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Severe obesity

Julius Fink, Masahito Matsumoto, Yoshifumi Tamura
Sedentary lifestyle and over-nutrition are the main causes of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the same causes are major triggers of hypogonadism. Many T2D patients show low testosterone levels while hypogonadal men seem to be prone to become diabetic. Testosterone plays a major role in the regulation of muscle mass, adipose tissue, inflammation and insulin sensitivity and is therefore indirectly regulating several metabolic pathways, while T2D is commonly triggered by insulin resistance, increased adipose tissue and inflammation, showing a negative correlation between testosterone levels and T2D...
August 14, 2018: Steroids
Carlo Pavone, Luigi Candela, Dario Fontana, Alchiede Simonato
AIM: Assessing the incidence of immediate postoperative complications and 90-day mortality in high-risk patients who have undergone radical cystectomy; evaluating the correlation between preoperative conditions and surgery outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a monocentric retrospective observational study in which data of 65 patients have been analyzed. High-risk criteria: (a) Age ≥75 years, (b) obesity, (c) age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥8, (d) anemic status, and (e) pT ≥3...
August 2018: Urologia
Julie K Black, Anna C Whittaker, George M Balanos
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a negative health outcome of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA). Risk factors associated with OSA development include low physical activity (PA), high body mass index (BMI), and increasing age (>50 years) and weight loss is usually recommended as treatment. This cross-sectional study examined the association between PA, BMI and OSA severity in manual workers. Fifty-five participants, (23 females, 32 males) mean age 55.2, were examined for OSA and completed a PA and anthropometric assessment...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
L Gaylord, R Remillard, K Saker
OBJECTIVES: To determine how general practice veterinarians make weight loss recommendations for dogs and if nutrients become deficient when following these recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire of general practice veterinarians was conducted to characterise weight loss recommendations made to clients. Using this data, progressive levels of caloric restriction were applied to top-selling commercial non-therapeutic adult maintenance diets and non-therapeutic weight management diets...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Benoit Pétré, André Scheen, Olivier Ziegler, Anne-Françoise Donneau, Nadia Dardenne, Eddy Husson, Adelin Albert, Michèle Guillaume
While weight-loss expectations have primarily been studied in people enrolled in weight-loss programs, the present study explores patient expectations about weight-loss and identifies related determinants in a large, non-clinical population. 3916 volunteers (age > 18 years) participated in 2012 in a community-based survey in the French-speaking region of Belgium. Participants were asked to define "dream", "goal", "happy", "acceptable", and "disappointed" weights...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jonna C Sandberg, Inger M E Björck, Anne C Nilsson
It has previously been shown in short-term interventions that kernel-based whole grain (WG) rye products have beneficial effects on test markers related to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D increases the risk of several severe health issues, including declined cognitive functions. The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is suggested to be a potential biomarker for neuronal integrity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on plasma BDNF concentrations, 10.5 h after the intake of WG rye...
August 16, 2018: Nutrients
Jessica Prince, Elizabeth Fox, Daniel Hancu, Giles Bond-Smith
A 49-year-old male patient, morbidly obese, with a background of Lynch syndrome and subtotal colectomy for colon cancer in 2007, presented with severe abdominal pain in December 2015. Since then, the patient presented multiple times to the emergency department with severe diffuse abdominal pain. After extensive examination, no clear cause for the pain was identified and it was thought to be secondary to adhesions, incisional hernias and psychological. Examinations via radiological imaging were challenging due to body habitus and claustrophobia...
August 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Tiago Lobo Ferreira, Tiago Nunes da Silva, Dolores Canário, Maria Francisca Delerue
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion represents 5%-10% of cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS), and approximately 50%-60% of these arise from neuroendocrine lung tumours, including small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We report a 42-year-old man admitted with hypertension, metabolic alkalosis and severe hypokalaemia. On physical examination, centripetal obesity with 'moon face' and 'buffalo's hump' were identified, and wheezing on left lung was heard. A markedly elevated serum cortisol, ACTH and urine free cortisol production supported the diagnosis of CS...
August 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Tahereh Setayesh, Armen Nersesyan, Miroslav Mišík, Franziska Ferk, Sabine Langie, Vanessa M Andrade, Alexander Haslberger, Siegfried Knasmüller
Health authorities are alarmed worldwide about the increase of obesity and overweight in the last decades which lead to adverse health effects including inflammation, cancer, accelerated aging and infertility. We evaluated the state of knowledge concerning the impact of elevated body mass on genomic instability. Results of investigations with humans (39 studies) in which DNA damage was monitored in lymphocytes and sperm cells, are conflicting and probably as a consequence of heterogeneous study designs and confounding factors (e...
July 2018: Mutation Research
Rashmi Supriya, Bjorn T Tam, Angus P Yu, Paul H Lee, Christopher W Lai, Kenneth K Cheng, Sonata Y Yau, Lawrence W Chan, Benjamin Y Yung, Sinead Sheridan, Parco M Siu
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) or prediabetes is a complex disorder that is defined by a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors, including obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Among cardiometabolic risk factors, central obesity plays a key role in the development of MetS through alterations in the secretion of adipokines and interacts with other MetS risk factors to unfavorably influence overall cardiometabolic risk...
