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Marrow adipose

Dimitri Martel, Benjamin Leporq, Amit Saxena, H Michael Belmont, Gabrielle Turyan, Stephen Honig, Ravinder R Regatte, Gregory Chang
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis (OP) results in weak bone and can ultimately lead to fracture. Drugs such as glucocorticoids can also induce OP (glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis [GIO]). Bone marrow adipose tissue composition and quantity may play a role in OP pathophysiology, but has not been thoroughly studied in GIO compared to primary OP. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: Chemical shift-encoded (CSE) MRI allows detection of subregional differences in bone marrow adipose tissue composition and quantity in the proximal femur of GIO compared to OP subjects and has high agreement with the reference standard of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Jessica A Breznik, Avee Naidoo, Kevin P Foley, Christian Schulz, Trevor C Lau, Dessi Loukov, Deborah M Sloboda, Dawn M E Bowdish, Jonathan D Schertzer
Inflammation contributes to obesity-related hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, which often precede type 2 diabetes. Inflammation is one way that obesity can promote insulin resistance. It is not clear if the extent of obesity, hyperinsulinemia, or hyperglycemia, underpins changes in cellular immunity during diet-induced obesity. In particular, the requirement for obesity or directionality in the relationship between insulin resistance and monocyte characteristics is poorly defined. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can contribute to insulin resistance...
December 2018: Physiological Reports
Taha Bartu Hayal, Binnur Kıratlı, Hatice Burcu Şişli, Fikrettin Şahin, Ayşegül Doğan
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells; isolated from various body parts including bone marrow, adipose tissue and dental tissue, have been characterized well and used in regenerative medicine applications. The promising potential of MSCs makes them great candidates in many disorders. It has been well known in the literature that MSCs interact with cancer cells and regulate the carcinogenesis process at different stages. The dual role of MSCs in cancer progression should be clearly identified at the physiological and molecular level to identify clinical potential in cancer treatment...
December 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Marek Kucharzewski, Ewa Rojczyk, Katarzyna Wilemska-Kucharzewska, Renata Wilk, Jacek Hudecki, Marek J Los
The latest findings indicate the huge therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine, including the healing of chronic wounds. Main stem cell types involved in wound healing process are: epidermal and dermal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In the therapy of chronic wounds, they can be administrated either topically or using different matrix like hydrogels, scaffolds, dermal substitutes and extracellular matrix (ECM) derivatives...
December 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Peng Sun, Kunhang Jia, Chunbing Zheng, Xinlei Zhu, Jing Li, Liang He, Stefan Siwko, Feng Xue, Mingyao Liu, Jian Luo
The key signaling networks regulating bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are poorly defined. Lgr4, which belongs to the leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor (LGR) family, is widely expressed in multiple tissues from early embryogenesis to adulthood. We investigated whether Lgr4 functions in BMSCs and in osteogenesis, adipogenesis, and skeletal myoblasts, using mice with a β-geo gene trap inserted into the Lgr4 gene. Abundant Lgr4 expression was detected in skeletal, adipose and muscular tissue of Lgr4+/- mice at E16...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yen-Ting Ho, Takashi Shimbo, Edward Wijaya, Yuya Ouchi, Eiichi Takaki, Ryoma Yamamoto, Yasushi Kikuchi, Yasufumi Kaneda, Katsuto Tamai
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into tri-lineage (osteoblast, adipocyte, and chondrocyte) and suppress inflammation, are promising tools for regenerative medicine. MSCs are phenotypically diverse based on their tissue origins. However, the mechanisms underlying cell-type-specific gene expression patterns are not fully understood due to the lack of suitable strategy to identify the diversity. In this study, we investigated gene expression programs and chromatin accessibilities of MSCs by whole-transcriptome RNA-seq analysis and an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq)...
