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ADHD guidelines

Cesar Cagigal, Tania Silva, Mariana Jesus, Carla Silva
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric diagnosis in childhood and adolescence, with an estimated worldwide-pooled prevalence of 5,29%. The type of treatment depends on several factors. Psychopharmacological treatment entails undesirable side effects, with unclear long-term benefits, which has led the scientific community to investigate other therapeutic approaches, such as dietary interventions. METHODS: The authors conducted a classical review on the current treatment recommended in individuals with ADHD diagnosis, their dietary patterns, as well as dietary factors possibly implicated in the etiology and treatment of this disorder...
September 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
L Eugene Arnold, Arunima Roy, Eric Taylor, Lily Hechtman, Margaret Sibley, James M Swanson, John T Mitchell, Brooke S G Molina, Luis A Rohde
Diagnostic guidelines differ between DSM attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ICD hyperkinetic disorder (HKD). Only 145 of 579 children age 7-9 in the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (the MTA) with combined-type DSM-IV ADHD met criteria for ICD-10 HKD, because major internalizing comorbidities and more stringent symptom count/pervasiveness requirements excluded most. The 145 HKD had significantly better 14-month medication response than the rest. We explored whether HKD had greater adult symptom persistence and/or impairment than other ADHD...
September 19, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Sudha R Raman, Kenneth K C Man, Shahram Bahmanyar, Anick Berard, Scott Bilder, Takoua Boukhris, Greta Bushnell, Stephen Crystal, Kari Furu, Yea-Huei KaoYang, Øystein Karlstad, Helle Kieler, Kiyoshi Kubota, Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Jaana E Martikainen, Géric Maura, Nicholas Moore, Dolores Montero, Hidefumi Nakamura, Anke Neumann, Virginia Pate, Anton Pottegård, Nicole L Pratt, Elizabeth E Roughead, Diego Macias Saint-Gerons, Til Stürmer, Chien-Chou Su, Helga Zoega, Miriam C J M Sturkenbroom, Esther W Chan, David Coghill, Patrick Ip, Ian C K Wong
BACKGROUND: The use of medications to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased, but the prevalence of ADHD medication use across different world regions is not known. Our objective was to determine regional and national prevalences of ADHD medication use in children and adults, with a specific focus on time trends in ADHD medication prevalence. METHODS: We did a retrospective, observational study using population-based databases from 13 countries and one Special Administrative Region (SAR): four in Asia and Australia, two in North America, five in northern Europe, and three in western Europe...
October 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
B Gavin, F McNicholas
We are delighted to dedicate an edition of the Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine to the topic of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD accounts for the majority of clinical presentations to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, both in terms of new assessments and ongoing attendances. Papers presented in this edition reflect on the evolving construct of ADHD, drawing from science, clinical practice and public opinion. Current and evidenced-based assessment and treatment practice guidelines are reviewed...
September 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
F Honorio Neto, M Tatlow-Golden, A Mulligan, B Gavin, F McNicholas
OBJECTIVES: This mixed-method national survey has obtained original data on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) attitudes, assessment and treatment regimes reported by paediatricians and child psychiatrists; and has compared their clinics. It has examined the extent of involvement of Irish paediatricians in the management of ADHD. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed, based on a review of literature and ADHD guidelines, and piloted by expert clinicians...
