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Marrow adipose

Jaewoo Pak, Jung Hun Lee, Natalie Jieun Pak, Kwang Seung Park, Jeong Ho Jeon, Byeong Chul Jeong, Sang Hee Lee
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common debilitating disorders. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to improve the functions of the knees by using different forms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In Korea, bone marrow concentrates and cord blood-derived stem cells have been approved by the Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) for cartilage regeneration. In addition, an adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) has been allowed by the KFDA for joint injections in human patients...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Edwin E Reza-Zaldivar, Mercedes A Hernández-Sapiéns, Benito Minjarez, Yanet K Gutiérrez-Mercado, Ana L Márquez-Aguirre, Alejandro A Canales-Aguirre
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia affecting regions of the central nervous system that exhibit synaptic plasticity and are involved in higher brain functions such as learning and memory. AD is characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction, memory loss and behavioral disturbances of synaptic plasticity and energy metabolism. Cell therapy has emerged as an alternative treatment of AD. The use of adult stem cells, such as neural stem cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) from bone marrow and adipose tissue, have the potential to decrease cognitive deficits, possibly by reducing neuronal loss through blocking apoptosis, increasing neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Manabu Tsukamoto, Ke-Yong Wang, Takashi Tasaki, Yoichi Murata, Yasuaki Okada, Yoshiaki Yamanaka, Eiichiro Nakamura, Sohsuke Yamada, Hiroto Izumi, Qian Zhou, Kagaku Azuma, Yasuyuki Sasaguri, Kimitoshi Kohno, Akinori Sakai
Wnt10a is a member of the WNT family. Although deficiency of this gene causes symptoms related to teeth, hair, nails, and skin, we recently demonstrated a new phenotype of Wnt10a knockout (KO) mice involving bone and fat. The in vivo effect of the Wnt10a gene on bone and fat is unclear, and the relationship between bone/fat and muscle in Wnt10a signaling is also interesting. We aimed to evaluate the tissue changes in Wnt10a KO mice compared to wild-type mice and show the findings as a starting point to unravel the underlying mechanisms of in vivo interactions involving Wnt10a in bone, fat and muscle...
October 10, 2018: Bone
A Martin-Pena, R M Porter, G Plumton, T M McCarrel, A J Morton, M V Guijarro, S C Ghivizzani, B Sharma, G D Palmer
Successful clinical translation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies for cartilage repair will likely require the implementation of standardised protocols and broadly applicable tools to facilitate the comparisons among cell types and chondroinduction methods. The present study investigated the utility of recombinant lentiviral reporter vectors as reliable tools for comparing chondrogenic potential among primary cell populations and distinguishing cellular-level variations of chondrogenic activity in widely used three-dimensional (3D) culture systems...
October 12, 2018: European Cells & Materials
Xu Li, Mingjie Wang, Xiaoguang Jing, Weimin Guo, Chunxiang Hao, Yu Zhang, Shuang Gao, Mingxue Chen, Zengzeng Zhang, Xueliang Zhang, Shi Shen, Bin Zhang, Hai Xian, Zehao Wang, Yu Wang, Xiang Sui, Aiyuan Wang, Jiang Peng, Shibi Lu, Shuyun Liu, Quanyi Guo
Articular cartilage defects have very limited self-repair potential, and traditional bone marrow-stimulating therapy is not effective. Cartilage tissue engineering using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) is considered an attractive treatment for cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. However, studies proved that both BMSCs and ADSCs have their own advantages and shortcomings, including their sources, isolation methods, characterizations and differentiation potential...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Radoslaw Litwinowicz, Bogusław Kapelak, Jerzy Sadowski, Anna Kędziora, Krzysztof Bartus
Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of death and disabilities worldwide. Unfortunately, not all patients are suitable for direct revascularization. Cell-based therapies may be alternative options because of their potential to promote neovascularisation and endothelial repair, improving myocardial perfusion. The success of cell-based therapies depends on the type of implanted stem cells, delivery method and underlying disease. Several different cell populations including bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs), mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), CD34+, CD133+, endothelial progenitor cells, adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) and stem cells from placenta and umbilical cord have been investigated...
