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Cord clamping

U Ituk, K Thenuwara
BACKGROUND: A single perioperative dose of dexamethasone has been shown to improve postoperative analgesia and reduce opioid consumption. However, this analgesic and opioid sparing effect has not been well assessed as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen in women post-cesarean delivery. METHODS: Healthy women having cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo after delivery and clamping of the umbilical cord...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Anup C Katheria, Samuel R Sorkhi, Kasim Hassen, Arij Faksh, Zahra Ghorishi, Debra Poeltler
Background: While delayed umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants has shown to improve long-term neurological outcomes, infants who are thought to need resuscitation do not receive delayed cord clamping even though they may benefit the most. A mobile resuscitation platform allows infants to be resuscitated at the mother's bedside with the cord intact. The newborn is supplied with placental blood during the resuscitation in view of the mother. The objective of the study is to assess the usability and acceptability of mobile resuscitation platform, LifeStart trolley, among the infants' parents and perinatal providers...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Chong Wang, Tsugumi Fujita, Eiichi Kumamoto
Cellular mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive properties of orexins, a group of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus, in the spinal dorsal horn have not been thoroughly investigated. We examined how orexin B affects spontaneous synaptic transmission in lamina II neurons, which play a pivotal role in regulating nociceptive transmission, by applying a whole-cell patch-clamp technique to lamina II neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices. In 66% of neurons tested, bath-applied orexin B concentration-dependently produced an inward current at -70 mV and/or increased the frequency of glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) without changing its amplitude, in a manner resistant to the voltage-gated Na+ -channel blocker tetrodotoxin...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Yoshino Minoura, Hiroshi Onimaru, Kamon Iigaya, Youichi Kobayashi
The sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) play a key role in the sympathetic nervous system. Previous reports have suggested that norepinephrine (NE) directly affects SPNs via both inhibitory hyperpolarization interactions mediated by α2 receptors and excitatory depolarization interactions mediated by α1 receptors. It remains poorly understood, however, whether the excitability of SPNs can be inhibited indirectly (presynaptically) as well as directly (postsynaptically). We intracellularly recorded 41 SPNs using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in spinal cord slice preparations of neonatal rats...
May 10, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Mehmet Aksoy, Ayşe Nur Aksoy, Ali Ahıskalıoğlu, İlker İnce, Esra Laloğlu, Ayşenur Dostbil, Mine Gürsaç Çelik
Objective: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophins, plays a critical role in neuronal tissue. In this study, the effects of spinal or general anaesthesia on cord and maternal peripheral blood BDNF and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were investigated in patients undergoing elective caesarean section. Methods: Eighty patients with term pregnancy were included. General anaesthesia was induced with intravenous (IV) propofol 2 mg kg-1 in the general anaesthesia group (n=36)...
April 2018: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Ocília Maria Costa Carvalho, Matheus Costa Carvalho Augusto, Maxsuênia Queiroz Medeiros, Hesly Martins Pereira Lima, Antonio Brazil Viana Junior, Edward Araujo Júnior, Francisco Herlânio Costa Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To verify the relationship between the time of clamping of the umbilical cord and the development of neonatal jaundice, the dosage of bilirubin and the need for phototherapy. METHODS: Cross-sectional, retrospective study with 398 parturients at normal risk (single term gestation, no complications during gestation or delivery, birth weight between 2500 and 4499 g). The population was divided into three groups regarding the time of cord clamping: less than 1 minute (117, 29...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Chayatat Ruangkit, Matthew Leon, Kasim Hassen, Katherine Baker, Debra Poeltler, Anup Katheria
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended delayed umbilical cord clamping for at least 30-60 s for all infants. However, there is limited data regarding the maternal safety of delayed cord clamping in multiple pregnancies. We aimed to compare the maternal bleeding complications following early cord clamping (ECC) versus of delayed cord clamping (DCC) in multiple pregnancies. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with multiples who delivered live-born infants at Sharp Healthcare Hospitals in San Diego, CA, USA during January 1st, 2016 - September 30th, 2017...
May 4, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Alexander Gombert, Jochen Grommes, Danny Hilkman, Drosos Kotelis, Werner H Mess, Michael J Jacobs
Ischemia of the spinal cord remains a disastrous complication in thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) surgery. We report a case of open type I TAAA repair during which no motor evoked potentials were detectable for >1 hour after aortic cross-clamping. The creation of three intercostal artery bypasses restored spinal cord perfusion. As the patient showed only moderate clinical signs of spinal cord ischemia afterward, we underline the role of neuromonitoring to guide intercostal artery bypass implantation during TAAA surgery as the combined use of neuromonitoring and intercostal artery bypass implantation may prevent paraplegia in specific TAAA cases...