December 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ioannis Christodoulou, Maria Goulielmaki, Marina Devetzi, Mihalis Panagiotidis, Georgios Koliakos, Vassilis Zoumpourlis
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) comprise a heterogeneous population of rapidly proliferating cells that can be isolated from adult (e.g., bone marrow, adipose tissue) as well as fetal (e.g., umbilical cord) tissues (termed bone marrow (BM)-, adipose tissue (AT)-, and umbilical cord (UC)-MSC, respectively) and are capable of differentiation into a wide range of non-hematopoietic cell types. An additional, unique attribute of MSC is their ability to home to tumor sites and to interact with the local supportive microenvironment which rapidly conceptualized into MSC-based experimental cancer cytotherapy at the turn of the century...
December 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yuta Imai, Kei Yoshida, Megumi Matsumoto, Mai Okada, Kei Kanie, Kazunori Shimizu, Hiroyuki Honda, Ryuji Kato
Introduction: Advancing industrial-scale manufacture of cells as therapeutic products is an example of the wide applications of regenerative medicine. However, one bottleneck in establishing stable and efficient cell manufacture is quality control. Owing to the lack of effective in-process measurement technology, analyzing the time-consuming and complex cell culture process that essentially determines cellular quality is difficult and only performed by manual microscopic observation. Our group has been applying advanced image-processing and machine-learning modeling techniques to construct prediction models that support quality evaluations during cell culture...
December 2018: Regenerative Therapy
Selvalakshmi Rathinavelu, Crissy Guidry-Elizondo, Jameela Banu
Diabetes is a common disease affecting majority of populations worldwide. Since 1980, there has been an increase in the number of people diagnosed as prediabetic and diabetic. Diabetes is characterized by high levels of circulating glucose and leads to most microvascular and macrovascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Bone marrow vascular disruption and increased adiposity are also linked to various complications in type II diabetes mellitus. In addition to these complications, type 2 diabetic patients also have fragile bones caused by faulty mineralization mainly due to increased adiposity among diabetic patients that affects both osteoblast and osteoclast functions...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Natalie K Y Wee, Benjamin P Sinder, Sanja Novak, Xi Wang, Chris Stoddard, Brya G Matthews, Ivo Kalajzic
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in multiple processes such as behavior, energy and bone metabolism. Previous studies have relied on global NPY depletion to examine its effects on bone. However, this approach is unable to distinguish the central or local source of NPY influencing bone. Our aim was to identify which cells within the skeleton express Npy and establish a model that will enable us to differentiate effects of NPY derived from different cell types. We have generated the NPY floxed (NPYflox ) mice using CRISPR technology...
November 30, 2018: Neuropeptides
Russell Emmons, Guanying Xu, Diego Hernandez-Saavedra, Adam Kriska, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Hong Chen, Michael De Lisio
Obesity-induced inflammation associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The role of diet and exercise in modulating increased CRC risk in obesity, and the potential role of altered hematopoiesis as a contributor to these effects remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine how weight loss induced during CRC induction with or without exercise alter CRC initiation and their relationship to altered hematopoiesis. Mice consumed either a control (CON) or high fat diet to induce obesity...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mayra Ramos de Jesus Pereira, Valéria Rodrigues Pinhatti, Maiele Dornelles da Silveira, Cristina Araujo Matzenbacher, Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas, Juliana da Silva, Melissa Camassola, Nance Beyer Nardi
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells distributed in all tissues and characterized by adherence, morphology, immunophenotype and trilineage differentiation potential. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize adherent MSC-like populations from different tissues of Ctenomys minutus, a threatened wildlife rodent popularly known as tuco-tuco. Adherent cells were isolated from bone marrow, brain, liver, pancreas and adipose tissue of three adult animals collect in southern Brazil...
