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Joseph Sung, Jason Ho, Felix Chan, Kelvin Tsoi
BACKGROUND: The chemopreventive effect of aspirin in colorectal cancer (CRC) is well studied but its benefit in patients after CRC diagnosis and surgery is unclear. This study aims to investigate the effects of low-dose aspirin use in mortality among CRC patients after surgery. METHODS: Patients were analyzed in two cohorts: (A) patients taking aspirin before CRC diagnosis, and continued or discontinued aspirin after surgery; (B) patients, who never used aspirin before CRC diagnosis, received or did not receive aspirin after surgery...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Michele Provenzano, Roberto Minutolo, Paolo Chiodini, Vincenzo Bellizzi, Felice Nappi, Domenico Russo, Silvio Borrelli, Carlo Garofalo, Carmela Iodice, Toni De Stefano, Giuseppe Conte, Hiddo J L Heerspink, Luca De Nicola
Hyperkalaemia burden in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) under nephrology care is undefined. We prospectively followed 2443 patients with two visits (referral and control with 12-month interval) in 46 nephrology clinics. Patients were stratified in four categories of hyperkalaemia (serum potassium, sK ≥ 5.0 mEq/L) by sK at visit 1 and 2: Absent (no-no), Resolving (yes-no), New Onset (no-yes), Persistent (yes-yes). We assessed competing risks of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) and death after visit 2...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Jenni Ervasti, Olli Pietiläinen, Ossi Rahkonen, Eero Lahelma, Anne Kouvonen, Tea Lallukka, Minna Mänty
PURPOSE: We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) to study the association between long-term exposure to heavy physical effort or heavy lifting and carrying at work with disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders and premature all-cause mortality. METHODS: Exposure to heavy physical effort at work during 1996-2005 was estimated with JEM developed for this study population, where the exposure was based on occupational titles of the participants. We included all employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, who had annual data of exposure for 8-10 years (1996-2005, n = 18387)...
December 3, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Jing Huang, Hongnan Mo, Weilong Zhang, Xuelian Chen, Dong Qu, Xi Wang, Dawei Wu, Xingyuan Wang, Bo Lan, Beibei Yang, Pei Wang, Bo Zhang, Qing Yang, Yuchen Jiao, Binghe Xu
BACKGROUND: The clinical response to anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibodies in patients with advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer in China has not been reported. METHODS: This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of SHR-1210, an anti-PD-1 antibody, in patients with advanced gastric/GEJ cancer in a phase 1 trial. The associations between candidate biomarkers (programmed death ligand 1 [PD-L1] expression, mismatch repair status, tumor mutation load, and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] levels) and the efficacy of SHR-1210 were also explored...
December 3, 2018: Cancer
Emily R Perito, John Bucuvalas, Jennifer C Lai
Functional impairment is associated with mortality in adult liver transplant candidates. This has not been studied in pediatric liver transplant candidates. UNOS STAR files were used to investigate functional status, waitlist mortality, and post-transplant outcomes in children<18, listed 2006-16 for primary liver transplant. Functional status was categorized using the Lansky play-performance scale (LPPS), as normal/good (80-100%), moderately impaired (50-70%), or severely impaired (10-40%) by center assessment...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Eduardo Vilar-Gomez, Raj Vuppalanchi, Samer Gawrieh, Marwan Ghabril, Romil Saxena, Oscar W Cummings, Naga Chalasani
Vitamin E improves liver histology in non-diabetic adults with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but its impact on long-term patient outcomes is unknown. We evaluated whether vitamin E treatment improves clinical outcomes of NASH patients with bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis. Two hundred and thirty-six patients with biopsy-proven NASH and bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis seen at Indiana University Medical Center between October 2004, and January 2016 were included. Ninety of them took 800 IU/day of vitamin E for ≥ 2 years (vitamin E users) and were propensity matched to 90 adults who did not take vitamin E (controls) after adjusting for fibrosis severity, age, gender, body mass index, comorbidities and their treatment, LDL cholesterol, liver biochemistries and length of follow-up on vitamin E...