September 2018: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Li Hu, Fengli He, Melfeng Huang, Melhua Peng, Zhiguang Zhou, Feng Liu, Yan-Shan Dai
Nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) c3 have a prominent role in the regulation of proinflammatory factors in immune cells. The classically activated M1 macrophages are key players in the initiation and maintenance of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. The role of NFATc3 in obesity and AT inflammation is unknown. We set out to determine how deficiency of NFATc3 effected macrophage polarization, inflammation and insulin resistance in visceral AT of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Nfatc3−/− and WT mice were fed a HFD for 8–17 weeks...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Tareck Rharass, Stéphanie Lucas
Bone marrow adipocytes (BMA-) constitute an original and heterogeneous fat depot whose development appears interlinked with bone status throughout life. The gradual replacement of the haematopoietic tissue by BMA arises in a well-ordered way during childhood and adolescence concomitantly to bone growth and continues at a slower rate throughout the adult life. Importantly, BM adiposity quantity is found well associated with bone mineral density (BMD) loss at different skeletal sites in primary osteoporosis such as in ageing or menopause but also in secondary osteoporosis consecutive to anorexia nervosa...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Rebecca L McCullough, Megan R McMullen, Kyle L Poulsen, Adam Kim, M Edward Medof, Laura E Nagy
Background and aims: Chronic ethanol exposure results in inflammation in adipose tissue; this response is associated with activation of complement as well as the development of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). Adipose communicates with other organs, including liver, via the release of soluble mediators, such as adipokines and cytokines, characterized as the "adipose secretome." Here we investigated the role of the anaphaylatoxin receptors C3aR and C5aR1 in the development of adipose tissue inflammation and regulation of the adipose secretome in murine ALD (mALD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tao He, Yijiang Huang, Juy Chi Chak, Roland Manfred Klar
Autogenous tissue grafting remains the gold standard in the treatment of critical sized bone and certain cartilage defects, while the translation of tissue engineered osteogenesis or chondrogenesis from the lab bench into clinical practice, utilizing natural or synthetic biomimetic devices, remains challenging. One of the crucial underestimated reasons for non-translatability could be the imprecision and inconsistency of generated gene expression profiles, utilizing improperly optimized and standardized quantitative gene assays...
October 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hannara Park, Jin Soo Kim, Eun Jung Oh, Tae Jung Kim, Hyun Mi Kim, Jin Hyung Shim, Won Soo Yoon, Jung Bo Huh, Sung Hwan Moon, Seong Soo Kang, Ho Yun Chung
BACKGROUND: Autogenous bone grafts have several limitations including donor-site problems and insufficient bone volume. To address these limitations, research on bone regeneration is being conducted actively. In this study, we investigate the effects of a three-dimensionally (3D) printed polycaprolactone (PCL)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffold on the osteogenic differentiation potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs). METHODS: We investigated the extent of osteogenic differentiation on the first and tenth day and fourth week after cell culture...
September 2018: Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
Endong Zhu, Juanjuan Zhang, Yachong Li, Hairui Yuan, Jie Zhou, Baoli Wang
Detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling adipogenesis is of great importance to identify new targets for treating obesity. Emerging evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play a pivotal role in adipogenesis. Here, we have identified a novel lncRNA, Plnc1, which is transcribed from a position ∼25,000 bp upstream of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 ( PPAR-γ2) gene. Plnc1 is abundantly expressed in adipose tissue, and obese mice have higher Plnc1 expression in adipose tissue than nonobese mice...
October 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Nala Shologu, Michael Scully, John G Laffey, Daniel O'Toole
: Alveolar epithelial dysfunction induced by hypoxic stress plays a significant role in the pathological process of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies have demonstrated efficacy in exerting protective immunomodulatory effects, thereby reducing airway inflammation in several pulmonary diseases. AIM: This study assesses the protective effects of MSC secretome from different cell sources, human bone marrow (BMSC) and adipose tissue (ADSC), in attenuating hypoxia-induced cellular stress and inflammation in pulmonary epithelial cells...
September 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yusuke Nomura, Chie Fukui, Yuki Morishita, Yuji Haishima
Introduction: Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widespread in adult organisms and are implicated in tissue maintenance and repair, regulation of hematopoiesis, and immunologic responses. Human (h)MSCs have applications in tissue engineering, cell-based therapy, and medical devices but it is unclear how they respond to unfavorable conditions, such as hypoxia or inflammation after transplantation in vivo . Although endotoxin testing is required for evaluating the quality and safety of transplanted MSCs, no reports on their dose response to endotoxins are available to establish the limits for in vitro MSC culture systems...
