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Luísa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Thaise Boeing, Rita de Cássia Melo Vilhena de Andrade Fonseca da Silva, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Rivaldo Niero, Luisa Mota da Silva, Priscila de Souza, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
Several studies have suggested that (-)-epicatechin-containing foods and plant extracts benefit conditions that affect the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. However, no study was conducted so far to evaluate the potential of this flavonoid on diuretic activity assay. For that, female Wistar normotensive (NTR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) received a single oral treatment with (-)-epicatechin (EPI), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or just vehicle (VEH). The effects of EPI in combination with diuretics for clinical use, as well as with L-NAME, atropine and indomethacin were also explored...
August 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
J Šilhavý, J Krijt, J Sokolová, V Zídek, P Mlejnek, M Šimáková, V Škop, J Trnovská, O Oliyarnyk, I Marková, M Hüttl, H Malínská, L Kazdová, F Liška, V Kožich, M Pravenec
Increased levels of plasma cysteine predispose to obesity and metabolic disturbances. Our recent genetic analyses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) revealed mutated Folr1 (folate receptor 1) on chromosome 1 as a quantitative trait gene associated with reduced folate levels, hypercysteinemia and metabolic disturbances. The Folr1 gene is closely linked to the Folh1 (folate hydrolase 1) gene which codes for an enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of dietary polyglutamyl folates in the intestine. In the current study, we obtained evidence that Folh1 mRNA of the BN (Brown Norway) origin is weakly but significantly expressed in the small intestine...
August 16, 2018: Physiological Research
Bumjung Kim, Cheolmin Jo, Ho-Young Choi, Kyungjin Lee
Historically, traditional herbal medicines (THMs) have been the conventional treatment strategy in the Korean medical system for treating many diseases. However, THMs have rarely been used to treat hypertension, and moreover few studies have investigated the interaction of blood pressure with the coadministration of synthetic antihypertensives. We aimed to evaluate the vasorelaxant and hypotensive effects of the traditional herbal prescription Cheonwangbosimdan (CWBSD; "Tianwangbuxindan" in Chinese) and the combination of CWBSD with amlodipine...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Yu-Feng Lin, Shuei-Liong Lin, Tao-Min Huang, Shao-Yu Yang, Tai-Shuan Lai, Likwang Chen, Vin-Cent Wu, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Kwan-Dun Wu
OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is related to a high prevalence of insulin resistance. However, information is lacking on the sequelae of further metabolic change among AKI requiring dialysis in patients who could be weaned off dialysis (acute kidney disease [AKD]). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2010, with the exclusion of those with diabetes at the start, we identified 3,307 subjects with AKD and 9,921 matched control subjects from 963,037 hospitalized patients for the comparison of the outcomes, including new-onset diabetes and all-cause mortality...
August 13, 2018: Diabetes Care
Alessandro Antonelli, Andrea Minervini, Marco Sandri, Roberto Bertini, Riccardo Bertolo, Marco Carini, Maria Furlan, Alessandro Larcher, Guglielmo Mantica, Andrea Mari, Francesco Montorsi, Carlotta Palumbo, Francesco Porpiglia, Paola Romagnani, Claudio Simeone, Carlo Terrone, Umberto Capitanio
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis that renal function could influence oncological outcomes is supported by anecdotal literature. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is related to cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in patients who had undergone surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective analysis of 3457 patients who underwent radical (39%) or partial nephrectomy (61%) for cT1-2 RCC between 1990 and 2015...