December 1, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Izabela Dobrzyńska, Barbara Szachowicz-Petelska, Jolanta Weresa, Zbigniew A Figaszewski, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
Hypertension is a civilization disease leading to remodeling and damage of blood vessels, impaired renal function and premature death. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of chronic administration of URB597, the FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) inhibitor, to rats with primary (SHRs) and secondary (DOCA-salt hypertensive rats) hypertension on electrical and physicochemical properties of kidney cells membranes. Changes in the electrical charge of the membrane may affect the cell functions. The electrical properties of the kidney cells (surface charge density, zeta potential) were measured by electrophoresis...
November 28, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Suzy Tamie Niigaki, Fernanda Fiel Peres, Lizia Ferreira, Tania Libanio, Douglas Albuquerque Gouvea, Raquel Levin, Valeria Almeida, Neide Derci Silva, Mariana Cepollaro Diana, Mayra Akimi Suiama, Mariana Bendlin Calzavara, Vanessa Costhek Abilio
The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) strain has been suggested as an animal model of schizophrenia, considering that adult SHRs display behavioral abnormalities that mimic the cognitive, psychotic and negative symptoms of the disease and are characteristic of its animal models. SHRs display: (I) deficits in fear conditioning and latent inhibition (modeling cognitive impairments), (II) deficit in prepulse inhibition of startle reflex (reflecting a deficit in sensorimotor gating, and associated with psychotic symptoms), (III) diminished social behavior (modeling negative symptoms) and (IV) hyperlocomotion (modeling the hyperactivity of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system/ psychotic symptoms)...
November 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
M L Blagonravov, E V Medvedeva, A A Bryk, V A Goryachev, A E Rabinovich, A S Letoshneva, E A Demurov
We presented the results of our study of chronostructure of BP, HR, electrolyte excretion, and locomotor activity under conditions of "free-run rhythm" (light deprivation). In adult male Wistar-Kyoto (normotensive) and SHR (spontaneously hypertensive) rats, BP, biopotentials of the heart (ECG), and locomotor activity were recorded over 24 h by telemetric monitoring and the rate of excretion of electrolytes (Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , and Mg2+ ) during the nighttime and daytime hours was measured. It was found that under free-run rhythm, 24-h profiles of BP, HR, excretory function of the kidneys, and locomotor activity underwent more considerable changes in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats in comparison with hypertensive SHR rats...
December 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
L Šedová, E Školníková, M Hodúlová, J Včelák, O Šeda, B Bendlová
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase 7, non-metastatic cells 7 (NME7) is an acknowledged member of ciliome and is involved in the biogenesis or function of cilia. As obesity and diabetes are common in several ciliopathies, we aimed to analyze changes of gene expression within Nme7 interactome in genetically designed rat models of metabolic syndrome. We assessed the liver transcriptome by Affymetrix microarrays in adult males of 14 PXO recombinant inbred rat strains and their two progenitor strains, SHR-Lx and BXH2...
November 28, 2018: Physiological Research
Bingju Yan, Jun Wang
The present study investigated the potential role of UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing 1 (UBIAD1) in the pathogenesis of hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar‑Kyoto (WKY) rats at 8, 16 and 28 weeks of age were used. Blood pressure was measured using a non‑invasive tail cut‑off system. Cardiac functional index was assessed by arterial catheterization. Myocardial structure and cell apoptosis were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl‑transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling assays, respectively...
November 26, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yali Li, Guanghu Yu, Lijuan Liu, Jun Long, Shujie Su, Ting Zhao, Wenjin Liu, Shunji Shen, Xiaolin Niu
Oxidative stress serves an important role in hypertensive brain damage. Peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPAR‑γ) agonists possess antioxidative and anti‑apoptotic effects. The present study verified the possibility that rosiglitazone serves a neuroprotective role by alleviating oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in the hippocampi of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). SHRs and age‑matched Wistar‑Kyoto (WKY; both 56 weeks old) rats received gavage administration of vehicle or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day) for eight weeks...