November 29, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Jenna N Harvestine, Hakan Orbay, Jonathan Y Chen, David E Sahar, J Kent Leach
Lipoaspirates contain a readily accessible heterogeneous cell source for use in bone regeneration collectively referred to as the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). However, the osteogenic potential of SVF is inferior to other progenitor cell populations, thereby requiring alternative strategies to potentiate its effective use in cell-based therapies of bone repair. Cell-secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) is a promising substrate to guide cell phenotype or for use in biomaterial design, yet the instructional capacity of ECMs produced by various cell types is unknown...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
Siggeir F Brynjolfsson, Linn Persson Berg, Teresa Olsen Ekerhult, Inga Rimkute, Mary-Jo Wick, Inga-Lill Mårtensson, Ola Grimsholm
Even though more than 30 years have passed since the eradication of smallpox, high titers of smallpox-specific antibodies are still detected in the blood of subjects vaccinated in childhood. In fact, smallpox-specific antibody levels are maintained in serum for more than 70 years. The generation of life-long immunity against infectious diseases such as smallpox and measles has been thoroughly documented. Although the mechanisms behind high persisting antibody titers in the absence of the causative agent are still unclear, long lived plasma cells (LLPCs) play an important role...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yoshiharu Shimozono, Lisa A Fortier, Donald Brown, John G Kennedy
Regenerative cell therapies are emerging as promising treatments for numerous musculoskeletal conditions, including knee osteoarthritis (OA). Adipose-derived stem cells and possibly other adipose-based therapies have a greater chondrogenic potential than stem cells derived from bone marrow, and thus a lot of attention is being placed on them as potential regenerative agents in the treatment of knee OA. Several types of adipose-based therapies have good basic science and preclinical data supporting their translation to human therapeutic intervention...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Klemen Čamernik, Janja Marc, Janja Zupan
The most studied sources of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are bone marrow and adipose tissue. However skeletal muscle represents an interesting source of diverse subpopulations of MSCs, such as paired box 7 (Pax-7)-positive satellite cells, fibro-/adipogenic progenitors, PW1-positive interstitial cells and others. The specific properties of some of these muscle-derived cells have encouraged the development of cell therapies for muscle regeneration. However, the identity and multilineage potential of the diverse muscle-resident cells should first be evaluated in vitro, followed by in vivo clinical trials to predict their regenerative capacity...
November 30, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Janja Zupan
Synovium-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to have superior features in comparison with MSCs from other tissue sources. As they are far less recognised compared to bone marrow- or adipose tissue-derived MSCs, I provide here a detailed procedure on how to isolate MSCs from human synovium. This includes determination of the proportions of viable cells in ex vivo isolated fractions before the seeding of the cells and a description of how to carry out colony-forming fibroblast assays to quantify the clonogenicity of these cells...
November 30, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mari Dezawa
Among many kinds of somatic stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells are the cells that have been successfully applied to treating leukemia patients as forms of bone marrow and cord blood transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cells, collectable from several sources including the bone marrow and adipose tissue, are also widely applied to clinical trials for their easy accessibility and low risks of tumorigenesis, while their outcomes were shown to be not clinically relevant in several target diseases. The most important issue for the stem cells is whether the cells are safe and effective for curing diseases...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kazuki Tatsumi, Yoshihiro Kushida, Shohei Wakao, Yasumasa Kuroda, Mari Dezawa
This chapter provides the detailed method for isolation of Muse cells and evaluation of their pluripotency. The basic population of Muse cells is cultured mesenchymal stem cells such as bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts, and adipose-derived stem cells. The detailed method for handling mesenchymal stem cells is also provided in this protocol.
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Anne Wilson, He Fu, Mariano Schiffrin, Carine Winkler, Meriem Koufany, Jean-Yves Jouzeau, Nicolas Bonnet, Federica Gilardi, François Renevey, Sanjiv A Luther, David Moulin, Béatrice Desvergne
Adult hematopoiesis takes place in the perivascular zone of the bone cavity, where endothelial cells, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and their derivatives such as osteoblasts are key components of bone marrow (BM) niches. Defining the contribution of BM adipocytes to the hematopoietic stem cell niche remains controversial. While an excess of medullar adiposity is generally considered deleterious for hematopoiesis, an active role for adipocytes in shaping the niche has also been proposed. We thus investigated the consequences of total adipocyte deletion, including in the BM niche, on adult hematopoiesis using mice carrying a constitutive deletion of the gene coding for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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