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gene environment interaction

Ludovica Montanucci, Hafid Laayouni, Begoña Dobon, Kevin L Keys, Jaume Bertranpetit, Juli Peretó
Metabolic networks comprise thousands of enzymatic reactions functioning in a controlled manner and have been shaped by natural selection. Thanks to the genome data, the footprints of adaptive (positive) selection are detectable, and the strength of purifying selection can be measured. This has made possible to know where, in the metabolic network, adaptive selection has acted and where purifying selection is more or less strong and efficient. We have carried out a comprehensive molecular evolutionary study of all the genes involved in the human metabolism...
2018: PloS One
Mirco Dindo, Egidia Costanzi, Marco Pieroni, Claudio Costantini, Giannamaria Annunziato, Agostino Bruno, Nancy P Keller, Luigina Romani, Teresa Zelante, Barbara Cellini
The rise in the frequency of nosocomial infections is becoming a major problem for public health, in particular in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungus normally present in the environment directly responsible for lethal invasive infections. Recent results suggest that the metabolic pathways related to amino acid metabolism can regulate the fungus-host interaction and that an important role is played by enzymes involved in the catabolism of L-tryptophan. In particular, in A...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Vesna Gorenjak, Maria G Stathopoulou, Alexandros M Petrelis, Georges Weryha, Christine Masson, Brigitte Hiegel, Satish Kumar, Robert Barouki, Eric Boerwinkle, Georges Dagher, Panagiotis Deloukas, Federico Innocenti, John Lamont, Michael Marschler, Heiko Meyer, Urs A Meyer, Charity Nofziger, Markus Paulmichl, Cora Vacher, Lynn Webster
The 9th traditional biannual conference on Systems Medicine, Personalised Health & Therapy-"The Odyssey from Hope to Practice", inspired by the Greek mythology, was a call to search for practical solutions in cardio-metabolic diseases and cancer, to resolve and overcome the obstacles in modern medicine by creating more interactions among disciplines, as well as between academic and industrial research, directed towards an effective 'roadmap' for personalised health and therapy. The 9th Santorini Conference, under the Presidency of Sofia Siest, the director of the INSERM U1122; IGE-PCV (www...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
Paola Dongiovanni, Marica Meroni, Miriam Longo, Silvia Fargion, Anna Ludovica Fracanzani
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a wide pathological spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may predispose to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It represents the leading cause of hepatic damage worldwide. Diagnosis of NASH still requires liver biopsy but due to the high prevalence of NAFLD, this procedure, which is invasive, is not practicable for mass screening. Thus, it is crucial to non-invasively identify NAFLD patients at higher risk of progression to NASH and fibrosis...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Katerina S Lay, Hideki Takahashi
The root system architecture (RSA) of plants is highly dependent on the surrounding nutrient environment. The uptake of essential nutrients triggers various signaling cascades and fluctuations in plant hormones to elicit physical changes in RSA. These pathways may involve signaling components known as small signaling peptides (SSPs), which have been implicated in a variety of plant developmental processes. This review discusses known nutrient-responsive SSPs with a focus on several subclasses that have been shown to play roles in root development...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Todd B Reynolds
Strains of the bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are able to generate a multicellular structure called a mat on low percentage (0.3%) agar plates are given a selective advantage over strains that cannot exhibit this phenotype. This environment may exhibit some similarities to the rotting fruit on which S. cerevisiae often grows in nature. Mat formation occurs when the cells spread over the plate as they grow, and cells in the center of the biofilm aggregate to form multicellular structures that resemble a floral pattern...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Susan T Weintraub, Nurul Humaira Mohd Redzuan, Melissa K Barton, Nur Amira Md Amin, Maxim I Desmond, Lily E Adams, Bazla Ali, Sammy Pardo, Dana Molleur, Weimin Wu, William W Newcomb, Michael V Osier, Lindsay W Black, Alasdair C Steven, Julie A Thomas
The 240-kb Salmonella phage SPN3US genome encodes 264 gene products, many of which are functionally uncharacterized. We have previously used mass spectrometry to define the proteomes of wild-type and mutant forms of the SPN3US virion. In this study we sought to determine if this technique was suitable for the characterization of the SPN3US proteome during liquid infection. Mass spectrometry of SPN3US-infected cells identified 232 SPN3US and 1994 Salmonella proteins. SPN3US proteins with related functions, such as proteins with roles in DNA replication, transcription and virion formation, were coordinately expressed in a temporal manner...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
Fernando Pires Hartwig, Neil Martin Davies, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Hans Bisgaard, Klaus Bønnelykke, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt, Richie Poulton, Ayesha Sajjad, Henning W Tiemeier, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mònica Guxens, Mariona Bustamante, Loreto Santa-Marina, Nadine Parker, Tomáš Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Lotte Lauritzen, Theresia M Schnurr, Kim F Michaelsen, Torben Hansen, Wendy Oddy, Craig E Pennell, Nicole M Warrington, George Davey Smith, Cesar Gomes Victora
Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that breastfeeding benefits children's intelligence, possibly due to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) present in breast milk. Under a nutritional adequacy hypothesis, an interaction between breastfeeding and genetic variants associated with endogenous LC-PUFAs synthesis might be expected. However, the literature on this topic is controversial. Methods: We investigated this gene × environment interaction through a collaborative effort...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Hao Yang, Bo Liu, Yajun Liu, Da He, Yonggang Xing, Yan An, Wei Tian
STUDY DESIGN: Rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells or annulus fibrosus (AF) cells were stimulated with conditioned media of RAW 264.7 macrophages and vice versa under healthy culture conditions and in the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, ECM-modifying enzymes, and chemokines, which play important roles in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD), was determined. OBJECTIVE: To test whether the interaction between native disc cells and infiltrating macrophages accelerates inflammation state, disrupts matrix homeostasis, and promotes inflammatory cells infiltration...