November 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Candelaria Merino-Jiménez, Filiberto Miguel, Jessica Abigail Feria Pliego, María Elena Zetina Rosales, Fredy Cifuentes, Miguel Angel Morales
Sympathetic neurons of the rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) can segregate their neurotransmitters and co-transmitters to separate varicosities of single axons. We have shown that transmitter segregation is a plastic phenomenon and that it is correlated with the strength of synaptic transmission. Here, we determined whether sympathetic dysfunction occurring in stress and hypertension was correlated with plastic changes of neurotransmitter segregation. We characterized the expression of the markers, L-glutamic acid decarboxylase of 67 kDa (GAD67) and vesicular acetylcholine (ACh) transporter (VAChT) in the SCG of cold stressed and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hye Young Kim, Dae Won Jeong, Hee Sun Kim
The extracellular sulfatases (Sulfs), sulfatase 1 (Sulf1) and sulfatase 2 (Sulf2), have an important role in cell signaling by modulating the 6-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the cell surface. Gene expression and enzyme activity of Sulfs are elevated in hypertensive vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) compared to those in normotensive VSMCs. CXC-chemokine ligand (CXCL) 8 has a pathogenic role in the development and progression of hypertension. In this study, we investigated the effect of Sulfs on the expression of CXCL8-induced endothelin (ET)-1, a hypertensive mediator, in VSMCs from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
November 20, 2018: Cytokine
Márlon J R Aliberti, Irena S Cenzer, Alexander K Smith, Sei J Lee, Kristine Yaffe, Kenneth E Covinsky
BACKGROUND: Physical frailty is a powerful tool for identifying nondisabled individuals at high risk of adverse outcomes. The extent to which cognitive impairment in those without dementia adds value to physical frailty in detecting high-risk individuals remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects of combining physical frailty and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) on the risk of basic activities of daily living (ADL) dependence and death over 8 years...
November 23, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Kevin S Montes, Matthew R Pearson, Adrian J Bravo
BACKGROUND: The use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has been found to attenuate the relationship between alcohol use and related consequences. OBJECTIVES: The current study examined PBS use as a moderator of the association between alcohol use and consequences in multiple samples (N =  9) of college students with different sample sizes (e.g., ns 125-736). We also examined sex as a moderator of the PBS moderation analyses. Across all samples, we predicted that the use of more PBS would attenuate the use-consequences relation...
November 23, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
T Holmberg, S Möller, M J Rothmann, J Gram, A P Herman, K Brixen, J S Tolstrup, M Høiberg, M Bech, K H Rubin
There is a need of studies exploring the link between socioeconomic status and DXA scans and osteoporotic fracture, which was the aim of the present study. No differences in socioeconomic status and risk of osteoporotic fractures were found. However, women with further/higher education and higher income are more often DXA-scanned. INTRODUCTION: Lower socioeconomic status is known to be associated with a range of chronic conditions and with access to health care services. The link between socioeconomic status and the use of DXA scans and osteoporotic fracture, however, needs to be explored more closely...
November 21, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Yu-Feng Lin, Tao-Min Huang, Shuei-Liong Lin, Vin-Cent Wu, Kwan-Dun Wu
Objective: Prompt assessment of perioperative complications is critical for the comprehensive care of surgical patients. Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) is associated with high mortality, yet little is known about how long-term outcomes of patients have evolved. The association of AKI-D with postsurgical outcomes has not been well studied. Methods: We investigated patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database and validated by the multicenter Clinical Trial Consortium for Renal Diseases cohort...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Sho Tanaka, Takahiro Ueno, Akiko Tsunemi, Chinami Nagura, Kazunobu Tahira, Noboru Fukuda, Masayoshi Soma, Masanori Abe
The circadian clock influences a multitude of cellular and biological processes, including blood pressure control. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibit aberrant circadian rhythms affecting cardiovascular parameters, and they also have abnormal clock gene expression profiles in several organs. Given the important role of the adrenal gland in orchestrating circadian oscillations, we investigated the adrenal gland circadian clock in SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto rats maintained under a 12-hour light-dark cycle...
November 21, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Philip R Griffiths, Stephen J Lolait, Louise E Pearce, Fiona D McBryde, Julian F R Paton, Anne-Marie O'Carroll
Dysfunction of the apelinergic system, comprised of the neuropeptide apelin mediating its effects via the G protein-coupled apelin receptor (APJ), may underlie the onset of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension. Apelin expression is increased in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) compared to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats, however, evidence that the apelinergic system chronically influences mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) under pathophysiological conditions remains to be established...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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