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Pcp treatment in hiv

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324038/hospitalization-outcomes-in-pneumocystis-pneumonia-inpatient-population-a-comparison-between-hiv-and-non-hiv-patients
#1
Sorabh Datta, Shanan Mahal, Virendrasinh Ravat, Bipin Saroha, Ehinor E Isidahome, Priya Patel
Objective To evaluate the difference in hospitalization outcomes, including morbidity and mortality among patients admitted for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and non-HIV condition. Methods A case-control study was done using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data. We identified PCP and HIV as the primary and secondary diagnosis using ICD-9--CM diagnosis codes. We used the multinomial logistic regression model to generate odds ratios (OR)...
August 1, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30186757/-pneumocystis-jirovecii-carinii-pneumonia-causing-lung-cystic-lesions-and-pneumomediastinum-in-non-hiv-infected-patient
#2
Hazim S Bukamur, Emhemmid Karem, Serag Fares, Mohammed Al-Ourani, Amro Al-Astal
Pneumomediastinum is a rare, potentially life-threatening complication of PCP that occurs in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. We are presenting a rare case pneumomediastinum caused by pneumocystis Jirovecii pneumonia in a HIV-negative patient with history of diffuse B-cell lymphoma on R CHOP chemotherapy. What is unique about our case is that the patient developed pneumomediastinum while in the hospital, on atovaquone that improved when switched to clindamycin and primaquine with improvement in her respiratory status...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175036/simultaneous-bilateral-pneumothorax-in-an-immunocompromised-hiv-patient-with-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia
#3
Cristina Matesanz López, Andrés Felipe Cardona Arias, María Teresa Río Ramírez, Gonzalo Díaz Ibero, Sergio Julio Rodríguez Álvarez, María Antonia Juretschke Moragues
Pneumocystis in humans is caused by a unicellular and eukaryotic organism called P. jirovecii . The overall incidence of P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) has decreased with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy and the use of chemoprophylaxis with trimethroprim sulfametoxazole (TMP/SMX) in cases of immunosuppressed patients. However, approximately 85% of patients with advanced HIV infections continue to experience this disease with inadequate management. Pneumocystis infection can present with spontaneous pneumothorax in 2-6% of cases [8] which can be a potentially fatal complication...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087316/pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-and-newly-diagnosed-human-immunodeficiency-virus-aids-in-a-63-year-old-woman
#4
Wissam Sabbagh, Noor S Darwich
BACKGROUND Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) - formerly known as Pneumocyctis carinii pneumonia - with newly diagnosed AIDS is an uncommon presentation in people over 50 years of age. A high level of suspicion is required for this diagnosis when an elderly patient with pneumonia is not responding to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. CASE REPORT We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea, cough, and significant hypoxemia requiring high-flow oxygen supplement with bilateral lung infiltrates, treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for a presumed diagnosis of pneumonia...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972334/rapid-glucocorticoid-tapering-therapy-to-reduce-mortality-from-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-rheumatic-disease
#5
Taiki Ando, Yoshiyuki Abe, Yukari Endo, Kurisu Tada, Ken Yamaji, Naoto Tamura
OBJECTIVE: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a serious complication in patients with rheumatic diseases who are receiving immunosuppressive therapy. These patients have a higher mortality from PCP than those with human immunodeficiency virus. We examined factors associated with poor prognosis in patients with rheumatic diseases and evaluated PCP treatment in this population. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center, observational cohort study included 31 patients with rheumatic diseases who were admitted to Juntendo University Hospital for PCP treatment from June 2006 to December 2017...
August 13, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779813/negative-role-of-malnutrition-in-cell-mediated-immune-response-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-pcp-in-a-severely-malnourished-hiv-negative-patient-with-anorexia-nervosa
#6
Mouna Hanachi, Vanessa Bohem, Pauline Bemer, Nadja Kayser, Pierre de Truchis, Jean-Claude Melchior
It is generally acknowledged that malnutrition is a propensity factor for secondary infections in different clinical situations (malnutrition-associated infections in hospitalized patients and malnourished children in developing countries). However, it is not clear how malnutrition might facilitate the development of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients without a definite etiology (disease or treatment) of impaired cell-mediated immune response. We report here on a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an HIV-negative patient suffering from anorexia nervosa with extreme malnutrition, which had a favorable outcome despite the severity of her respiratory failure...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705221/early-corticosteroids-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-adults-without-hiv-are-not-associated-with-better-outcome
#7
Patrick M Wieruszewski, Jason N Barreto, Erin Frazee, Craig E Daniels, Pritish K Tosh, Ross A Dierkhising, Kristin C Mara, Andrew H Limper
BACKGROUND: Evidence supporting adjunctive corticosteroids during the treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) in adults without HIV is minimal and controversial. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included P jirovecii pneumonia-positive, hospitalized patients without HIV admitted to the Mayo Clinic from 2006 to 2016. Change from baseline in the respiratory component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFAresp ) at day 5 was compared between early (within 48 h) steroid recipients and nonrecipients by using multivariable logistic regression and in a propensity-matched analysis...
