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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550595/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-colistin
#1
REVIEW
Nicolas Grégoire, Vincent Aranzana-Climent, Sophie Magréault, Sandrine Marchand, William Couet
In this review, we provide an updated summary on colistin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Colistin is an old molecule that is frequently used as last-line treatment for infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin is a decapeptide administered either as a prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), when used intravenously, or as colistin sulfate when used orally. Because colistin binds to laboratory materials, many experimental issues are raised and studies on colistin can be tricky...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550309/the-ppsu-plasmids-for-generating-dna-molecular-weight-markers
#2
Ryan C Henrici, Turner J Pecen, James L Johnston, Song Tan
Visualizing nucleic acids by gel electrophoresis is one of the most common techniques in molecular biology, and reference molecular weight markers or ladders are commonly used for size estimation. We have created the pPSU1 & pPSU2 pair of molecular weight marker plasmids which produce both 100 bp and 1 kb DNA ladders when digested with two common restriction enzymes. The 100 bp ladder fragments have been optimized to migrate appropriately on both agarose and native polyacrylamide, unlike many currently available DNA ladders...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550056/biofilm-formation-potential-of-heat-resistant-escherichia-coli-dairy-isolates-and-complete-genome-of-mdr-heat-resistant-strain-fam21845
#3
Roger Marti, Michael Schmid, Sandra Kulli, Kerstin Schneeberger, Javorka Naskova, Susanne Knøchel, Christian H Ahrens, Jörg Hummerjohann
We tested the biofilm formation potential of 30 heat resistant and six heat sensitive E. coli dairy isolates. The production of curli and cellulose, static biofilm formation on polystyrene (PS) and stainless steel, formation of biofilm under dynamic conditions (Bioflux), and initial adhesion rates (IAR) were evaluated. Biofilm formation varied greatly between strains, media and assay. Our results highlight the importance of the experimental setup to determine biofilm formation under conditions of interest, as correlation between different assays was often not given...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549942/tissue-specific-expression-profile-of-some-immune-related-genes-in-labeo-rohita-to-edwardsiella-tarda-infection
#4
Sajal Kole, Deepika Anand, Rupam Sharma, Gayatri Tripathi, Makesh M, Rajendran Kv, Megha Kadam Bedekar
Rohu (Labeo rohita), an Indian Major Carp (IMC) is an economically important aquaculture species in India. Inspite of the technological advances, infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria and parasites have been a major limiting factor in the development and profitability of fish farms. At present, information regarding the immune status of the Indian major carps is limited. This lack of knowledge is a major impediment for establishment of effective preventive measures against broad spectrum of infectious agents...
May 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549468/microrna-608-inhibits-proliferation-of-bladder-cancer-via-akt-foxo3a-signaling-pathway
#5
Zhen Liang, Xiao Wang, Xin Xu, Bo Xie, Alin Ji, Shuai Meng, Shiqi Li, Yi Zhu, Jian Wu, Zhenghui Hu, Yiwei Lin, Xiangyi Zheng, Liping Xie, Ben Liu
BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that miR-608 is widely down-regulated in various malignant tumors including liver cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer and glioma, and acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation, invasion and migration or by promoting apoptosis. The specific biological function of miR-608 in bladder cancer is still unknown. METHODS: qRT-PCR and Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization (CISH) was conducted to assess the expression of miR-608 in paired BCa tissues and adjacent non-tumor bladder urothelial tissues...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549325/graphene-oxide-in-the-water-environment-could-affect-tetracycline-antibiotic-resistance
#6
Mei-Ting Guo, Guo-Sheng Zhang
In recent years, the influence of new materials like nanoparticles in the water environment on biological substances has been widely studied. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) represent a new type of pollutant in the environment. Graphene oxide (GO), as a nano material, because of its unique structure, may have an impact on antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) and ARGs; however the research in this area is rarely reported. Therefore, this study mainly investigated the effects of GO on bacterial antibiotic resistance...
