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Thomas Nury, Randa Sghaier, Amira Zarrouk, Franck Ménétrier, Tugba Uzun, Valerio Leoni, Claudio Caccia, Wiem Meddeb, Amira Namsi, Khouloud Sassi, Wafa Mihoubi, Jean-Marc Riedinger, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Thibault Moreau, Anne Vejux, Gérard Lizard
The involvement of organelles in cell death is well established especially for endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and mitochondria. However, the role of the peroxisome is not well known, though peroxisomal dysfunction favors a rupture of redox equilibrium. To study the role of peroxisomes in cell death, 158 N murine oligodendrocytes were treated with 7-ketocholesterol (7 KC: 25-50 μM, 24 h). The highest concentration is known to induce oxiapoptophagy (OXIdative stress + APOPTOsis + autoPHAGY), whereas the lowest concentration does not induce cell death...
July 19, 2018: Biochimie
Iuliana Popa, Adrian L Watson, Audrey Solgadi, Christina Butowski, David Allaway, Jacques Portoukalian
Few studies have investigated the influence of increased amounts of dietary linoleic acid on the epidermal lipid biochemistry and TEWL in healthy subject. The influence of dietary linoleic acid on canine stratum corneum (SC) lipids was studied by feeding two groups of five dogs differential amounts of linoleic acid (LA) for three months. SC was harvested by tape stripping and lipids were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry. The dogs that were fed the higher concentration of LA showed high increases in the contents of both linoleic acid and free ceramides in the SC, whereas the protein-bound ceramide content was unchanged...
July 11, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Julia Sellin, Christian Wingen, Dominic Gosejacob, Deniz Senyilmaz, Lea Hänschke, Sven Büttner, Katharina Meyer, Daniele Bano, Pierluigi Nicotera, Aurelio A Teleman, Margret H Bülow
Mutations in peroxin (PEX) genes lead to loss of peroxisomes, resulting in the formation of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs) and early lethality. Studying PBDs and their animal models has greatly contributed to our current knowledge about peroxisomal functions. Very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) accumulation has long been suggested as a major disease-mediating factor, although the exact pathological consequences are unclear. Here, we show that a Drosophila Pex19 mutant is lethal due to a deficit in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)...
June 2018: PLoS Biology
Naiyanate Jaroensanti-Tanaka, Sho Miyazaki, Akito Hosoi, Keisuke Tanaka, Shinsaku Ito, Satoshi Iuchi, Takeshi Nakano, Masatomo Kobayashi, Masatoshi Nakajima, Tadao Asami
We previously found a chemical, designated as NJ15, which inhibited both auxin and brassinosteroid responses in dark-grown Arabidopsis. To study its mode of action, we performed a phenotypic screening of NJ15-low-sensitive lines among mutant pools of Arabidopsis. One line (f127) showed clear NJ15-low-sensitivity in terms of hypocotyl elongation and shoot gravitropism. After further testing, it was determined that DCR, an enzyme involved in cutin polymerization, had lost its function in the mutant, which caused its low sensitivity to NJ15...
June 18, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ruth Campe, Eva Hollenbach, Lara Kämmerer, Janneke Hendriks, Hans Wolfgang Höffken, Helmut Kraus, Jens Lerchl, Thomas Mietzner, Stefan Tresch, Matthias Witschel, Johannes Hutzler
The prevalent occurrence of herbicide resistant weeds increases the necessity for new site of action herbicides for effective control as well as to relax selection pressure on the known sites of action. As a consequence, interest increased in the unexploited molecule cinmethylin as a new solution for the control of weedy grasses in cereals. Therefore, the mechanism of action of cinmethylin was reevaluated. We applied the chemoproteomic approach cellular Target Profiling™ from Evotec to identify the cinmethylin target in Lemna paucicostata protein extracts...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jin-Sung Park, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Vacuolar myelopathy is one of most common cause of spastic paresis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which is a metabolic disorder caused by impairment of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), also manifests as various neurological deteriorations including adult onset spastic paraparesis. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of newly developed spastic paresis due to X-ALD in a patient with HIV infection...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hannah B Gordon, Lourdes Valdez, Anthea Letsou
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting brain white matter. The most common form of ALD is X-linked (X-ALD) and results from mutation of the ABCD1 -encoded very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) transporter. X-ALD is clinically heterogeneous, with the cerebral form being the most severe. Diagnosed in boys usually between the ages of 4 and 8 years, cerebral X-ALD symptoms progress rapidly (in as little as 2 years) through declines in cognition, learning and behavior, to paralysis and ultimately to a vegetative state and death...