June 2018: Regenerative Therapy
Yusuke Nomura, Chie Fukui, Yuki Morishita, Yuji Haishima
Introduction: Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widespread in adult organisms and are implicated in tissue maintenance and repair, regulation of hematopoiesis, and immunologic responses. Human (h)MSCs have applications in tissue engineering, cell-based therapy, and medical devices but it is unclear how they respond to unfavorable conditions such as hypoxia or inflammation after in vivo transplantation. Although endotoxin testing is a requirement for evaluating the quality and safety of transplanted MSCs, there have been no reports on the dose response to endotoxins to establish limits for in vitro MSC culture systems...
December 2017: Regenerative Therapy
Ian C McCabe, Alyssa Fedorko, Martin G Myers, Gina Leinninger, Erica Scheller, Laura R McCabe
Leptin, a hormone primarily produced by adipocytes, contributes to the regulation of bone health by modulating bone density, growth and adiposity. Upon leptin binding, multiple sites of the long form of the leptin receptor (LepRb) are phosphorylated to trigger activation of downstream signaling pathways. To address the role of LepRb-signaling pathways in bone health, we compared the effects of three LepRb mutations on bone density, adiposity, and growth in male and female mice. The ∆65 mutation, which lacks the known tyrosine phosphorylation sites, caused obesity and the most dramatic bone phenotype marked by excessive bone adiposity, osteoporosis, and decreased growth, consistent with the phenotype of db/db and ob/ob mice that fully lack leptin receptor signaling...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Alice M C Lee, Joanne M Bowen, Yu-Wen Su, Erin Plews, Rosa Chung, Dorothy M K Keefe, Cory J Xian
Cancer treatments with cytotoxic drugs have been shown to cause bone loss. However, effects on bone are less clear for ErbB-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors or their combination use with cytotoxic drugs. This study examined the effects of individual or combination treatments with breast cancer drugs lapatinib (a dual ErbB1/ErbB2 inhibitor) and paclitaxel (a microtubule-stabilizing cytotoxic agent) on bone and bone marrow of rats. Wistar rats received lapatinib (240 mg/kg) daily, paclitaxel (12 mg/kg) weekly, or their combination for 4 weeks, and effects on bone/bone marrow were examined at the end of week 4...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yuichiro Sugiyama, Yoshiaki Sato, Yuma Kitase, Toshihiko Suzuki, Taiki Kondo, Alkisti Mikrogeorgiou, Asuka Horinouchi, Shoichi Maruyama, Yoshie Shimoyama, Masahiro Tsuji, Satoshi Suzuki, Tokunori Yamamoto, Masahiro Hayakawa
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury occurs in 1 in 1,000 live births and remains the main cause of neurological disability and death in term infants. Cytotherapy has recently emerged as a novel treatment for tissue injury. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are thought to have therapeutic potential, but little is known about the differences according to their origin. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic effects and safety of intravenous injection of allogeneic bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in a rat model of HI brain injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Louise Grahnemo, Karin Gustafsson, Klara Sjogren, Petra Henning, Vikte Lionikaite, Antti Koskela, Juha Tuukkanen, Claes Ohlsson, Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm, Marie K Lagerquist
Mice with impaired acute inflammatory responses within adipose tissue display reduced diet-induced fat mass gain associated with glucose intolerance and systemic inflammation. Therefore, acute adipose tissue inflammation is needed for a healthy expansion of adipose tissue. Because inflammatory disorders are associated with bone loss, we hypothesized that impaired acute adipose tissue inflammation leading to increased systemic inflammation results in a lower bone mass. To test this hypothesis, we used mice overexpressing an adenoviral protein complex - the receptor internalization and degradation (RID) complex that inhibits pro-inflammatory signaling - under the control of the aP2-promotor (RID tg mice), resulting in suppressed inflammatory signaling in adipocytes...
September 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jenny Romell, William Vågberg, Mikael Romell, Sofia Häggman, Salima Ikram, Hans M Hertz
Purpose To evaluate phase-contrast CT as a noninvasive alternative to histology in the study of ancient soft tissue. Materials and Methods The imaging was performed between May 8 and June 13, 2017. A mummified human hand from ancient Egypt was imaged in a laboratory phase-contrast CT arrangement with propagation-based imaging. The experimental arrangement for propagation-based imaging included a microfocus x-ray source, a rotation stage for the sample, and an x-ray detector. The mummified hand was imaged in two different modes...
September 25, 2018: Radiology
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