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Cord clamping

Yun Wang, Qing-Jiang Pang, Jiang-Tao Liu, Hai-Hao Wu, Dong-Ying Tao
MicroRNAs play a crucial role in the progression of spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury (SCII). The role of miR-448 and SIRT1 in SCII was investigated in this study, to provide further insights into prevention and improvement of this disorder. In this study, expressions of miR-448 and SIRT1 protein were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell apoptosis. The endogenous expression of genes was modulated by recombinant plasmids and cell transfection. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the interaction between miR-448 and SIRT1...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
M Kotowski, Z Litwinska, P Klos, E Pius-Sadowska, E Zagrodnik-Ulan, P Ustianowski, J Rudnicki, B Machalinski
Umbilical cord blood (UCB), rich in stem/progenitor cells, is partially eliminated from the bloodstream during childbirth because the cord is immediately clamped. We hypothesize that transfusion of autologous UCB to premature infants after delivery could serve as an adjuvant modality for preventing the development of prematurity-related complications. We randomly enrolled 20 preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age (GA), all of whom developed anemia, necessitating transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs)...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Zbynĕk Straňák, Simona Feyereislová, Peter Korček, Eugene Dempsey
Postnatal adaptation in preterm newborn comprises complex physiological processes that involve significant changes in the circulatory and respiratory system. Increasing hemoglobin level and blood volume following placental transfusion may be of importance in enhancing arterial oxygen content, increasing cardiac output, and improving oxygen delivery. The European consensus on resuscitation of preterm infants recommends delayed cord clamping (DCC) for at least 60 s to promote placenta-fetal transfusion in uncompromised neonates...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Katsuhiro Yamanaka, Mohamed Eldeiry, Muhammad Aftab, Joshua Mares, Thomas J Ryan, Xianzhong Meng, Michael J Weyant, Joseph C Cleveland, David A Fullerton, T Brett Reece
BACKGROUND: Paraplegia remains the most feared complication of complex thoracoabdominal aortic intervention. Although erythropoietin (EPO) has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in spinal cord ischemia, it does not work until expression of the beta common receptor subunit of the EPO receptor (βcR) is induced by ischemia. We hypothesized that the βcR can be induced by diazoxide (DZ), amplifying the neuroprotective effects of EPO in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: For the DZ time trial, adult male C57/BL6 mice received DZ (20 mg/kg) by oral gavage...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Arpitha Chiruvolu, Elise Elliott, Diana Rich, Genna Leal Stone, Huanying Qin, Robert W Inzer
BACKGROUND: In the range of timing suggested by American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 30 to 60 s, preterm infants may potentially derive more short and long-term benefits with delayed cord clamping (DCC) for at least 60 s. However, there are concerns with longer resuscitation delay in this vulnerable population. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical consequences of 45 versus 60 s delay in umbilical cord clamping in singleton infants born between 230/7 to 316/7 weeks gestation...
March 5, 2018: Early Human Development
Anja Püschel, Rasmus Ebel, Patricia Fuchs, Janet Hofmann, Jochen K Schubert, Jan P Roesner, Stefan Bergt, Andreas Wree, Brigitte Vollmar, Ernst Klar, Carsten M Bünger, Sabine Kischkel
BACKROUND: Paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia (SCI) is a serious complication after repair of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms. For prevention and early treatment of spinal ischemia intraoperative monitoring of spinal cord integrity is essential. This study was intended to improve recognition of SCI through a combination of transcranial motor-evoked potentials (tc-MEPs), serum markers and innovative breath analysis. METHODS: In nine female German landrace pigs, tc-MEPs were captured, markers of neuronal damage were determined in blood and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analysed in exhaled air...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Michael P Meyer, Elizabeth Nevill, Maisie M Wong
BACKGROUND: Placental transfusion (by means of delayed cord clamping (DCC), cord milking, or cord stripping) confers benefits for preterm infants. It is not known if providing respiratory support to preterm infants before cord clamping improves outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of respiratory support provided during DCC compared with no respiratory support during placental transfusion (in the form of DCC, milking, or stripping) in preterm infants immediately after delivery...