June 15, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Kaho Mabuchi, Hiromasa Maki, Tomotaka Itaya, Takamasa Suzuki, Mika Nomoto, Satomi Sakaoka, Atsushi Morikami, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Yasuomi Tada, Wolfgang Busch, Hironaka Tsukagoshi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be important signal molecules that are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as in growth regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ROS act as a growth regulator, as well as how ROS-dependent growth regulation relates to its roles in stress responses, are not well understood. We performed a time-course microarray analysis of Arabidopsis root tips upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide, which we named "ROS-map." Using the ROS-map, we identified an MYB transcription factor, MYB30, which showed a strong response to ROS treatment and is the key regulator of a gene network that leads to the hydrogen peroxide-dependent inhibition of root cell elongation...
May 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Swati Singh, Sandip Das, R Geeta
Novel morphological structures allowed adaptation to dry conditions in early land plants. The cuticle, one such novelty, plays diverse roles in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses and plant development. Cuticular waxes represent a major constituent of the cuticle and are comprised of an assortment of chemicals that include, among others, very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Members of the β-ketoacyl coenzyme A synthases (KCS) gene family code for enzymes that are essential for fatty acid biosynthesis...
September 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Weidong Zuo, Chunlin Li, Yue Luan, Hao Zhang, Xiaoling Tong, Minjin Han, Rui Gao, Hai Hu, Jiangbo Song, Fangyin Dai, Cheng Lu
Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), such as sphingolipids, are components of cellular lipids, which are essential for cell proliferation. Mutations in the genes that encode proteins participating in VLCFA biosynthesis may cause inherited diseases, such as macular degeneration. Elongases of very long chain fatty acid (ELOVL) are enzymes that are involved in the biosynthesis of VLCFAs. Here, a total of 13 ELOVL genes, distributed across three chromosomes, were identified in the silkworm genome; all the ELOVL members contain a distinct ELO domain and a conserved HXXHH motif...
March 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Anna Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Małgorzata Rydzanicz, Aleksander Chlebowski, Kamila Kłosowska-Kosicka, Adriana Mika, Jakub Gruchota, Elżbieta Jurkiewicz, Cezary Kowalewski, Agnieszka Pollak, Teresa Joanna Stradomska, Tomasz Kmieć, Rafał Jakubowski, Piotr Gasperowicz, Anna Walczak, Dariusz Śladowski, Ewa Jankowska-Steifer, Lech Korniszewski, Joanna Kosińska, Ewa Obersztyn, Wieslaw Nowak, Tomasz Śledziński, Andrzej Dziembowski, Rafał Płoski
BACKGROUND: Ichthyosis and neurological involvement occur in relatively few known Mendelian disorders caused by mutations in genes relevant both for epidermis and neural function. OBJECTIVES: To identify the cause of a similar phenotype of ichthyotic keratoderma, spasticity, mild hypomyelination (on MRI) and dysmorphic features (IKSHD) observed in two unrelated paediatric probands without family history of disease. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed in both patients...
June 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Kotaro Hama, Yuko Fujiwara, Masashi Morita, Fumiyoshi Yamazaki, Yuko Nakashima, Shiro Takei, Shigeo Takashima, Mitsutoshi Setou, Nobuyuki Shimozawa, Tsuneo Imanaka, Kazuaki Yokoyama
ABCD1 is a gene responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), and is critical for the transport of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into peroxisomes and subsequent β-oxidation. VLCFA-containing lipids accumulate in X-ALD patients, although the effect of ABCD1-deficiency on each lipid species in the central nervous system has not been fully characterized. In this study, each phospholipid and lysophospholipid species in Abcd1-deficient mice brains were profiled by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
January 2018: Lipids
Qiao Wang, Xiuxiu Du, Ke Ma, Ping Shi, Wenbin Liu, Jing Sun, Min Peng, Zhiwei Huang
Elongases FEN1/ELO2 and SUR4/ELO3 are important enzymes involved in the elongation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular mechanism of the involvement of these elongases in lipotoxicity is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of VLCFA elongases in oleic acid-mediated yeast cytotoxicity. The spot test showed that yeast strains with the deletion of ELO2 or ELO3 were strikingly sensitive to oleic acid, while there was no change on the growth of strain with deleted ELO1 which was involved in the elongation of C14 fatty acid (FA) to C16 FA...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Margret H Bülow, Christian Wingen, Deniz Senyilmaz, Dominic Gosejacob, Mariangela Sociale, Reinhard Bauer, Heike Schulze, Konrad Sandhoff, Aurelio A Teleman, Michael Hoch, Julia Sellin
Inherited peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs) are characterized by the absence of functional peroxisomes. They are caused by mutations of peroxisomal biogenesis factors encoded by Pex genes, and result in childhood lethality. Owing to the many metabolic functions fulfilled by peroxisomes, PBD pathology is complex and incompletely understood. Besides accumulation of peroxisomal educts (like very-long-chain fatty acids [VLCFAs] or branched-chain fatty acids) and lack of products (like bile acids or plasmalogens), many peroxisomal defects lead to detrimental mitochondrial abnormalities for unknown reasons...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Yasunori Ichihashi, Miyako Kusano, Makoto Kobayashi, Kenji Suetsugu, Satoko Yoshida, Takanori Wakatake, Kie Kumaishi, Arisa Shibata, Kazuki Saito, Ken Shirasu
Most plants show remarkable developmental plasticity in the generation of diverse types of new organs upon external stimuli, allowing them to adapt to their environment. Haustorial formation in parasitic plants is an example of such developmental reprogramming, but its molecular mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we performed field-omics using transcriptomics and metabolomics to profile the molecular switch occurring in haustorial formation of the root parasitic plant, Thesium chinense, collected from its natural habitat...
