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sexual transmitted infection

Veronika Mičulková, Alena Fialová, Tanja Kovačić, Lidmila Hamplová, Dan Veselý, Petr Hulínský
OBJECTIVE: During last years, a significant increase of HIV infection transmitted through sexual intercourse among young adults has been reported in the Czech Republic. The issue of prevention, where sexual education belongs to an important preventive tool, is much more topical than ever before. The level of knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS among adolescents has not been assessed so far. The aim of our study was to explore this field in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Information was obtained using an anonymous questionnaire that was filled in by 1,627 adolescents 13 to 15 years old selected from a representative sample of 25 elementary and grammar schools in the Czech Republic...
June 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
Ryan Colby Passaro, Eddy R Segura, Amaya Perez-Brumer, Jeanne Cabeza, Silvia M Montano, Jordan E Lake, Jorge Sanchez, Javier R Lama, Jesse L Clark
BACKGROUND: Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae [GC]) and chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis [CT]) disproportionately affect men who have sex with men (MSM), and public health implications vary by anatomic site and bacterial agent. Urethral and rectal GC and CT can increase risk of HIV transmission, whereas pharyngeal GC may be a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance. To define screening priorities in Latin America, we compare differences in the prevalence and correlates of urethral, pharyngeal, and rectal GC and CT among MSM in Peru...
September 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Kimberly Stanford, Alyssa Cappetta, Roy Ahn, Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos
Trafficking of adults and children for both sex and labor is a human rights violation occurring with alarming frequency throughout the world, and resulting in profound harm to close-knit communities and severe health consequences for victims. Certain areas, such as the country of Paraguay, are at a higher risk for trafficking due to unique economic, cultural, and geographic factors. Thousands of people, especially children, are trafficked within Paraguay's borders, and many eventually are transported to neighboring countries and sometimes to Europe and elsewhere...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Ryan R Guinness, Jonathan E Volk, Leo B Hurley, Tadd T Tobias, Julia L Marcus
We piloted a low-intensity outreach intervention to increase linkage to PrEP care among HIV-uninfected individuals with rectal sexually transmitted infections or syphilis. We sent a secure email message or letter with information about accessing PrEP. Of those sent an email, 12.4% were linked to PrEP care; linkage differed by race/ethnicity, ranging from 0% of Black individuals to 32% of Hispanic individuals (P = 0.019). No individuals sent letters were linked to PrEP care. A one-time secure email to high-risk patients is feasible to increase linkage to PrEP care...
August 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Samuel J Kroon, Jacques Ravel, Wilhelmina M Huston
The human microbiome project has shown a remarkable diversity of microbial ecology within the human body. The vaginal microbiota is unique in that in many women it is most often dominated by Lactobacillus species. However, in some women it lacks Lactobacillus spp. and is comprised of a wide array of strict and facultative anaerobes, a state that broadly correlates with increased risk for infection, disease, and poor reproductive and obstetric outcomes. Interestingly, the level of protection against infection can also vary by species and strains of Lactobacillus, and some species although dominant are not always optimal...
August 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Alice Teich, Albert B Lowenfels, Lori Solomon, Gary P Wormser
Zika virus is an emerging infection transmitted in multiple ways. In 2016 we assessed the level of knowledge about Zika virus transmission in an underserved, predominantly Hispanic, mixed gender population living in suburban New York City, many of whom potentially travel to affected regions. Based on a convenience sample of 147 participants, 134 (91%) were aware of Zika virus transmission by mosquitoes; 116 (79%) knew about transmission from a pregnant female to the fetus; and 89 (61%) were aware of sexual transmission...