September 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562712/estimation-of-the-burden-of-serious-human-fungal-infections-in-malaysia
#8
Rukumani Devi Velayuthan, Chandramathi Samudi, Harvinder Kaur Lakhbeer Singh, Kee Peng Ng, Esaki M Shankar, David W Denning
Fungal infections (mycoses) are likely to occur more frequently as ever-increasingly sophisticated healthcare systems create greater risk factors. There is a paucity of systematic data on the incidence and prevalence of human fungal infections in Malaysia. We conducted a comprehensive study to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Malaysia. Our study showed that recurrent vaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) was the most common of all cases with a diagnosis of candidiasis ( n = 501,138). Oesophageal candidiasis ( n = 5850) was most predominant among individuals with HIV infection...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503291/diagnosis-and-management-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-resource-poor-settings
#9
Rita O Oladele, Akaninyene A Otu, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
Globally, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a common and lethal infection in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, particularly in developing countries where rates of PCP increases with rising GDP. Pneumocystis jirovecii cannot be cultured in routine clinical laboratories; thus diagnosis relies on microscopy, histology, serology and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the Pneumocystis DNA. Most of these methods are expensive and require training. Accessing lower respiratory tract specimens in young children is often challenging and only PCR testing of nasopharyngeal aspirates is useful...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399131/efficacy-of-caspofungin-combined-with-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-as-first-line-therapy-to-treat-non-hiv-patients-with-severe-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#10
Gensheng Zhang, Miaomiao Chen, Shufang Zhang, Hongwei Zhou, Xiaozhen Ji, Jiachang Cai, Tianzheng Lou, Wei Cui, Ning Zhang
Combined treatment with caspofungin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) as salvage therapy in non-HIV positive patients with severe pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) yields poor outcomes. It remains unknown whether the use of this combination strategy as a first-line therapy would improve patient outcomes. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of caspofungin combined with TMP/SMZ as a first-line therapy in non-HIV positive patients with severe PCP. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between March 2016 and February 2017...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138020/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-congenital-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-resulting-in-intracranial-hemorrhage
#11
Junko Yamanaka, Ikuma Nozaki, Mizue Tanaka, Hideko Uryuu, Noriko Sato, Takeji Matsushita, Hiroyuki Shichino
In the era of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affected children can expect a better prognosis, the importance of careful follow up of pediatric HIV-1 cases for neurological complications has been growing. We present a case of hemorrhagic Moyamoya syndrome in a child with congenital HIV-1 infection. A 10-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for the treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia). Her HIV-1 control was poor and Moyamoya syndrome was found during the opportunistic infection screening at admission...
March 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957610/comparative-efficiency-of-application-of-different-therapeutic-schemes-for-post-contact-prevention-of-hiv-infection-in-health-providers
#12
N N Vorob'eva, E S Ivanova, N N Krasnoperova, M A Okishev
AIM: Comparative assessment of the efficiency of application of different therapeutic schemes for post-contact prevention (PCP) of HIV infection in health providers. METHODS: Medical personnel that had professional contacts with HIV-infected patients (n=44) were given medications for PCP. 19 of them (group 1) used phosphazide, 25 (group 2) combivir (lamivudine + zidovudine) in combination with kaletra for 4 weeks after the contact. Phosphazide (AZT Farma K.B., Russia) was used at a dose of 0...
2016: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938676/risk-factors-for-mortality-from-pneumocystis-carinii-pneumonia-pcp-in-non-hiv-patients-a-meta-analysis
#13
Yao Liu, Lili Su, Shu-Juan Jiang, Hui Qu
The number of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. A total of 13 studies including 867 patients with non-HIV related PCP was included. The overall mortality for non-HIV patients with PCP was 30.6%. The most common underlying disorder for the development of PCP is hematological malignancies (29...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893787/a-four-center-retrospective-study-of-the-efficacy-and-toxicity-of-low-dose-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-for-the-treatment-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-without-hiv-infection
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Makoto Kosaka, Atsuhito Ushiki, Yuichi Ikuyama, Kazuya Hirai, Akemi Matsuo, Tsutomu Hachiya, Masayuki Hanaoka
The dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for the treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been verified. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of a low-dose TMP-SMX regimen in such patients. A retrospective study was conducted in four hospitals. We reviewed the medical records of patients with PCP but not HIV (non-HIV-PCP) who were treated with TMP-SMX between 2003 and 2016. The patients were divided into conventional-dose (TMP, 15 to 20 mg/kg/day) and low-dose (TMP, <15 mg/kg/day) groups after patients who received high-dose (TMP, >20 mg/kg/day) treatment were excluded...
