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Cord clamping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146456/is-more-always-better-how-different-doses-of-exercise-after-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-affects-the-membrane-properties-of-deep-dorsal-horn-interneurons
#1
M M Rank, M P Galea, R Callister, R J Callister
Interneurons in the deep dorsal horn (DDH) of the spinal cord process somatosensory input, and form an important link between upper and lower motoneurons to subsequently shape motor output. Exercise training after SCI is known to improve functional motor recovery, but little is known about the mechanisms within spinal cord neurons that underlie these improvements. Here we investigate how the properties of DDH interneurons are affected by spinal cord injury (SCI) alone, and SCI in combination with different 'doses' of treadmill exercise training (3, 6, and 9wks)...
November 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142093/developmental-changes-in-spinal-neuronal-properties-motor-network-configuration-and-neuromodulation-at-free-swimming-stages-of-xenopus-frog-tadpoles
#2
Stephen Paul Currie, Keith Thomas Sillar
We describe a novel preparation of the isolated brainstem and spinal cord from pro-metamorphic tadpole stages of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) that permits whole cell patch-clamp recordings from neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Previous research on earlier stages of the same species has provided one of the most detailed understandings of the design and operation of a CPG circuit. Here we have addressed how development sculpts complexity from this more basic circuit. The preparation generates bouts of fictive swimming activity either spontaneously or in response to electrical stimulation of the optic tectum, allowing an investigation into how the neuronal properties, activity patterns and neuromodulation of locomotor rhythm generation change during development...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122422/comparison-of-open-surgical-techniques-for-repair-of-types-iii-and-iv-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#3
Muhammad A Rana, Peter Gloviczki, Audra A Duncan, Manju Kalra, Kevin L Greason, Gustavo S Oderich, Stephen S Cha, Thomas C Bower
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare outcomes after repair of type III and type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) by three different open surgical techniques at a tertiary care institution. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent elective repair of type III and type IV TAAAs at our institution between 1999 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups according to surgical technique: clamp and sew (CS), left-sided heart bypass (LHB), and visceral branching (VB) followed by aortic reconstruction...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121952/association-between-oxidative-stress-and-cord-serum-lipids-in-relation-to-delayed-cord-clamping-in-term-neonates
#4
Asmaa N Moustafa, Mahmoud H Ibrahim, Suzan Omar Mousa, Ebtesam E Hassan, Hashem F Mohamed, Hend M Moness
BACKGROUND: Although delayed cord clamping (DCC) is a recent WHO recommendation, early cord clamping (ECC) is still a routine practice in many countries. Limited researches studied the effect of delayed cord clamping on oxidative stress in term neonates; In this study we aim to assess the influence of cord clamping either early or late on oxidative stress in term neonates and to evaluate the association of oxidative stress and cord blood lipids. METHODS: One-hundred mothers and their term neonates were included in the present study...
November 9, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101631/effect-of-placental-transfusion-on-iron-stores-in-moderately-preterm-neonates-of-30-33%C3%A2-weeks-gestation
#5
Bikramjit Das, Venkataseshan Sundaram, Praveen Kumar, William T Mordi, Lakhbir K Dhaliwal, Reena Das
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of placental transfusion by delayed cord clamping (DCC) of 60 s or cord milking (CM) on serum ferritin levels at hospital discharge and 3 mo of postmenstrual age (PMA) in preterm neonates of 30 to 33 wk gestation in comparison to early cord clamping (ECC) within 10 s. METHODS: This mixed longitudinal study was conducted in moderately preterm neonates of 30 to 33 wk gestation born in a level III unit in Northern India with the study sample nested within a randomized controlled trial on placental transfusion...