July 9, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Patricio Ramírez-Correa, Muriel Ramírez-Santana
Background: Sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy in adolescents are acknowledged public health problems in many countries. Although it is known that the proper use of condoms allows avoiding these health problems, their use in Chile is still limited, for unknown reasons. Objective : Based on planned behavioural theory, the aim was to validate a behaviour model regarding condom use by measuring the influence of the variables that predict this use among Chilean university students. Methods : A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in October 2016 among 151 Chilean university students belonging to the health and engineering areas...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
William S Pearson, Kristen Kreisel, Thomas A Peterman, Maria Zlotorzynska, Patricia J Dittus, Melissa Habel, John R Papp
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhea (GC) are the most frequently reported notifiable diseases in the United States and costs for diagnosis and treatment of these two infections are approximately $700 million per year. A proposed new method for screening for these two infections is self-tests; similar to at-home pregnancy and HIV tests which do not include sending collected specimens to a laboratory for diagnosis. However, no such self-tests for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
August 7, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Eloisa Llata, Jim Braxton, Lenore Asbel, Joan Chow, Lindsay Jenkins, Ryan Murphy, Preeti Pathela, Christina Schumacher, Elizabeth Torrone
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and treatment of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among women reporting receptive anal intercourse in a network of sexually transmitted disease or sexual health clinics and estimate the proportion of missed infections if women were tested at the genital site only. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae test results from female patients reporting receptive anal intercourse in the preceding 3 months during visits to 24 sexually transmitted disease clinics from 2015 to 2016...
August 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jennifer Tabler, Laryssa Mykyta, Rachel M Schmitz, Akiko Kamimura, Dora A Martinez, Ruben D Martinez, Paloma Flores, Karina Gonzalez, Alvaro Marquez, Gladys Marroquin, Andy Torres
U.S.-Mexico border communities are uniquely vulnerable to sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission given the economic and social challenges these communities face. This study examines how marginalized statuses of U.S. border residents are associated with STI awareness and sexual behaviors. We surveyed low-income residents receiving STI testing and/or HIV/AIDS care in the lower Rio Grande Valley of southernmost Texas. Respondents aged 18+ took a self-administered survey available in English or Spanish in a clinic waiting room (N = 282)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Cara Clure, Colleen Rivard
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common sexually transmitted infection. Although primary HSV typically presents with ulcerations, atypical presentations are possible. Only one other case report of HSV manifesting as a cervical mass exists. A 35-year-old immunocompetent female with dysuria was found to have a cervical mass concerning for cancer. She had a history of abnormal pap smears and a loop electrosurgical excision procedure   (LEEP) with poor follow-up. The patient was taken to the operating room for biopsies and staging and was found to have new vulvar ulcers...
June 6, 2018: Curēus
C W Easterly, F Alarid-Escudero, E A Enns, S Kulasingam
BACKGROUND: Sexual mixing between heterogeneous population subgroups is an integral component of mathematical models of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study compares the fit of different mixing representations to survey data and the impact of different mixing assumptions on the predicted benefits of hypothetical human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine strategies. METHODS: We compared novel empirical (data-driven) age mixing structures with the more commonly-used assortative-proportionate (A-P) mixing structure...
August 6, 2018: Vaccine
Magdalena Frej-Mądrzak, Dorota Teryks-Wołyniec, Piotr Jankowski, Paulina Krochmal, Jolanta Sarowska, Agnieszka Jama-Kmiecik, Irena Choroszy-Król
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia infection is the most frequently reported infectious, sexually transmitted disease (STD). Generally, Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection of neonates is the result of perinatal exposure to the mother's infected cervix. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of infection caused by C. trachomatis in newborn infants. In this study of C. trachomatis perinatal infection, 107 infants born at the Wroclaw Medical University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Poland) were tested to investigate whether C...