May 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547529/toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-and-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-2-trem-2-activation-balance-astrocyte-polarization-into-a-proinflammatory-phenotype
#7
Gerardo Rosciszewski, Vanesa Cadena, Veronica Murta, Jeronimo Lukin, Alejandro Villarreal, Thierry Roger, Alberto Javier Ramos
Astrocytes react to brain injury with a generic response known as reactive gliosis, which involves activation of multiple intracellular pathways including several that may be beneficial for neuronal survival. However, by unknown mechanisms, reactive astrocytes can polarize into a proinflammatory phenotype that induces neurodegeneration. In order to study reactive gliosis and astroglial polarization into a proinflammatory phenotype, we used cortical devascularization-induced brain ischemia in Wistar rats and primary astroglial cell cultures exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547323/a-shortened-two-enzyme-pathway-for-2-3-butanediol-production-in-escherichia-coli
#8
Shamlan M S Reshamwala, Shalini S Deb, Arvind M Lali
The platform chemical 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is produced by a number of microorganisms via a three-enzyme pathway starting from pyruvate. Here, we report production of 2,3-BDO via a shortened, two-enzyme pathway in Escherichia coli. A synthetic operon consisting of the acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetoin reductase (AR) genes from Enterobacter under control of the T7 promoter was cloned in an episomal plasmid. E. coli transformed with this plasmid produced 2,3-BDO and the pathway intermediate acetoin, demonstrating that the shortened pathway was functional...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546518/safety-immunogenicity-and-cross-species-protection-of-a-plasmid-dna-encoding-plasmodium-falciparum-sera5-polypeptide-microbial-epitopes-and-chemokine-genes-in-mice-and-olive-baboons
#9
Nyamongo Onkoba, Ruth M Mumo, Horace Ochanda, Charles Omwandho, Hastings S Ozwara, Thomas G Egwang
Incorporation of biomolecular epitopes to malarial antigens should be explored in the development of strain-transcending malarial vaccines. The present study sought to determine safety, immunogenicity and cross-species efficacy ofPlasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen 5 polypeptide co-expressed with epitopes of Bacille-Calmette Guerin (BCG), tetanus toxoid (TT) and a chemokine gene. Olive baboons and BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into vaccine and control groups. The vaccine group animals were primed and boosted twice with pIRES plasmids encoding the SERA5+ BCG+ TT alone, or with either CCL5 or CCL20 and the control group with pIRES plasmid vector backbone...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546492/complete-genome-sequence-of-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-piscicida-strain-ot-51443-isolated-from-yellowtail-seriola-quinqueradiata-in-japan
#10
Takashi Aoki, Yuki Teru, Natsuki Morimoto, Tomoya Kono, Masahiro Sakai, Tomokazu Takano, John P Hawke, Yutaka Fukuda, Haruko Takeyama, Jun-Ichi Hikima
Pseudotuberculosis caused by infection of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida has caused serious economic damages to aquaculture farms worldwide. Here, the whole-genome sequence of P. damselae subsp. piscicida strain OT-51443, isolated in Japan, was determined and suggests that this genome consists of two chromosomes and five plasmids.
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545990/retrospective-survey-of-mcr-1-and-mcr-2-in-german-pig-fattening-farms-2011-2012
#11
Nicole Roschanski, Linda Falgenhauer, Mirjam Grobbel, Sebastian Guenther, Lothar Kreienbrock, Can Imirzalioglu, Uwe Roesler
In November 2015, the first plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, was described in animals and in humans in China. Subsequently, a multitude of further studies was performed and quite recently the global spread of mcr-1 as well as the occurrence of a new gene variant, mcr-2, was reported. To obtain an overview of the occurrence of the colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-2 in German pig farms, a retrospective study, including 436 boot swab and pooled faeces samples collected from 58 pig-fattening farms throughout Germany, was performed...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545809/macrophage-specific-nanotechnology-driven-cd163-overexpression-in-human-macrophages-results-in-an-m2-phenotype-under-inflammatory-conditions
#12
Perla Abigail Alvarado-Vazquez, Laura Bernal, Candler A Paige, Rachel L Grosick, Carolina Moracho Vilrriales, David Wilson Ferreira, Cristina Ulecia-Morón, E Alfonso Romero-Sandoval
M1 macrophages release proinflammatory factors during inflammation. They transit to an M2 phenotype and release anti-inflammatory factors to resolve inflammation. An imbalance in the transition from M1 to M2 phenotype in macrophages contributes to the development of persistent inflammation. CD163, a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich family, is an M2 macrophage marker. The functional role of CD163 during the resolution of inflammation is not completely known. We postulate that CD163 contributes to the transition from M1 to M2 phenotype in macrophages...
May 16, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545573/peroxisome-proliferators-activated-receptor-ppar-agonists-activate-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-in-vivo
#13
Lingyao Du, Yuanji Ma, Miao Liu, Libo Yan, Hong Tang
BACKGROUND: PPAR agonists are often used in HBV infected patients with metabolic disorders. However, as liver-enriched transcriptional factors, PPARs would activate HBV replication. Risks exsit in such patients. This study aimed to assess the influence of commonly used synthetic PPAR agonists on hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription, replication and expression through HBV replicative mouse models, providing information for physicians to make necessary monitoring and therapeutic adjustment when HBV infected patients receive PPAR agonists treatment...