April 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Irene C Huffnagel, Malu-Clair van de Beek, Amanda L Showers, Joseph J Orsini, Femke C C Klouwer, Inge M E Dijkstra, Peter C Schielen, Henk van Lenthe, Ronald J A Wanders, Frédéric M Vaz, Mark A Morrissey, Marc Engelen, Stephan Kemp
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is the most common leukodystrophy with a birth incidence of 1:14,700 live births. The disease is caused by mutations in ABCD1 and characterized by very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) accumulation. In childhood, male patients are at high-risk to develop adrenal insufficiency and/or cerebral demyelination. Timely diagnosis is essential. Untreated adrenal insufficiency can be life-threatening and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative for cerebral ALD provided the procedure is performed in an early stage of the disease...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Jinsoo Song, Yeon-Ho Kang, Sik Yoon, Churl-Hong Chun, Eun-Jung Jin
The functional role(s) of peroxisomes in osteoarthritis remains unclear. We demonstrated that peroxisomal dysfunction in osteoarthritis is responsible for very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) accumulation. Through gene-profiling analyses, we identified CRAT as the gene responsible for this event. CRAT expression was suppressed in osteoarthritis chondrocytes, and its knockdown yielded pathological osteoarthritic characteristics, including VLCFA accumulation, apoptosis, autophagic inhibition, and mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
Nicolas Busset, Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Angelo Palmigiano, Luisa Sturiale, Frederic Gressent, Joël Fardoux, Djamel Gully, Clémence Chaintreuil, Antonio Molinaro, Alba Silipo, Eric Giraud
In rhizobium strains, the lipid A is modified by the addition of a very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) shown to play an important role in rigidification of the outer membrane, thereby facilitating their dual life cycle, outside and inside the plant. In Bradyrhizobium strains, the lipid A is more complex with the presence of at least two VLCFAs, one covalently linked to a hopanoid molecule, but the importance of these modifications is not well-understood. In this study, we identified a cluster of VLCFA genes in the photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium strain ORS278, which nodulates Aeschynomene plants in a Nod factor-independent process...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Julian Curiel, Steven Jeffrey Steinberg, Sarah Bright, Ann Snowden, Ann B Moser, Florian Eichler, Holly A Dubbs, Joseph G Hacia, John J Ely, Jocelyn Bezner, Alisa Gean, Adeline Vanderver
BACKGROUND: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder leading to the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) due to a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. ABCD1 mutations lead to a variety of phenotypes, including cerebral X-ALD and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) in affected males and 80% of carrier females. There is no definite genotype-phenotype correlation with intrafamilial variability. Cerebral X-ALD typically presents in childhood, but can also present in juveniles and adults...
November 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Lauren R Strachan, Tamara J Stevenson, Briana Freshner, Matthew D Keefe, D Miranda Bowles, Joshua L Bonkowsky
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by defects in the ABCD1 gene and affecting peripheral and central nervous system myelin. ABCD1 encodes a peroxisomal transmembrane protein required for very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) metabolism. We show that zebrafish (Danio rerio) Abcd1 is highly conserved at the amino acid level with human ABCD1, and during development is expressed in homologous regions including the central nervous system and adrenal glands...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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