dental erosion, and periodontal disease in a group of obese patients referred for bariatric surgery. METHODS: The authors invited obese patients who were referred for bariatric surgery at a private center for treatment of obesity to participate in this study...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Madusha Peiris, Rubina Aktar, Sarah Raynel, Zheng Hao, Michael B Mumphrey, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, L Ashley Blackshaw
BACKGROUND: Nutrient-sensing receptors located on enteroendocrine (EEC) cells modulate appetite via detection of luminal contents. Colonic 'tasting' of luminal contents may influence changes to appetite observed in obesity and after weight loss induced by bariatric surgery. We assessed the effects of obesity and gastric bypass-induced weight loss on expression of nutrient-sensing G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), EEC and enterochromaffin (EC) cells and mucosal innervation. METHODS: qPCR and immunohistochemistry were used to study colonic tissue from (a) chow-fed/lean, (b) high-fat fed/obese, (c) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), and (d) calorie restriction-induced weight loss mice...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Annunziata, Carolina Di Somma, Daniela Laudisio, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Epidemiological studies suggested an association between obesity and sleep disturbances. Obstructive sleep apnea is the most prevalent type of obesity-related sleep disorder that lead to an increased risk for numerous chronic health conditions. In addition the increased visceral adipose tissue might be responsible for the secretion of inflammatory cytokines that could contribute to alter the sleep-wake rhythm. Unhealthy food characterized by high consumption of fat and carbohydrate seems to negatively influence the quality of sleep while diet rich of fiber is associated to more restorative and deeper sleep...
October 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Lung-Chi Lee, Tsu-Heng Weng, Ke-Hao Huang, Hsin-Ting Lin, Chang-Min Liang, Ming-Cheng Tai, Jiann-Torng Chen, Ke-Hung Chien
RATIONALE: Madelung's disease is a specific type of benign symmetric lipomatosis, which is characterized by overgrowing fat distributed at the neck and shoulder. This excessive fat accumulation may occur in different regions, including vital organs, such as the larynx, trachea, or the orbits. Surgery is usually performed to correct the esthetic or functional concern of the affected area. There are only few case reports mentioned about the orbital involvement of this disease. This study aimed to describe a case of Madelung's disease with ocular complications and the successful treatment using tarsoconjunctival flap...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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