May 25, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545547/clonorchis-sinensis-granulin-identification-immunolocalization-and-function-in-promoting-the-metastasis-of-cholangiocarcinoma-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Caiqin Wang, Huali Lei, Yanli Tian, Mei Shang, Yinjuan Wu, Ye Li, Lu Zhao, Mengchen Shi, Xin Tang, Tingjin Chen, Zhiyue Lv, Yan Huang, Xiaoping Tang, Xinbing Yu, Xuerong Li
BACKGROUND: Long-term infections by Clonorchis sinensis are associated with cholangitis, cholecystitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. Molecules from the worm play vital roles in disease progress. In the present study, we identified and explored molecular characterization of C. sinensis granulin (CsGRN), a growth factor-like protein from C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (CsESPs). METHODS: The encoding sequence and conserved domains of CsGRN were identified and analysed by bioinformatics tools...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545464/c10orf10-depp-mediated-ros-accumulation-is-a-critical-modulator-of-foxo3-induced-autophagy
#15
S Salcher, M Hermann, U Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, M J Ausserlechner, P Obexer
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in childhood and develops from undifferentiated progenitor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. In neuronal tumor cells DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents activate the transcription factor FOXO3 which regulates the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death as well as a longevity program associated with therapy resistance. We demonstrated before that C10ORF10/DEPP, a transcriptional target of FOXO3, localizes to peroxisomes and mitochondria and impairs cellular ROS detoxification...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544846/genomic-dna-interactions-mechanize-peptidotoxin-mediated-anti-cancer-nanotherapy
#16
Santosh K Misra, Aaron S Schwartz-Duval, Dipanjan Pan
Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a class of evolutionarily conserved substances of the innate immune response that has been identified as major players in the defense system in many living organisms. Some of the HDPs are also referred as peptidotoxins which offer immense potential for anti-cancer therapy. However, their therapeutic potential is yet to be fully translated mainly due to their off-target toxicity. Here we show that their nano-enabled delivery may become beneficial in controlling their delivery in intra-cellular space...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544335/p62-sequestosome-1-in-human-colorectal-carcinoma-as-a-potent-prognostic-predictor-associated-with-cell-proliferation
#17
Shun Nakayama, Hideaki Karasawa, Takashi Suzuki, Shinichi Yabuuchi, Kiyoshi Takagi, Takashi Aizawa, Yoshiaki Onodera, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Mika Watanabe, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Hiroshi Yoshida, Takanori Morikawa, Tomohiko Sase, Takeshi Naitoh, Michiaki Unno, Hironobu Sasano
p62/sequestosome 1 (p62) is a multi-domain protein that functions as a receptor for ubiquitinated targets in the selective autophagy and serves as a scaffold in various signaling cascades. p62 have been reported to be up-regulated in several human malignancies, but the biological roles and significance of p62 are still poorly understood in colorectal carcinoma. We immunohistochemically evaluated p62 in 118 colorectal adenocarcinoma and 28 colorectal adenoma cases. We used four colon carcinoma cells (HCT8, HT29, COLO320, and SW480) in the in vitro studies...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543733/development-of-real-time-rt-pcr-assays-for-detection-of-three-classes-of-hhv-6a-gene-transcripts
#18
Masaru Ihira, Akiko Urashima, Hiroki Miura, Fumihiko Hattori, Yoshiki Kawamura, Ken Sugata, Tetsushi Yoshikawa
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), a member of the betaherpesvirus family, has two distinct species: HHV-6A and HHV-6B. HHV-6B real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to distinguish between active and latent viral infection. In this study, we developed a real-time RT-PCR assay to detect HHV-6A-specific transcripts and evaluated its reliability for analysis of clinical samples. To develop HHV-6A-specific real-time RT-PCR assays, three different classes of gene transcripts (immediate early: U90; early: U12; and late: U100) were selected as targets...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543681/activation-of-mmps-in-macrophages-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-via-the-mir-223-bmal1-signaling-pathway
#19
Jun Lou, Yongli Wang, Zhimin Zhang, Weiqiang Qiu
An interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and macrophages constitutes an essential step in tuberculosis development, as macrophages exert both positive and negative effects on M. tuberculosis-triggered organ lesions. In this study, we focused on the regulation of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which is responsible for lung matrix degradation and bacteria dissection, in macrophages following M. tuberculosis infection. Female BALB/c mice were intravenously injected with the M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv at 0h zeitgeber time (ZT0) or 12 h zeitgeber time (ZT12)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543180/traf6-participates-in-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-through-inhibiting-autophagy-and-promoting-oxidative-stress
#20
Yang Dou, Haitao Shen, Dongxia Feng, Haiying Li, Xiaodi Tian, Jian Zhang, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a member of the TRAF family and an important multifunctional intracellular adaptin of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily. TRAF6 has been studied in several central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases, but its role in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has not been fully illustrated. This study was designed to explore changes of expression level and potential roles and mechanisms of TRAF6 in early brain injury (EBI) after SAH by using a Sprague-Dawley rat model of SAH induced in 0...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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