March 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Víctor Lago Leal, Loida Pamplona Bueno, Lucía Cabanillas Vilaplana, Estefanía Nicolás Montero, Mónica Martín Blanco, Cristina Fernández Romero, Sara El Bakkali, Tamara Pradillo Aramendi, Lara Sobrino Lorenzano, Paula Castellano Esparza, Esther Ballesteros Benito, Nieves Rayo Navarro, Pablo Del Barrio Fernández, Vanesa Ocaña Martínez, Luis Martínez Cortés
OBJECTIVE: To assess the short and medium-term effects of milking maneuver (MM) compared with early cord clamping for infants born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 138 infants between 24+0 and 36+6 weeks of gestation were allocated to MM or early cord clamping. Primary outcomes were the requirement of red blood cell transfusions or phototherapy. RESULTS: Initial hemoglobin was significantly higher in the MM group by 1.675 g/dL (p < 0...
March 5, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Martin Kluckow
Assessment and treatment of the VLBW infant with cardiovascular impairment requires understanding of the underlying physiology of the infant in transition. The situation is dynamic with changes occurring in systemic blood pressure, pulmonary pressures, myocardial function, and ductal shunt in the first postnatal days. New insights into the role of umbilical cord clamping in the transitional circulation have been provided by large clinical trials of early versus later cord clamping and a series of basic science reports describing the physiology in an animal model...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Bryony L Winters, Tristan Rawling, Robert J Vandenberg, Macdonald J Christie, Rebecca F Bhola, Wendy L Imlach
BACKGROUND: Inhibitory neurotransmission plays an important role in controlling excitability within nociceptive circuits of the spinal cord dorsal horn. Loss of inhibitory signalling is thought to contribute to the development of pathological pain. Preclinical studies suggest that increasing inhibitory glycinergic signalling is a good therapeutic strategy for treating pain. One approach to increase synaptic glycine is to inhibit the activity of the glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2) on inhibitory nerve terminals...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Wael Seliem, Amira M Sultan
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study is to use presepsin level in umbilical cord blood as a predictor of EONS in preterm labor with premature rupture of membranes allowing rational use of antibiotics. METHODS: All preterm infants between 24+0 and 36+6 weeks of gestation born to pregnant women with a PROM were enrolled in our study. Blood samples were obtained from clamped umbilical cords after delivery of the neonates and prior to the delivery of the placenta for CRP and presepsin detection...
March 1, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Sarah E Cusick, Michael K Georgieff, Raghavendra Rao
Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Women of reproductive age and young children are particularly vulnerable. Iron deficiency in late prenatal and early postnatal periods can lead to long-term neurobehavioral deficits, despite iron treatment. This may occur because screening and treatment of iron deficiency in children is currently focused on detection of anemia and not neurodevelopment. Anemia is the end-stage state of iron deficiency. The brain becomes iron deficient before the onset of anemia due to prioritization of the available iron to the red blood cells (RBCs) over other organs...