September 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Stéphanie Baggio, Ana Fructuoso, Marta Guimaraes, Eveline Fois, Diane Golay, Patrick Heller, Nader Perroud, Candy Aubry, Susan Young, Didier Delessert, Laurent Gétaz, Nguyen T Tran, Hans Wolff
Background: Previous studies have reported a high prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among people living in detention (PLD) corresponding to a five- to ten-fold increase compared to the general population. Our main study objective was to provide an updated ADHD prevalence rate for PLD, including PLD in psychiatric units. Sub-objectives included (i) comparing different ways of assessing ADHD, including DSM-5 criteria and (ii) identifying which types of PLD are more likely to have ADHD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Anita Thapar
The 21st century has witnessed the discovery of multiple rare and common gene variants associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and these discoveries have already provided a starting point for the investigation of the biology of the disorder and novel treatments. The purpose of this selective review is to examine genetic findings from the past 5 years and consider their implications for the conceptualization of ADHD and future clinical practice. Recent discoveries reveal the strong genetic overlaps between ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as intellectual disability...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Samuele Cortese, Nicoletta Adamo, Cinzia Del Giovane, Christina Mohr-Jensen, Adrian J Hayes, Sara Carucci, Lauren Z Atkinson, Luca Tessari, Tobias Banaschewski, David Coghill, Chris Hollis, Emily Simonoff, Alessandro Zuddas, Corrado Barbui, Marianna Purgato, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Farhad Shokraneh, Jun Xia, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: The benefits and safety of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remain controversial, and guidelines are inconsistent on which medications are preferred across different age groups. We aimed to estimate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of oral medications for ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. METHODS: We did a literature search for published and unpublished double-blind randomised controlled trials comparing amphetamines (including lisdexamfetamine), atomoxetine, bupropion, clonidine, guanfacine, methylphenidate, and modafinil with each other or placebo...
September 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Robert Waltereit, Martha Feucht, Magdalena C de Vries, Julia Huemer, Veit Roessner, Petrus J de Vries
Neuropsychiatric manifestations in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC): diagnostic guidelines, TAND concept and therapy with mTOR inhibitors Abstract. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), albeit a rare autosomal-dominant multisystem disease with an incidence of 1:6,000, is one of the most important monogenetic disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry. In up to 90 % of patients, neurological disorders such as epilepsy and psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, affective disorders, and intellectual disability are observed...
August 6, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Annie D Imboden, Karla K Fehr
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral health disorder in childhood that causes significant impairments in quality of life, home relationships, and school success. Despite a substantial evidence base and corresponding practice guidelines established by the American Academy of Pediatrics that support use of behavioral therapy to treat ADHD, affected patients infrequently receive therapy. This article will review the causes of underuse of behavioral therapy and methods to overcome these barriers such as integrating behavioral health care, thereby creating a pediatric patient-centered medical home...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Dorien Jansen, Katja Petry, Steven W Evans, Ilse Noens, Dieter Baeyens
OBJECTIVE: Recently, research indicated that extended examination duration was perceived as effective by students with ADHD. However, the objective effectiveness of this accommodation has not been researched extensively. This study addresses this gap in literature. METHOD: A total of 30 students with ADHD and 30 matched typically developing controls (TDC) participated in a simulation of a real-life examination. They filled in three parallel versions of a paper-and-pencil test in three time conditions: 1 hr (+0%), 1 hr 20 min (+33%), and 1 hr 30 min (+50%)...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Kinda Ibrahim, Parastou Donyai
National and international guidelines on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents call for annual reviews to assess continuing need for medication by considering brief periods without medication, referred to as 'Drug holidays'. However, drug holidays are reactively initiated by families, or recommended by practitioners if growth has been suppressed by medication rather than proactively to check the need. There is little evidence of planned, practitioner-initiated drug holidays from methylphenidate...
July 7, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Tobias Banaschewski, Brendan Belsham, Michael H Bloch, Maite Ferrin, Mats Johnson, James Kustow, Sarah Robinson, Alessandro Zuddas
While pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions are recommended as the primary frontline treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alternative approaches to managing ADHD are becoming increasingly popular among patients and their families. Supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is an example of this. PUFA supplementation is not recommended by guidelines for managing ADHD; however, patients may still decide to use it. To provide direction to healthcare professionals (HCPs) managing ADHD, eight international experts in the field of adult and child ADHD came together for the Continuum Education Board: Omega Supplements in ADHD meeting...
