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Severe obesity

Keith Bowering, Helena W Rodbard, David Russell-Jones, Bruce Bode, Stewart Harris, Milivoj Piletic, Simon Heller, Vincent Woo, Vinay Babu, Claus Dethlefsen, Chantal Mathieu
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between baseline characteristics [HbA1c and body mass index (BMI)] and the effect of mealtime fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) relative to insulin aspart (IAsp) or basal-only insulin therapy on several efficacy and safety outcomes in people with diabetes. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of three randomised phase 3a trials in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D; onset 1) and type 2 diabetes (T2D; onset 2 and 3)...
December 13, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Tuba Tülay Koca, Ejder Berk, Muhammet Seyithanoğlu, Burhan Fatih Koçyiğit, Adnan Demirel
OBJECTIVE: A high prevalence of obesity in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) predisposes patients to metabolic changes. It is not clear how the clinical manifestations of the disease affect metabolism. This study aimed to investigate leptin, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels in FMS, and their relationship with body mass index (BMI) and disease severity. METHOD: This case-control study included 60 patients with FMS and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
December 13, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Soudabeh Fazeli Dehkordy, Kathryn J Fowler, Adrija Mamidipalli, Tanya Wolfson, Cheng William Hong, Yesenia Covarrubias, Jonathan C Hooker, Ethan Z Sy, Alexandra N Schlein, Jennifer Y Cui, Anthony C Gamst, Gavin Hamilton, Scott B Reeder, Claude B Sirlin
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate proton density fat fraction (PDFF) distribution across liver segments at baseline and (2) compare longitudinal segmental PDFF changes across time points in adult patients undergoing a very low-calorie diet (VLCD) and subsequent bariatric weight loss surgery (WLS). METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data from 118 morbidly obese adult patients enrolled in a VLCD-WLS program. PDFF was estimated using magnitude-based confounder-corrected chemical-shift-encoded (CSE) MRI in each hepatic segment and lobe at baseline (visit 1), after completion of VLCD (visit 2), and at 1, 3, and 6 months (visits 3-5) following WLS...
December 13, 2018: European Radiology
Hiroshi Akima, Keigo Kainuma, Kenji Togashi
Objective . This study investigated relationships between adipose tissue deposition within skeletal muscle and morphological and biochemical variables in children with obesity. Methods . Fifty-one Japanese children (16 girls) aged 7 to 16 years were assigned to either mild (<20%), moderate (≥20% to <50%), or severe obesity groups (≥50%). Computed tomography images were taken to calculate the cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscle, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (VAT, for abdomen only), and muscle signal intensities, as an index of intramuscular adipose tissue in the anterior, lateral, and posterior muscles of the abdomen and quadriceps, hamstring and adductor muscles in the thigh...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
Shengli Dong, Matthias Blüher, Yanqing Zhang, Hongju Wu, Suresh K Alahari
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: NISCH-STAB1 is a newly identified locus correlated to human waist-hip ratio (WHR), which is a risk indicator of developing obesity-associated diabetes. Our previous studies have shown that Nisch mutant male mice increased glucose tolerance in chow-fed conditions. Thus we hypothesized that Nisch mutant mice will have changes in insulin resistance, adipocytes, hepatic steatosis when mice are fed with high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Insulin resistance was assessed in Nisch mutant mice and WT mice fed with high-fat diet (60% by kCal) or chow diet...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Shelby Sullivan, James Swain, George Woodman, Steven Edmundowicz, Tarek Hassanein, Vafa Shayani, John C Fang, Mark Noar, George Eid, Wayne J English, Nabil Tariq, Michael Larsen, Sreenivasa S Jonnalagadda, Dennis S Riff, Jaime Ponce, Dayna Early, Eric Volckmann, Anna R Ibele, Matthew D Spann, Kumar Krishnan, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Aurora Pryor
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a significant health problem and additional therapies are needed to improve obesity treatment. OBJECTIVE: Determine the efficacy and safety of a 6-month swallowable gas-filled intragastric balloon system for weight loss. SETTING: Fifteen academic and private practice centers in the United States. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized sham-controlled trial of the swallowable gas-filled intragastric balloon system plus lifestyle therapy compared with lifestyle therapy alone for weight loss at 6 months in participants aged 22 to 60 years with body mass index 30 to 40 kg/m2 , across 15 sites in the United States...