March 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
Patrick D Carroll, Eva Livingston, Vickie L Baer, Kerby Karkula, Robert D Christensen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported the use of cord blood for admission laboratory complete blood counts (CBCs). However, no studies have investigated its stability for the first 30 min after delivery. OBJECTIVES: We quantified blood cells drawn from the umbilical vein to determine the effect of (1) the time after placental delivery, and (2) the site of blood sampling (umbilical vein on an isolated cord segment vs. umbilical vein on the placental surface)...
May 2, 2018: Neonatology
Fernanda Barros Vasconcelos, Leila Katz, Isabela Coutinho, Vanessa Laranjeiras Lins, Melania Maria de Amorim
METHODS: An open randomized clinical trial was developed at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP) in Recife and at Petronila Campos Municipal Hospital in São Lourenço da Mata, both in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, including 226 low-risk pregnant women bearing a single, full-term, live fetus after delayed cord clamping, 113 randomized to placental cord drainage and 113 to a control group not submitted to this procedure. Women incapable of understanding the study objectives and those who went on to have an instrumental or cesarean delivery were excluded...
2018: PloS One
Graeme R Polglase, Michael Stark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Ahmed A Abdelaleem, Ahmed M Abbas, Andrew L Thabet, Esraa Badran, Ihab H El-Nashar
OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effect of starting intravenous oxytocin infusion early before uterine incision versus late after umbilical cord clamping on the blood loss during elective cesarean section (CS). METHODS: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted on 200 pregnant women at term (> 37 weeks) gestation scheduled for elective CS were assigned to either IV infusion of 30 IU of oxytocin started before uterine incision (Group I) or started immediately after clamping the umbilical cord (Group II)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Xiao-Bo Wu, Li-Na He, Bao-Chun Jiang, Hui Shi, Xue-Qiang Bai, Wen-Wen Zhang, Yong-Jing Gao
Chemokines-mediated neuroinflammation in the spinal cord plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Chemokine CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 have been identified as a same subfamily chemokine which bind to CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) to exert functions. Our recent work found that CXCL10 is upregulated in spinal astrocytes after spinal nerve ligation (SNL), and acts on CXCR3 on neurons to contribute to central sensitization and neuropathic pain, but less is known about CXCL9 and CXCL11 in the maintenance of neuropathic pain...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
Chong Wang, Tsugumi Fujita, Eiichi Kumamoto
Hypothalamic neuropeptides, orexins A and B, differently inhibit nociceptive behavior. This difference is possibly due to a distinction between orexins A and B in modulating synaptic transmission in spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons that play a pivotal role in regulating nociceptive transmission. Although we previously reported a modulatory action of orexin B on synaptic transmission in adult rat SG neurons, it has not been fully examined how the transmission is affected by orexin A. The present study examined the effects of orexin A on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory transmission in SG neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
April 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Anup C Katheria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Yutaka Seino, Nobuko Ohashi, Tatsuro Kohno
β-alanine is a structural analog of glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and is thought to be involved in the modulation of nociceptive information at the spinal cord. However, it is not known whether β-alanine exerts its effect in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of the spinal dorsal horn, where glycine and GABA play an important role in regulating nociceptive transmission from the periphery. Here, we investigated the effects of β-alanine on inhibitory synaptic transmission in adult rat SG neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp...
April 24, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Marisa Silva, Ana Ferro
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery is a devastating and unpredictable complication (1). With surgical manipulation, particularly with aortic clamping, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure may rise, and its pressure exceeds the spinal arterial pressure, spinal perfusion may be reduced, leading to neurological dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: This clinical case reports to a 70-year-old male patient with an early onset of post-operative paraesthesia of the lower limbs in the immediate post-operative period of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
M S Leslie, J Greene, J Schulkin, A C Jelin
BACKGROUND: Delayed umbilical cord clamping is associated with significant benefits to preterm and term newborns and is recommended for all infants by the World Health Organization and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Little is known about the cord management practices of U.S. obstetricians. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe current cord clamping practices by U.S. obstetricians and investigate factors associated with delayed cord clamping...
2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Ronny Knol, Emma Brouwer, Alex S N Vernooij, Frans J C M Klumper, Philip DeKoninck, Stuart B Hooper, Arjan B Te Pas
Fetal to neonatal transition is characterised by major pulmonary and haemodynamic changes occurring in a short period of time. In the international neonatal resuscitation guidelines, comprehensive recommendations are available on supporting pulmonary transition and delaying clamping of the cord in preterm infants. Recent experimental studies demonstrated that the pulmonary and haemodynamic transition are intimately linked, could influence each other and that the timing of umbilical cord clamping should be incorporated into the respiratory stabilisation...
April 21, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Yiming Shen, Seong Kyu Han, Pan Dong Ryu
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contains two types of neurons projecting to either the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVNRVLM ) or the intermediolateral horn (IML) of the spinal cord (PVNIML ). These two neuron groups are present intermingled in the same subdivisions of the PVN, and differentially regulate sympathetic outflow. However, the electrophysiological evidence supporting such functional differences is largely lacking. Here, we compared the electrophysiological properties of these neurons by using patch clamp and retrograde tracing techniques...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
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