August 10, 2018: European Urology
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Alessandra di Masi, Loris Leboffe, Valerio Del Bono, Marianna Rossi, Dario Cappiello, Erika Coppo, Anna Marchese, Annarita Casulli, Alessio Signori, Andrea Novelli, Katja Perrone, Luigi Principe, Alessandra Bandera, Luca Enrico Vender, Andrea Misin, Pierpaolo Occhilupo, Marcello Melone, Paolo Ascenzi, Andrea Gori, Roberto Luzzati, Claudio Viscoli, Stefano Di Bella
This study aimed to assess the predictors of acute kidney injury (AKI) during colistin therapy in a cohort of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) due to colistin-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the role of serum albumin levels. The study consisted of two parts: (1) a multicentre retrospective clinical study to assess the predictors of AKI during colistin therapy, defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria; and (2) bioinformatic and biochemical characterization of the possible interaction between human serum albumin and colistin...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Simina-Ramona Selejan, Dominik Linz, Anna-Maria Tatu, Mathias Hohl, Thimoteus Speer, Sebastian Ewen, Felix Mahfoud, Ingrid Kindermann, Olesja Zamyatkin, Andrey Kazakov, Ulrich Laufs, Michael Böhm
Receptors-for-Advanced-Glycation-End-products (RAGE) activate pro-inflammatory programs mediated by carboxymethyllysine (CML) and high-mobility-group-box1 protein (HMGB1). The soluble isoform sRAGE neutralizes RAGE-ligands preventing cardiovascular complications in conditions associated with increased sympathetic activation like hypertension and diabetes. The effects of sympathetic modulation on RAGE/sRAGE-balance and end-organ damage in metabolic syndrome on top of hypertension remains unknown. We hypothesized that increased sympathoadrenergic activity might lead to an unfavourable RAGE/sRAGE regulation...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Roger A Dampney, Lisete C Michelini, De-Pei Li, Hui-Lin Pan
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a unique and important brain region involved in the control of cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and other physiological functions pertinent to homeostasis. The PVN is a major source of excitatory drive to the spinal sympathetic outflow via both direct and indirect projections. In this review, we discuss the role of the PVN in the regulation of sympathetic output in normal physiological conditions and in hypertension. In normal healthy animals, the PVN presympathetic neurons do not appear to have a major role in sustaining resting sympathetic vasomotor activity or in regulating sympathetic responses to short-term homeostatic challenges such as acute hypotension or hypoxia...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Sarah Galla, Saroj Chakraborty, Xi Cheng, Jiyoun Yeo, Blair Mell, Helen Zhang, Anna V Mathew, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Bina Joe
Gut microbiota are associated with a variety of complex polygenic diseases. The usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics by patients affected by such diseases, is an important environmental factor to consider, because antibiotics, which are widely prescribed to curb pathological bacterial infections, also indiscriminately eliminate gut commensal microbiota. However, the extent to which antibiotics reshape gut microbiota and per se contribute to these complex diseases is understudied. Because genetics play an important role in predisposing individuals to these modern diseases, we hypothesize that the extent to which antibiotics influence complex diseases depends on host genome and metagenome...
August 10, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Natalia Di Pietro, Maria Assunta Potenza, Sara Di Silvestre, Francesco Addabbo, Nadia Di Pietrantonio, Pamela Di Tomo, Caterina Pipino, Domitilla Mandatori, Carola Palmerini, Paola Failli, Mario Bonomini, Monica Montagnani, Assunta Pandolfi
The potential role of calcimimetics as vasculotropic agents has been suggested since the discovery that calcium sensing receptors (CaSRs) are expressed in cardiovascular tissues. However, whether this effect is CaSR-dependent or -independent is still unclear. In the present study the vascular activity of calcimimetic R-568 was investigated in mesenteric vascular beds (MVBs) isolated from Spontaneously Hypertensive rats (SHR) and the relative age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats. Pre-constricted MBVs were perfused with increasing concentrations of R-568 (10 nM- 30 μM) resulting in a rapid dose-dependent vasodilatation...
2018: PloS One
Kay-Pong Yip, Lavanya Balasubramanian, Chen Kan, Lei Wang, Ruisheng Liu, Luisa Ribeiro-Silva, James S K Sham
Myogenic contraction of renal arterioles is an important regulatory mechanism for renal blood flow autoregulation. We have previously demonstrated that integrin-mediated mechanical force increases the occurrence of Ca2+ sparks in freshly isolated renal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To further test whether generation of Ca2+ sparks is a downstream signal of mechanotransduction in pressure induced myogenic constriction, the relationship between Ca2+ spark frequency and transmural perfusion pressure was investigated in intact VSMCs of pressurized rat afferent arterioles...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Juliana Lustosa Torres, Erico Castro-Costa, Juliana Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Sérgio William Viana Peixoto, Breno Satler de Oliveira Diniz, Cesar de Oliveira, Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa
Psychosocial factors appear to be associated with increased risk of disability in later life. However, there is a lack of evidence based on long-term longitudinal data from Western low-middle income countries. We investigated whether psychosocial factors at baseline predict new-onset disability in long term in a population-based cohort of older Brazilians adults. We used 15-year follow-up data from 1,014 participants aged 60 years and older of the Bambuí (Brazil) Cohort Study of Aging. Limitations on activities of daily living (ADL) were measured annually, comprising 9,252 measures...
August 6, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Gerard Moreno, Alejandro Rodríguez, Luis F Reyes, Josep Gomez, Jordi Sole-Violan, Emili Díaz, María Bodí, Sandra Trefler, Juan Guardiola, Juan C Yébenes, Alex Soriano, José Garnacho-Montero, Lorenzo Socias, María Del Valle Ortíz, Eudald Correig, Judith Marín-Corral, Montserrat Vallverdú-Vidal, Marcos I Restrepo, Antoni Torres, Ignacio Martín-Loeches
PURPOSE: To determine clinical predictors associated with corticosteroid administration and its association with ICU mortality in critically ill patients with severe influenza pneumonia. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of critically ill patients with confirmed influenza pneumonia admitted to 148 ICUs in Spain between June 2009 and April 2014. Patients who received corticosteroid treatment for causes other than viral pneumonia (e.g., refractory septic shock and asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] exacerbation) were excluded...