November 4, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097178/delayed-versus-early-umbilical-cord-clamping-for-preterm-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Michael Fogarty, David A Osborn, Lisa Askie, Anna Lene Seidler, Kylie Hunter, Kei Lui, John Simes, William Tarnow-Mordi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of delayed versus early cord clamping on hospital mortality (primary outcome) and morbidity in preterm infants using Cochrane Collaboration Neonatal Review Group methodology. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Chinese articles, cross-referencing citations, expert informants and trial registries to 31 July 2017. STUDY ELIGIBILITY: RCTs of delayed (≥ 30 seconds) vs early (<30 seconds) clamping in infants born <37 weeks gestation...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081267/delayed-versus-immediate-cord-clamping-in-preterm-infants
#7
William Tarnow-Mordi, Jonathan Morris, Adrienne Kirby, Kristy Robledo, Lisa Askie, Rebecca Brown, Nicholas Evans, Sarah Finlayson, Michael Fogarty, Val Gebski, Alpana Ghadge, Wendy Hague, David Isaacs, Michelle Jeffery, Anthony Keech, Martin Kluckow, Himanshu Popat, Lucille Sebastian, Kjersti Aagaard, Michael Belfort, Mohan Pammi, Mohamed Abdel-Latif, Graham Reynolds, Shabina Ariff, Lumaan Sheikh, Yan Chen, Paul Colditz, Helen Liley, Margo Pritchard, Daniele de Luca, Koert de Waal, Peta Forder, Lelia Duley, Walid El-Naggar, Andrew Gill, John Newnham, Karen Simmer, Katie Groom, Philip Weston, Joanna Gullam, Harshad Patel, Guan Koh, Kei Lui, Neil Marlow, Scott Morris, Arvind Sehgal, Euan Wallace, Roger Soll, Leslie Young, David Sweet, Susan Walker, Andrew Watkins, Ian Wright, David Osborn, John Simes
Background The preferred timing of umbilical-cord clamping in preterm infants is unclear. Methods We randomly assigned fetuses from women who were expected to deliver before 30 weeks of gestation to either immediate clamping of the umbilical cord (≤10 seconds after delivery) or delayed clamping (≥60 seconds after delivery). The primary composite outcome was death or major morbidity (defined as severe brain injury on postnatal ultrasonography, severe retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, or late-onset sepsis) by 36 weeks of postmenstrual age...
October 29, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046639/neonatal-colonic-inflammation-increases-spinal-transmission-and-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthetase-expression-in-spinal-dorsal-horn-of-rats-with-visceral-hypersensitivity
#8
Liting Zhao, Ying Xiao, Rui-Xia Weng, Xuelian Liu, Ping-An Zhang, Chuang-Ying Hu, Shan P Yu, Guang-Yin Xu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain and alteration of bowel movements. The pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS patients remains largely unknown. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is reported to play an important role in development of visceral hyperalgesia. However, the role of H2S at spinal dorsal horn level remains elusive in visceral hypersensitivity. The aim of this study is designed to investigate how H2S takes part in visceral hypersensitivity of adult rats with neonatal colonic inflammation (NCI)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042254/cardiac-sodium-channel-antagonism-translation-of-preclinical-in-vitro-assays-to-clinical-qrs-prolongation
#9
Stephen Jenkinson, Asser Bassyouni, Jason Cordes, Bernard Fermini, Donglin Guo, David M Potter, David S Ramirez, Jill Steidl-Nichols, Sunny Sun, Todd Wisialowski