December 11, 2018: Spine
Qing Wu, Shuqun Li, Xiaofei Zhao, Xinhua Zhao
The abuse of antibiotics is becoming more serious as antibiotic use has increased. The sulfa antibiotics, sulfamerazine (SM1) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), are frequently detected in a wide range of environments. The interaction between SM1/SMZ and bacterial diversity in drinking water was investigated in this study. The results showed that after treatment with SM1 or SMZ at four different concentrations, the microbial community structure of the drinking water changed statistically significantly compared to the blank sample...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Xiaobing Jiang, Tao Yu, Yameng Xu, Hailei Wang, Hannu Korkeala, Lei Shi
Efflux pumps are recognized as an important mechanism for decreased susceptibility of benzalkonium chloride (BC) in Listeria monocytogenes. Previous studies showed that the efflux pump MdrL was overexpressed in L. monocytogenes exposed to BC. In the present work, we aimed to clarify the role of MdrL in tolerance to BC and environmental stresses including acid, alkali, osmotic, ethanol, and oxidative stresses, as well as resistance to other antimicrobial agents in L. monocytogenes EGD-e. In addition, regulation of the expression of mdrL by LadR was investigated...
December 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tian Yang, Xue Li, Zahra Montazeri, Julian Little, Susan M Farrington, John Pa Ioannidis, Malcolm G Dunlop, Harry Campbell, Maria Timofeeva, Evropi Theodoratou
The cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) is multifactorial, involving both genetic variants and environmental risk factors. We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang databases from inception to December 2016, to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that investigated gene-environment (G × E) interactions in CRC risk. Then, we critically evaluated the cumulative evidence for the G × E interactions using an extension of the Human Genome Epidemiology Network's Venice criteria...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo, Yadira Alejandra Morejón Terán, Johanna Anturaniemi, Anna Katrina Hielm-Björkman
Diet plays a fundamental role in the nutritional status, in the homeostasis and in the capacity of an individual to adapt to the environment. A proper or an inadequate nutrition has an impact on the persistence, remission and incidence of various conditions, including the infectious diseases. Consequently, nutrition has a crucial importance on survival rates and health recovery of individuals or even populations around the globe. The synergistic relationship between nutritional needs and infectious processes has been demonstrated conclusively in diverse studies...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Xiangyang Li, Xuefeng Zou, Kaishuang Zhang, Huaixin Meng, Dingxiang Shi
We report here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. LS-2, isolated from the decaying aerial stem of a Gastrodia elata plant. This genome harbored 96 potential genes implicated in bacterium-plant interactions, which may facilitate the adaptation of strain LS-2 to plant environments.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Lei-Yun Wang, Jia-Jia Cui, Jun-Yan Liu, Ao-Xiang Guo, Zhen-Yu Zhao, Ying-Zi Liu, Ji-Chu Wu, Min Li, Cheng-Ping Hu, Yang Gao, Hong-Hao Zhou, Ji-Ye Yin
Gene-gene (GXG) and gene-environment (GXE) interactions play important roles in pharmacogenetics study. Simultaneously incorporating multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical factors is needed to explore the association of their interactions with drug response and toxicity phenotypes. We genotyped 504 SNPs in a total of 490 Chinese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and the correlation of GXG and GXE interactions with platinum-based chemotherapeutic efficacy and safety were analyzed...
December 11, 2018: Scientific Data
Jae-Ho Lee, Peter Phelan, Minsang Shin, Byung-Chul Oh, Xianlin Han, Seung-Soon Im, Timothy F Osborne
There is a growing appreciation for a fundamental connection between lipid metabolism and the immune response. Macrophage phagocytosis is a signature innate immune response to pathogen exposure, and cytoplasmic membrane expansion is required to engulf the phagocytic target. The sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are key transcriptional regulatory proteins that sense the intracellular lipid environment and modulate expression of key genes of fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism to maintain lipid homeostasis...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zahra Shariatinia
Chitosan (CS) is a linear polysaccharide which is achieved by deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most plentiful compound in nature, after cellulose. It is a linear copolymer of β-(1 → 4)-linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose. It has appreciated properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, hydrophilicity, nontoxicity, high bioavailability, simplicity of modification, favorable permselectivity of water, outstanding chemical resistance, capability to form films, gels, nanoparticles, microparticles and beads as well as affinity to metals, proteins and dyes...
November 30, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Madara Ratnadiwakara, Melissa Rooke, Stephen J Ohms, Hugh J French, Rohan B H Williams, Rachel W Li, Donghai Zhang, Robyn M Lucas, Anneke C Blackburn
Breast cancer is a complex disease, and approximately 30% of cases are considered to be hereditary or familial, with a large fraction of this being polygenic. However, it is difficult to demonstrate the functional importance of genes of small effect in population studies, and these genes are not always easily targeted for prevention. The SuprMam (suppressor of mammary tumour) breast cancer susceptibility alleles were previously identified as contributors to spontaneous mammary tumour development in Trp53+/- mice...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Laurie P Whitsel, John Wilbanks, Mark D Huffman, Jennifer L Hall
This paper focuses on the significant role of government in promoting precision medicine and public health and the potential intersection with healthy living (HL) and population health. Recent research has highlighted the interplay between genes, environments and different exposures individuals and populations experience over a lifetime. These interactions between longitudinal behaviors, epigenetics, and expression of the human genome have the potential to transform health and well-being, even within a single generation...
December 7, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Afshin Sam, Monica Kraft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Chest
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