August 3, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Yu-Feng Lin, Likwang Chen, Shuei-Liong Lin, Yu-Chang Yeh, Tao-Min Huang, Yu-Hsiang Chou, Fan-Chi Chang, Yi-Ting Chen, Shao-Yu Yang, Tai-Shuan Lai, Vin-Cent Wu, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Kwan-Dun Wu
OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney disease (AKD), the transition of acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease, has major clinical significance. Whether mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist will afford target organ protection during this critical stage remains ill-defined. METHODS: Using a population-based cohort database from January 1999 to July 2011, we identified 7252 AKD patients with hypertension, of whom 2255 were treated with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (user) and 4997 were treated by other antihypertensive medication (nonuser)...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Diego Castro Musial, Regiane Miranda-Ferreira, Juan Fernando Padin, Juan Alberto Arranz-Tagarro, Alberto J Parra-Vitela, Aron Jurkiewicz, Antonio Garcia Garcia, Neide Hyppolito Jurkiewicz
Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are diseases that have are strongly correlated. A major factor in this correlation is the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), with the peptide angiotensin II being a key component. This study analyzed the impact of AT1R (Angiotensin Type 1 receptor) and AT2R (Angiotension Type 2 receptor) in atrial function. MAIN METHODS: to perform the experiments, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), Diabetic streptozotocin-induced (WKY) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) were used, and stimulation of cardiovascular function was done by means of the following drugs: angiotensin II, novokinin and the antagonists losartan and PD123177...
July 30, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Pengxue Li, Qiaozhi Yu, Xu Gu, Chunmiao Xu, Shilian Qi, Hong Wang, Fenglin Zhong, Tobias I Baskin, Abidur Rahman, Shuang Wu
The Casparian strip in the root endodermis forms an apoplastic barrier between vascular tissues and outer ground tissues to enforce selective absorption of water and nutrients. Because of its cell-type specificity, the presence of a Casparian strip is used as a marker for a functional endodermis. Here, we examine the minimal regulators required for reprograming non-endodermal cells to build a functional Casparian strip. We demonstrate that the transcription factor SHORT-ROOT (SHR) serves as a master regulator and promotes Casparian strip formation through two independent activities: inducing the expression of essential Casparian strip enzymes via MYB36 and directing the subcellular localization of Casparian strip formation via SCARECROW (SCR)...
July 20, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Andrea Berenyiova, Ima Dovinova, Miroslava Kvandova, Frantisek Kristek, Eugene Jansen, Miroslava Majzunova, Sona Cacanyiova
Although the role of nitric oxide (NO) in essential hypertension is still unclear, the effects of long-term NO deficiency have not yet been investigated during the critical juvenile period in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We aimed to analyze the effects of chronic NO synthase (NOS) inhibition on systolic blood pressure (sBP), vasoactivity, morphological changes and superoxide level in the thoracic aorta (TA), NOS activity in different tissues, and general biomarkers of oxidative stress in plasma of young SHR...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Thiago S Moreira, Vagner R Antunes, Barbara Falquetto, Nephtali Marina
BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension is associated with autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Different interventional strategies have been implemented in recent years for the reduction of sympathetic activity in patients with hypertension. However, the therapeutic benefit of increasing vagal tone in hypertensive patients remains largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: Here, we describe the effects of long-term activation of vagal neural pathways on arterial pressure, heart rate arterial pressure variability and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar rats...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Isabel Prieto, Ana B Segarra, Ana B Villarejo, Marc de Gasparo, María M Martínez-Cañamero, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hypertension can lead to mood disorders that may worsen or ameliorate depending on the type of antihypertensive prescribed. Depression is associated with modifications in basal brain asymmetry particularly that of the frontal cortex, which is involved in blood pressure control. Furthermore, different vasoactive drugs may change the brain's asymmetry in a manner that contributes to cognition status. We studied the bilateral activity of several neuropeptidases in frontal cortex as a reflect of the functional status of certain neuropeptides involved in mood...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Dong Wook Shin, Beomseok Suh, Youngmin Park, Hyunsun Lim, Yun-Suhk Suh, Jae Moon Yun, BeLong Cho, Han-Kwang Yang
BACKGROUND: Small studies suggest improvement of cardiovascular risk profiles and reduced cardiovascular mortality after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. In our study using national health insurance data, we investigated coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke incidence among gastric cancer patients who received gastrectomy compared with general population controls. METHODS: A total of 98,936 gastric cancer patients were included in the study and matched to non-cancer controls via 1:1 propensity score matching...
July 24, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
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