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac sodium channel antagonists have historically been used to treat cardiac arrhythmias by preventing the reentry of the electrical impulse that could occur following myocardial damage. However, clinical studies have highlighted a significant increase in mortality associated with such treatment. Cardiac sodium channel antagonist activity is now seen as an off-target pharmacology that should be mitigated during the drug development process. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between in vitro/ex vivo assays that are routinely used to measure Nav1...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020828/timing-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-cesarean-section-retrospective-difference-in-differences-estimation-of-the-effect-on-surgical-site-infection
#10
Assaf Ben Shoham, Maskit Bar-Meir, Alexander Ioscovich, Arnon Samueloff, Yonit Wiener-Well
BACKGROUND: Cesarean section (CS) is one of the most common surgical procedures performed worldwide. Surgical-site-infection (SSI) occurs in approximately 5-10% of CS. The benefit of prophylactic antibiotics for prevention of SSI has been demonstrated in the literature. The optimal timing of antibiotic prophylaxis (prior to surgical incision versus after cord clamping) was investigated in recent studies. In January 2014, the Israeli Ministry of Health introduced a national quality measure which monitors the administration of prophylactic antibiotics in CS...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986465/dendritic-and-axonal-l-type-calcium-channels-cooperate-to-enhance-motoneuron-firing-output-during-drosophila-larval-locomotion
#11
Dimitrios Kadas, Aylin Klein, Niklas Krick, Jason W Worrell, Stefanie Ryglewski, Carsten Duch
Behaviorally adequate neuronal firing patterns are critically dependent on the specific types of ion channel expressed and on their subcellular localization. This study combines in situ electrophysiology with genetic and pharmacological intervention in larval Drosophila melanogaster of both sexes to address localization and function of L-type like calcium channels in motoneurons. We demonstrate that Dmca1D (Cav1 homolog) L-type like calcium channels localize to both, the somatodendritic and the axonal compartment of larval crawling motoneurons...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977379/single-centre-experience-with-the-frozen-elephant-trunk-technique-in-251-patients-over-15%C3%A2-years
#12
Malakh Shrestha, Andreas Martens, Tim Kaufeld, Erik Beckmann, Sebastian Bertele, Heike Krueger, Julia Neuser, Felix Fleissner, Fabio Ius, Firas Abd Alhadi, Jasmin Hanke, Jan D Schmitto, Serghei Cebotari, Matthias Karck, Axel Haverich, Ajay Chavan
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to present our 15-year experience (2001-2015) with the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique. METHODS: A total of 251 patients (82 with aortic aneurysms, 96 with acute aortic dissection type A, 4 with acute type B dissections, 52 with chronic aortic dissection type A, 17 with chronic type B dissection and 67 redo cases) underwent FET implantation with either the custom-made Chavan-Haverich (n = 66), the Jotec E-vita (n = 31) or the Vascutek Thoraflex hybrid (n = 154) prosthesis...
November 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974203/a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial-comparing-the-effects-of-the-prophylactic-antibiotic-cefazolin-administered-at-caesarean-delivery-at-two-different-timings-before-skin-incision-and-after-cord-clamping-on-both-the-mother-and-newborn
#13
Chinta Annie Jyothirmayi, Ajay Halder, Bijesh Yadav, Santosh Thomas Samuel, Anil Kuruvilla, Ruby Jose
BACKGROUND: Caesarean delivery (CD) increases the risk of postpartum infection by 5 to 20 fold. Prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) is the goal of antibiotic prophylaxis. This study was carried out to assess the optimum timing for prophylactic antibiotic administration and to assess the amount of the antibiotic crossing the placental barrier. METHODS: Eligible mothers were recruited, after informed consent, once the decision for CD was made. Each mother received two injections, one prior to skin incision and one after cord clamping, (one being the study drug Cefazolin, and the other, a placebo) based on the randomization code...