February 17, 2018: Nutrients
Jacopo Alfonsi, Giacomo Murana, Henri G Smeenk, Hans Kelder, Marc Schepens, Uday Sonker, Wim J Morshuis, Robin H Heijmen
OBJECTIVES: Chronic, post-dissection thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) are increasingly being treated by (hybrid) endovascular means. Although it is less invasive, thoracic endovascular aortic repair is technically complex with the risk of incomplete aneurysm exclusion, necessitating frequent reinterventions with potentially reduced long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate contemporary early and late outcomes after open surgical repair of post-dissection TAAA...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Kazuki Noma, Hironari Akaike, Yuki Kurauchi, Hiroshi Katsuki, Yasuo Oyama, Norio Akaike
Glycine is a fast inhibitory transmitter like γ-aminobutyric acid in the mammalian spinal cord and brainstem, and it is involved in motor reflex, nociception, and neuronal development. Triphenyltin (TPT) is an organometallic compound causing environmental hazard to many wild creatures. Our previous findings show that TPT ultimately induces a drain and/or exhaustion of glutamate in excitatory presynaptic nerve terminals, resulted in blockage of neurotransmission as well as methylmercury. Therefore, we have investigated the neurotoxic mechanism how TPT modulates inhibitory glycinergic transmission in the synaptic bouton preparation of rat isolated spinal neurons using a patch clamp technique...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Research
Naoki Oshima, Hiroshi Onimaru, Akira Yamagata, Seigo Itoh, Hidehito Matsubara, Toshihiko Imakiire, Yasuhiro Nishida, Hiroo Kumagai
Recent studies indicate that erythropoietin (EPO) is present in many areas of the brain and is active in the restoration of impaired neurons. In this study, we examined the presence of EPO and its role in bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Hypoxia is often accompanied by a high blood pressure (BP). We hypothesized that EPO is produced in response to hypoxia in RVLM neurons and then activates them. To investigate whether RVLM neurons are sensitive to EPO, we examined the changes in the membrane potentials (MPs) of bulbospinal RVLM neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique during superfusion with EPO...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Aifen Liu, Xiaopeng Wang, Hui Wang, Guoyi Lv, Yize Li, Hongmei Li
The interaction of remifentanil with glutamate systems has an important role in remifentanil-induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. A previous study by our group suggested that the trafficking and function of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunits contributes to remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia by regulating the phosphorylation of GluR1 in dorsal horn neurons. The present study demonstrated that δ opioid receptor (DOR) inhibition prevented thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, which was induced by remifentanil infusion via attenuating GluR1 subunit trafficking and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) function in dorsal horn neurons...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Gregorio Zuniga-Villanueva, Luis Sanchez-Espino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Bikramjit Das, Venkataseshan Sundaram, William Tarnow-Mordi, Alpana Ghadge, Lakhbir Kaur Dhaliwal, Praveen Kumar
OBJECTIVES: To compare effect of placental transfusion by delayed cord clamping (DCC) or cord milking (CM) with early cord clamping (ECC) on a composite of mortality or abnormal neurological status at 40 weeks' post-menstrual age (PMA) and 24-30 months' chronological age in neonates of 30-33 weeks' gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. OUTCOMES: A composite of mortality or abnormal neurological status at 40 weeks PMA and survival free of neurodevelopmental abnormalities at 24-30 months' chronological age...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Zhenmi Liu, Jo C Dumville, Gill Norman, Maggie J Westby, Jane Blazeby, Emma McFarlane, Nicky J Welton, Louise O'Connor, Julie Cawthorne, Ryan P George, Emma J Crosbie, Amber D Rithalia, Hung-Yuan Cheng
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) rates vary from 1% to 5% in the month following surgery. Due to the large number of surgical procedures conducted annually, the costs of these SSIs can be considerable in financial and social terms. Many interventions are used with the aim of reducing the risk of SSI in people undergoing surgery. These interventions can be broadly delivered at three stages: preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively. The intraoperative interventions are largely focused on decontamination of skin using soap and antiseptics; the use of barriers to prevent movement of micro-organisms into incisions; and optimising the patient's own bodily functions to promote best recovery...
February 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hasib Hanif, Luc Dubois, Maral Ouzounian, Mark D Peterson, Ismail El-Hamamsy, Francois Dagenais, Ansar Hassan, Michael W A Chu
BACKGROUND: Frozen elephant trunk (FET) surgery offers a new alternative in the management of complex thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparator observational studies evaluating the efficacy of FET compared with conventional aortic arch surgery, primarily focusing on mortality and stroke as well as the secondary outcomes of spinal cord ischemia, major bleeding, and operative time. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for trials and studies comparing the FET technique with conventional surgery in patients with aortic aneurysms or dissections, or both...
December 26, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
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