December 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Anna M Schürner, Giulia Manzini, Marco Bueter, Erik Schadde, Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, Martin Schläpfer
BACKGROUND: Conservative obesity treatment often leads to limited results. Bariatric surgery is highly efficient, but the candidates are at risk of developing perioperative complications. Bariatric outcomes have been well described in the past, but there are only few reports of perioperative outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of anaesthetic and surgical complications of Roux-en-Y bypass. METHODS: Data of all adult patients, who underwent primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery between 1/2006 and 12/2013 at the University Hospital Zurich were analysed...
December 13, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Hyung-Sik Kim, Junyang Jung, Sung Hwa Dong, Sang Hoon Kim, Su Young Jung, Seung Geun Yeo
Objectives: Factors predictive of the severity of and recovery from Bell's palsy remain unclear. This study evaluated the association between neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the severity of and recovery from Bell's palsy. Methods: This retrospective study included 51 patients who were hospitalized with Bell's palsy from 2015 to 2017. Degree of paralysis was assessed by House-Brackmann (H-B) grade. Patients with H-B grades 2-4 were classified as having mild to moderate palsy and patients with H-B grade 5 or 6 were classified as having severe palsy...
December 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
Chloe Patel, Eleni Karasouli, Emma Shuttlewood, Caroline Meyer
Given the links between parental obesity and eating psychopathology in their children, it is important to understand the mechanisms via which unhealthy relationships with eating are passed from generation to generation. The aim was to review research focusing on food-related parenting practices (FPPs) used by parents with overweight/obesity. Web of Science, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched. Studies that included a measure of FPPs were considered eligible and were required to have examined FPPs by parental weight status...
December 12, 2018: Nutrients
Jana Lu, Britton Trabert, Linda M Liao, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Kara A Michels
Background: Studies disagree as to whether intakes of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism nutrients are associated with endometrial cancer. Methods: Using data from the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate endometrial cancer risk associated with calorie-adjusted dietary intake of several B vitamins and methionine. All models accounted for age, race, body mass index (BMI), smoking, oral-contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use and caloric intake...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Isabelle Monier, Nathalie Lelong, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Alexandra Benachi, Babak Khoshnood, Jennifer Zeitlin, Béatrice Blondel
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and indications of terminations of pregnancy (TOP) between 22+0 and 31+6 weeks of gestational age in France and to examine the characteristics of women by indication of TOP. STUDY DESIGN: From the EPIPAGE 2 population-based cohort study of preterm births in France in 2011, we selected 5009 singleton live births, stillbirths and TOP that occurred between 22 and 31 weeks. We estimated the proportion of TOP by gestational age. We then classified terminations by indications into 4 categories: fetal anomalies (TOPFA), preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM), maternal conditions and fetal growth restriction (FGR)...
December 3, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Meir Mouallem, Moran Livne Margolin, Yehudit Eden Friedman, Hadas Blankenfeld
Duodenal Switch procedure is a type of bariatric surgery that was reserved for severely morbid obese people. Patients undergoing this procedure are at high risk for nutrient deficiencies. In this report we present a case of a patient who had developed polyneuropathy, generalized muscle weakness, Wernicke encephalopathy, myocardial dysfunction and pericardial effusion six years following this operation. He was treated by multivitamins and trace elements with a complete resolution of all of these disturbances...
2018: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
Maheen Quadri, Adolfo J Ariza, Kavitha Selvaraj, Karen Schaller, Helen J Binns
Sustaining weight loss can be challenging, as physiological responses to weight loss, including metabolic and hormonal adaptations and decreased energy expenditure, promote weight regain. Paired with sustained dietary changes, physical activity can promote weight maintenance after successful weight loss, as physical activity can help maintain fat-free mass. We present several illustrative cases to highlight the potential use of body composition measurement using a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) scale to augment obesity management counseling in a tertiary care pediatric weight-management clinic...