October 3, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969479/effects-and-safety-of-delayed-versus-early-umbilical-cord-clamping-in-newborns-of-hiv-infected-mothers
#14
L Pogliani, P Erba, P Nannini, V Giacomet, G V Zuccotti
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a 2 minutes-delayed cord clamp (DCC) versus early cord clamp (ECC) on neonate haemoglobin concentration 24 hours and 1 month after birth, and assess the safety of DCC concerning the risk of HIV infection. DESIGN: Sixty-four mother-infant peers were enrolled. All mothers were on stable ARV therapy. Viral load, CD4(+) count and blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations 24 hours before delivery were collected from all mothers and their infants...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966818/intraoperative-monitoring-for-spinal-radiculomedullary-artery-aneurysm-occlusion-treatment-what-when-and-how-long
#15
Federico Landriel, Matteo Baccanelli, Santiago Hem, Eduardo Vecchi, Mariana Bendersky, Claudio Yampolsky
BACKGROUND: Spinal radiculomedullary artery aneurysms are extremely rare. Treatment should be tailored to clinical presentation, distal aneurysm flow, and lesion anatomical features. When a surgical occlusion is planned, it is necessary to evaluate whether intraoperative monitoring (IOM) should be considered as an indispensable tool to prevent potential spinal cord ischemia. METHODS: We present a patient with symptoms and signs of spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from the rupture of a T4 anterior radiculomedullary aneurysm who underwent open surgical treatment under motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958092/the-effect-of-delayed-cord-clamping-on-moderate-and-early-late-preterm-infants
#16
Arpitha Chiruvolu, Huanying Qin, Elizabeth T Nguyen, Robert W Inzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953311/short-title-anaesthetic-mechanisms-in-the-cns-where-and-how-do-anaesthetics-act-mec
#17
Tomohiro Yamamoto, Ehrenfried Schindler
General anaesthesia is a balance of hypnosis, amnesia, analgesia, and immobility, including the inhibition of noxious autonomic reflexes. Local anaesthesia implements the latter two elements in a conscious patient. This review article discusses several important aspects of anaesthesia, beginning with basic concepts such as the minimum alveolar concentration and afterwards developing into a discussion about the mechanisms of action of anaesthetics on a cellular level, introducing electrophysiological investigations in the brain to study hypnosis and amnesia, in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to study analgesia and the inhibition of noxious reflexes, and in the ventral horn of the spinal cord to study immobility, separately...
September 27, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935349/spinal-ischemia-in-thoracic-aortic-procedures-impact-of-radiculomedullary-artery-distribution
#18
Fabian A Kari, Karin Wittmann, Sonja Krause, Babak Saravi, Luisa Puttfarcken, Katharina Förster, Bartosz Rylski, Sven Maier, Ulrich Göbel, Matthias Siepe, Martin Czerny, Friedhelm Beyersdorf
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of thoracic anterior radiculomedullary artery (tARMA) distribution on spinal cord perfusion in a thoracic aortic surgical model. METHODS: Twenty-six pigs (34 ± 3 kg; study group, n = 20; sham group, n = 6) underwent ligation of the left subclavian artery and thoracic segmental arteries. End points were spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP), regional spinal cord blood flow (SCBF), and neurologic outcome with an observation time of 3 hours...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931118/unpacking-the-enabling-factors-for-hand-cord-and-birth-surface-hygiene-in-zanzibar-maternity-units
#19
Giorgia Gon, Said M Ali, Catriona Towriss, Catherine Kahabuka, Ali O Ali, Sue Cavill, Mohammed Dahoma, Sally Faulkner, Haji S Haji, Ibrahim Kabole, Emma Morrison, Rukaiya M Said, Amour Tajo, Yael Velleman, Susannah L Woodd, And Wendy J Graham
Recent national surveys in The United Republic of Tanzania have revealed poor standards of hygiene at birth in facilities. As more women opt for institutional delivery, improving basic hygiene becomes an essential part of preventative strategies for reducing puerperal and newborn sepsis. Our collaborative research in Zanzibar provides an in-depth picture of the state of hygiene on maternity wards to inform action. Hygiene was assessed in 2014 across all 37 facilities with a maternity unit in Zanzibar. We used a mixed methods approach, including structured and semi-structured interviews, and environmental microbiology...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923985/randomised-trial-of-cord-clamping-and-initial-stabilisation-at-very-preterm-birth
#20
Lelia Duley, Jon Dorling, Angela Pushpa-Rajah, Sam J Oddie, Charles William Yoxall, Bernard Schoonakker, Lucy Bradshaw, Eleanor J Mitchell, Joe Anthony Fawke
OBJECTIVES: For very preterm births, to compare alternative policies for umbilical cord clamping and immediate neonatal care. DESIGN: Parallel group randomised (1:1) trial, using sealed opaque numbered envelopes. SETTING: Eight UK tertiary maternity units. PARTICIPANTS: 261 women expected to have a live birth before 32 weeks, and their 276 babies. INTERVENTIONS: Cord clamping after at least 2 min and immediate neonatal care with cord intact, or clamping within 20 s and immediate neonatal care after clamping...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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