2018: PloS One
Stefan Bilz, Miriam Flückiger, Fabian Meienberg, Claudine Falconnier, Ulrich Keller, Jardena J Puder
BACKGROUND: Despite their widespread use in this population, data on the pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of the insulin analogs detemir and glargine in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes are lacking. METHODS: The primary objective of the study was to compare the PD properties of two different doses of the basal insulin analogs detemir and glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes and a BMI > 35 kg/m2. PD data were derived from euglycemic clamp studies over 30 hours and each subject was studied for four times after the subcutaneous injection of a lower (0...
2018: PloS One
Türkan Acar, Yesim Güzey Aras, Sıdıka Sinem Gül, Atılgan Bilgehan Acar
Background and purpose: Uric acid is a molecule that is known to act as a natural antioxidant in acute oxidative stress conditions such as acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Although there are several studies on the prognostic value of serum uric acid (UA) level, especially the AIS, its importance in ischemic stroke is still controversial. Our aim in this study is to investigate whether the serum UA level is an indicative biomarker in the large-artery atherosclerosis in the AIS etiology. Methods: Of the patients admitted to Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital Department of Neurology between January 2017 and November 2017, 91 hospitalized patients, who had AIS diagnosis and had their uric acid levels measured, were analyzed retrospectively...
July 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Man Hu, Zhaomin Yu, Dan Luo, Haiming Zhang, Jinxiao Li, Fengxia Liang, Rui Chen
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have suggested that the -174G>C polymorphism in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter region contributes to the risk of obesity; however, this hypothesis is still inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to combine the data from several studies to arrive at a conclusion regarding the association between -174G>C polymorphism and the risk of obesity. METHODS: The PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to February 20, 2018...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Christos Liaskos, Chrysi Koliaki, Kleopatra Alexiadou, Georgia Argyrakopoulou, Nicholas Tentolouris, Theodoros Diamantis, Andreas Alexandrou, Nicholas Katsilambros, Alexander Kokkinos
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism in addition to weight loss and fasting metabolic profile, in non-diabetic patients undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS: Seventy-one patients were consecutively recruited and studied preoperatively, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Of these, 28 underwent RYGB (7 males, age 38 ± 9 years, BMI 46.9 ± 5.0 kg/m2 ), and 43 SG (9 males, age 38 ± 9 years, BMI 50...
August 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Edith J Arany, Muhammad Waseem, Brenda J Strutt, Astrid Chamson-Reig, Adam Bernardo, Elizabeth Eng, David J Hill
Both bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) improve glycemic control in diabetic mice, but their kinetics and associated changes in pancreatic morphology have not been directly compared. Our goal was to examine the time course of improvements in glucose tolerance and associated changes in β-cell mass and proliferation following transplantation of equivalent numbers of HSC or MSC from the same bone marrow into diabetic non-obese diabetic severe combined immune deficiency (NOD...
August 15, 2018: Islets
Ramkumar Mohan, Daniel C Baumann, Emilyn U Alejandro
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 (T2D) diabetes is a major health concern in the United States and around the world. T2D is a complex disease characterized by pancreatic β-cell failure in association with obesity and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Although several genes associated with T2D have been identified, it is speculated that genetic variants account for only less than 10% of the risk for this disease. A strong body of data from both human epidemiological and animal studies shows that fetal nutrient factors in utero confer significant susceptibility to T2D...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Christo Cimino, Amanda Binkley, Regina Swisher, William R Short
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy and the resultant decrease in mortality among adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there is now an increased incidence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities in these patients. Bariatric surgery is becoming an increasingly common treatment option for patients who are classified as clinically obese. There are limited data regarding the use of antiretroviral therapy in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Vitish Singla, Tharun Gattu, Sandeep Aggarwal, Amit Bhambri, Samagra Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) is not a good tool to predict obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, data regarding the accuracy of ESS in the prediction of OSA among morbidly obese patients are scarce. METHODS: The study involved a retrospective review of the charts of the consecutive patients who underwent bariatric surgery at a tertiary care teaching hospital. All the patients underwent polysomnography (PSG) and undertook the ESS questionnaire...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Amy L Christison, Susma Vaidya, Lydia Tinajero-Deck, Sarah E Hampl
BACKGROUND: Growth in the prevalence of severe pediatric obesity and tertiary care pediatric weight management programs supports the application of chronic disease management models to the care of children with severe obesity. One such model, the medical neighborhood, aims to optimize care coordination between primary and tertiary care by applying principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home to all providers. METHODS: An exploration of the literature was performed describing effective programs, approaches, and coordinated care models applied to pediatric weight management and other chronic conditions...
August 15, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Manav Nayyar, Guido Lastra, Camila Manrique Acevedo
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: In the present review, we will discuss the evidence and the mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between obesity, mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and cardiovascular dysfunction with special emphasis on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in obese and insulin-resistant females. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the initial isolation of aldosterone in 1953 and the cloning of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) decades later, our understanding has expanded tremendously regarding their involvement in the pathogenesis of CVD...
August 14, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
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