January 1, 2018: Nutrition and Health
M Paucke, T Stark, C Exner, C Kallweit, U Hegerl, M Strauß
BACKGROUND: It is still unclear how well the established attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD)-specific rating scales can differentiate between ADHD symptoms and symptoms of other mental disorders. METHODS: A total of 274 patients with suspected adult ADHD were extensively examined clinically and guideline-conform in an ADHD outpatient clinic. In 190 patients the diagnosis of ADHD could be made with certainty. The patients were also subsequently assessed according to the DSM IV criteria by self-rating scales on current (ADHS-SB, ASRS, CAARS) and retrospective (WURS-K) complaints...
June 18, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Gillian M Maher, Gerard W O'Keeffe, Patricia M Kearney, Louise C Kenny, Timothy G Dinan, Molly Mattsson, Ali S Khashan
Importance: Although research suggests an association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and other neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring, consensus is lacking. Given the increasing prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy, it is important to examine the association of HDP with neurodevelopmental outcome. Objective: To synthesize the published literature on the association between HDP and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring in a systematic review and meta-analysis...
August 1, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Ruu-Fen Tzang, Yue-Cune Chang, Kai-Liang Kao, Yu-Hsin Huang, Hui-Chun Huang, Yu-Chiao Wang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Shu-I Wu, Fung-Chang Sung, Robert Stewart
Parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to prefer sensory integration (SI) training rather than guideline-recommended ADHD treatment. This study investigated whether SI intervention for children with ADHD was associated with a reduced risk of subsequent mental disorders. From children < 8-years-old newly diagnosed with ADHD in a nationwide population-based dataset, we established a SI cohort and a non-SI cohort (N =  1945) matched by propensity score...
June 5, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Theresa S Emser, Blair A Johnston, J Douglas Steele, Sandra Kooij, Lisa Thorell, Hanna Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic guidelines recommend using a variety of methods to assess and diagnose ADHD. Applying subjective measures always incorporates risks such as informant biases or large differences between ratings obtained from diverse sources. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that ratings and tests seem to assess somewhat different constructs. The use of objective measures might thus yield valuable information for diagnosing ADHD. This study aims at evaluating the role of objective measures when trying to distinguish between individuals with ADHD and controls...
May 18, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Toivo Zinnow, Tobias Banaschewski, Andreas J Fallgatter, Carolin Jenkner, Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Alexandra Philipsen, Wolfgang Retz, Esther Sobanski, Johannes Thome, Michael Rösler
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, a wide range of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment approaches for adults, including both pharmacological interventions and psychosocial treatments, have been proposed and observed to be efficient. In practice, individual treatment concepts are based on results of clinical studies as well as international guidelines (NICE Guidelines) that recommend a step-by-step treatment approach. Since the evidence supporting this approach is limited, the aim of the present study is to determine an optimal intervention regarding severity levels of ADHD symptomatology conducting a randomized controlled trial...
May 18, 2018: Trials
Oliver Scholle, Tobias Banaschewski, Dirk Enders, Edeltraut Garbe, Oliver Riedel
OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have comorbidities that are potential indications for antipsychotics (APs). Some studies have suggested that the combined use of methylphenidate (MPH) and APs is increasing in this population group. Longitudinal analyses and in-depth investigations on the substance level are lacking. This study aimed to estimate the cumulative proportion of concomitant AP/MPH use in children and adolescents with ADHD over a follow-up of up to 9 years and to describe patient characteristics stratified by specific AP drug...
July 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Maite Ruiz-Goikoetxea, Samuele Cortese, Sara Magallón, Maite Aznárez-Sanado, Noelia Álvarez Zallo, Elkin O Luis, Pilar de Castro-Manglano, Cesar Soutullo, Gonzalo Arrondo
Poisoning, a subtype of physical injury, is an important hazard in children and youth. Individuals with ADHD may be at higher risk of poisoning. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify this risk. Furthermore, since physical injuries, likely share causal mechanisms with those of poisoning, we compared the relative risk of poisoning and injuries pooling studies reporting both. As per our pre-registered protocol (PROSPERO ID CRD42017079911), we searched 114 databases through November 2017...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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