December 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Hyekyun Rhee, Tanzy Love, Donald Harrington
Background: Sputum neutrophils are associated with severe asthma, poor pulmonary function and high body mass index (BMI) in adult patients. However, little is known about the relationships between blood neutrophils, BMI and asthma severity in pediatric patients. This brief report is to assess the predictive value of blood neutrophils for asthma severity, BMI and pulmonary function in adolescents with asthma. Methods: The study included 166 adolescents with physician diagnosed asthma for at least 1 year...
2018: JSM Allergy Asthma
Claudia K Fox, Aaron S Kelly
There is a gap in treatment modalities for pediatric patients with obesity for whom lifestyle modification therapy, on the one hand, may be insufficient to meaningfully reduce BMI, and bariatric surgery, which on the other hand, may not be indicated, available or desired. Although pharmacotherapy may help fill this treatment void, there is a paucity of FDA-approved medications indicated for pediatric obesity and further, most are single agents with only modest mean treatment effects. In contrast, combination pharmacotherapy, such as phentermine/topiramate, appears to offer greater weight loss efficacy in adults and may prove to be superior to monotherapy for pediatric patients as well...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Yu-Mi Lee, David R Jacobs, Duk-Hee Lee
Low dose persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have emerged as a new risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite substantial evidence from human and experimental studies, there are several critical issues which have not been properly addressed by POPs researchers. First, as POPs exist as mixtures, findings about POPs from human studies should be interpreted from the viewpoint of lipophilic chemical mixtures which include both measured and unmeasured POPs. Second, as POPs can directly reduce insulin secretion of beta cells, the role of POPs may be more prominent in the development of beta-cell dysfunction-dominant T2D rather than insulin resistance-dominant T2D...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Shejil Kumar, Katherine Samaras
Since the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and more effective treatments for AIDS, there has been a dramatic shift from the weight loss and wasting that characterised HIV/AIDS (and still does in countries where cART is not readily available or is initiated late) to healthy weight, or even overweight and obesity at rates mirroring those seen in the general population. These trends are attributable to several factors, including the " return to health " weight gain with reversal of the catabolic effects of HIV-infection following cART-initiation, strategies for earlier cART-initiation in the course of HIV-infection which have prevented many people living with HIV-infection from developing wasting, in addition to exposure to the modern obesogenic environment...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ayushi Priyam, Pushplata Prasad Singh, Shweta Gehlout
Nanotechnology has enabled the development of innovative technologies and products for several industrial sectors. Their unique physicochemical and size-dependent properties make the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) superior for devising solutions for various research and development sectors, which are otherwise unachievable by their bulk forms. However, the remarkable advantages mediated by ENMs and their applications have also raised concerns regarding their possible toxicological impacts on human health. The actual issue stems from the absence of systematic data on ENM exposure-mediated health hazards...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Elia A Turolla, Silvia Valtorta, Elena Bresciani, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Liliana Giuliano, Stefano Stucchi, Sara Belloli, Paolo Rainone, Francesco Sudati, Laura Rizzi, Laura Molteni, Pascal Verdiè, Jean Martinez, Antonio Torsello, Rosa Maria Moresco, Sergio Todde
TLQP-21 is a neuropeptide that is involved in the control of several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis. Since TLQP-21 could oppose the early phase of diet-induced obesity, it has raised a huge interest, but very little is known about its mechanisms of action on peripheral tissues. Our aim was to investigate TLQP-21 distribution in brain and peripheral tissues after systemic administration using positron emission tomography. We report here the radiolabeling of NODA-methyl phenylacetic acid (MPAA) functionalized JMV5763, a short analog of TLQP-21, with [18 F]aluminum fluoride...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jai Chand Patel, Pankaj Khurana, Yogendra Kumar Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Sugadev Ragumani
Seasonal and human physiological changes are important factors in the development of many diseases. But, the study of genuine seasonal impact on these diseases is difficult to measure due to many other environment and lifestyle factors which directly affect these diseases. However, several clinical studies have been conducted in different parts of the world, and it has clearly indicated that certain groups of population are highly subjected to seasonal changes, and their maladaptation can possibly lead to several disorders/diseases...
2018: PloS One
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