December 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779879/low-dose-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-treatment-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-non-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-immunocompromised-patients-a-single-center-retrospective-observational-cohort-study
#15
Kei Nakashima, Masahiro Aoshima, Tamao Nakashita, Masahiko Hara, Ayumu Otsuki, Satoshi Noma, Masafumi Misawa, Yoshihito Otsuka, Shinji Motojima
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The efficacy of low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) may be acceptable for the treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, with a low incidence of adverse reactions. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of such a regimen for the treatment of non-HIV PCP. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 24 consecutive patients diagnosed with non-HIV PCP who were treated with low-dose TMP-SMX (TMP, 4-10 mg/kg/day; SMX, 20-50 mg/kg/day)...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660636/pulmonary-co-infections-by-pneumocystis-jirovecii-and-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-non-hiv-patients-a-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Anthi-Marina Markantonatou, Aliki Ioakimidou, Kostoula Arvaniti, Eleni Manou, Vassilios Papadopoulos, Parthena Kiriklidou, Konstantinos Samaras, Anna Kioumi, Timoleon-Achilleas Vyzantiadis
Pneumocystis jirovecii is the causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP), a common and often life-threatening opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. However, non-HIV, immunocompromised patients are at risk of PcP as well, whereas the mortality appears to be higher among these patients. Pneumocystis co-infections with other microorganisms are less frequent and only sparse reports of combined PcP and invasive pulmonary fungal infections exist in the literature, especially in the non-HIV patients...
October 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606284/-efficacy-of-clindamycin-primaquine-as-the-salvage-treatment-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-non-hiv-infected-patients
#17
X Wang, G F Wang, Z Jin, J J Huang, X D Mu, W Zhang
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of clindamycin-primaquine as the salvage treatment for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV-infected patients. Methods: Clinical data of non-HIV-infected patients with PCP who were treated with clindamycin-primaquine as the salvage treatment in Peking University First Hospital from Jan 2010 to May 2016 were collected and reviewed in this retrospective study. Clinical outcomes were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of clindamycin-primaquine as a salvage treatment. Results: A total of 19 non-HIV-infected patients with PCP were included...
June 13, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506688/human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-fungal-infections
#18
REVIEW
Jeannette Guarner
The discovery of HIV was largely due to the presence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in young patients that did not have the usual known causes of immune deficiencies in the early 1980s. Currently, treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and the use of prophylaxis for PCP have lowered the frequency of fungal infections; however, these infections continue to cause morbidity and mortality in those patients that fall out or are not in care. The frequency of specific fungal diseases in HIV patients will depend on the prevalence of fungi in the particular geographic location...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361121/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-data-behind-current-recommendations-for-corticosteroids-in-non-hiv-related-pcp-knowing-when-you-are-on-shaky-foundations
#19
Patil Injean, Samantha J Eells, Hoover Wu, Imani McElroy, Aric L Gregson, James A McKinnell
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials show a mortality benefit to adjunctive corticosteroids for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (HIV-PCP). Guidelines for non-HIV PCP (NH-PCP) recommend adjunctive corticosteroids based on expert opinion. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis characterizing adjunctive corticosteroids for NH-PCP. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE from 1966 through 2015. Data on clinical outcomes from NH-PCP were extracted with a standardized instrument...
March 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303545/low-prevalence-of-dhfr-and-dhps-mutations-in-pneumocystis-jirovecii-strains-obtained-from-a-german-cohort
#20
Isabelle Suárez, Lisa Roderus, Edeltraud van Gumpel, Norma Jung, Clara Lehmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Pia Hartmann, Georg Plum, Jan Rybniker
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic and potentially life-threatening infection of immunocompromised individuals. A combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is widely used for prophylaxis and treatment of PCP. Polymorphisms in the drug targets, the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) or the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are presumably a reason for treatment failure. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the prevalence of DHPS and DHFR mutations in Pneumocystis jirovecii isolates obtained from HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected PCP patients...
June 2017: Infection
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