August 9, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Alexandra Alvergne, Marija Vlajic Wheeler, Vedrana Högqvist Tabor
Background and objectives: The underlying reasons why some women experience debilitating premenstrual symptoms and others do not are largely unknown. Here, we test the evolutionary ecological hypothesis that some negative premenstrual symptoms may be exacerbated by the presence of chronic sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methodology: 34 511 women were recruited through a digital period-tracker app. Participants were asked: (i) Have you ever been diagnosed with a STI? (ii) If yes, when was it, and were you given treatment? Those data were combined with longitudinal cycle data on menstrual bleeding patterns, the experience of pain and emotions and hormonal contraceptive use...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Andres Moreira-Soto, Renata Cabral, Celia Pedroso, Monika Eschbach-Bludau, Alexandra Rockstroh, Ludy Alexandra Vargas, Ignacio Postigo-Hidalgo, Estela Luz, Gilmara Souza Sampaio, Christian Drosten, Eduardo Martins Netto, Thomas Jaenisch, Sebastian Ulbert, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Jan Felix Drexler
The Latin American 2015-2016 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak was associated with an increase in microcephaly predominantly in northeastern Brazil. To comparatively investigate infectious causes of congenital malformations, we performed a nested case-control study in 32 mothers of cases of suspected congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) and 160 age-matched controls from Bahia, northeastern Brazil. We collected clinical and imaging data and assessed past exposure to ZIKV, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus, and 8 established TORCH ( Toxoplasma gondii , Treponema pallidum , rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1] and HSV-2, varicella-zoster virus, parvovirus B19) pathogens using multiple serological tests...
August 8, 2018: MSphere
Shashi N Kapadia, Harjot K Singh, Sian Jones, Samuel Merrick, Carlos M Vaamonde
Background: Appropriate testing of people at risk for HIV is an important piece of the HIV care continuum. We analyzed HIV testing patterns of patients tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia (GC/CT) at a large urban health care system in New York City. Methods: We retrospectively studied HIV and GC/CT testing from 2010 to 2015. Data were collected from a clinical laboratory database and linked to electronic health records. Patients were older than age 13 years, not known to be HIV positive, and had had a GC/CT test...
July 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Nora E Rosenberg, Nivedita L Bhushan, Dhrutika Vansia, Twambilile Phanga, Bertha Maseko, Tiyamike Nthani, Colleta Libale, Catherine Bamuya, Linda Kamtsendero, Annie Kachigamba, Laura Myers, Jennifer Tang, Mina C Hosseinipour, Linda-Gail Bekker, Audrey E Pettifor
BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) face challenges to seeking HIV and sexual and reproductive health services in sub-Saharan Africa. Integrated approaches designed for AGYW may facilitate service uptake, but rigorous evaluation is needed. METHODS: Four comparable public-sector health centers were selected in Malawi and randomly assigned to a service delivery model. One offered "standard of care" (SOC), consisting of vertical HIV testing, family planning, and sexually transmitted infection management in adult-oriented spaces, by providers without extra training...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Barbara Van Der Pol, Grace Daniel, Salma Kodsi, Sonia Paradis, Charles K Cooper
Background: Vaginal symptoms are a leading cause of primary care visits for women. Individuals exhibiting symptoms often receive laboratory testing based on clinic-specific standards of care. Thus, women seen at a family practice clinic might only receive a vaginitis workup, whereas those seen at a sexually transmitted diseases clinic could be more likely to receive only sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Methods: The likelihood of STIs was assessed in women from whom samples were tested for vaginitis using a molecular diagnostic assay...
August 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mohit Sharma, Meher Rizvi, Richa Gupta, Mohd Azam, Haris M Khan, Anjum Parvez, Indu Shukla
Background: This study attempted to elucidate the spectrum of sexually transmitted infections in a tertiary care centre in North India and to assess the antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae was determined by the standard techniques. Genotypic detection of gyrA, parC and blaTEM genes was also carried out. The results of gyrA gene by polymerase chain reaction were confirmed by DNA sequencing...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ruth Kb Mome, Alison B Wiyeh, Eugene J Kongnyuy, Charles Shey Wiysonge
INTRODUCTION: The HIV pandemic continues to evolve with young women being the most vulnerable group to acquire infection. The presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) further enhances HIV susceptibility and also leads to long-term complications such as infertility and cervical cancer. The female condom is a self-initiated method for STI and HIV prevention but there are controversies on its effects. We aim to assess the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of the use of female condoms for prevention of STI and HIV acquisition among women...
August 5, 2018: BMJ Open
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