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gene environment interaction

Hairong Zhou, Yanjuan Che, Xiuhua Fu, Hong Wei, Xiuying Gao, Yanxuan Chen, Shaopeng Zhang
To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) gene polymorphisms and additional gene-environment interaction with coronary atherosclerosis risk. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was used to screen the best interaction combination among 4 SNPs, smoking and alcohol drinking. Logistic regression was performed to investigate association between 4 SNPs within TFPI-2 gene and coronary atherosclerosis risk. Coronary atherosclerosis risk was significantly higher in carriers with the A allele of rs34489123 within TFPI-2 gene than those with GG genotype (GA+AA versus GG), adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Yi Shang, Sanwen Huang
A vast majority of structurally diverse metabolites play essential roles in mediating the interactions between plants and environments, and constitute a valuable resource for industrial applications. Recent breakthroughs in sequencing technology have greatly accelerated metabolic studies of plant natural products, providing opportunities to investigate the molecular basis underlying the diversity of plant specialized metabolites through large-scale analysis. Here, we focus on the biosynthesis of plant triterpenoids, especially the three diversifying reactions (cyclization, oxidation, and glycosylation) that largely contribute to the structural diversity of triterpenoids...
October 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ujwala Amberkar, Rakhee Khandeparker, Pankaj Parab
This study analyses the induction and repression of nitrate reduction activity in a batch culture of Idiomarina strain cos21. On a change from aerobic to anaerobic respiration, the culture entered a stationary phase. The onset of this phase showed 3.75 fold increase in mRNA levels for the nitrate reductase enzyme. mRNA accumulated very rapidly during a short period, after which its overall concentration declined to reach a lower value. The level of nitrite reductase protein reached a maximum value at 36 h of growth when the oxygen concentration dropped below 10 µM...
October 19, 2018: Current Microbiology
Marion E Fraunhofer, Andreas J Geißler, Jürgen Behr, Rudi F Vogel
Lactobacillus (L.) brevis represents a versatile, ubiquitistic species of lactic acid bacteria, occurring in various foods, as well as plants and intestinal tracts. The ability to deal with considerably differing environmental conditions in the respective ecological niches implies a genomic adaptation to the particular requirements to use it as a habitat beyond a transient state. Given the isolation source, 24 L. brevis genomes were analyzed via comparative genomics to get a broad view of the genomic complexity and ecological versatility of this species...
October 19, 2018: Current Microbiology
Yugandhar Poli, Divya Balakrishnan, Subrahmanyam Desiraju, Madhusmitha Panigrahy, Sitapati Rao Voleti, Satendra Kumar Mangrauthia, Sarla Neelamraju
Multi environment testing helps identify stable genotypes especially for adverse abiotic stress situations. In the era of climate change and multiple abiotic stresses, it becomes important to analyze stability of rice lines under both irrigated and stress conditions. Mutants are an important genetic resource which can help in revealing the basis of natural variation. We analyzed 300 EMS induced mutants of aus rice cultivar Nagina22 (N22) for their G × E interaction and stability under low phosphorus (P), water limited and irrigated conditions...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zachary D Wallen, Honglei Chen, Erin M Hill-Burns, Stewart A Factor, Cyrus P Zabetian, Haydeh Payami
Objective: To identify modifiers of age at diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) included 1,950 individuals with PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC) study. Replication was conducted in the Parkinson's, Genes and Environment study, including 209 prevalent (PAGEP ) and 517 incident (PAGEI ) PD cases. Cox regression was used to test association with age at diagnosis. Individuals without neurologic disease were used to rule out confounding...
October 2018: Neurology. Genetics
Cristina Oana Mǎrginean, Claudiu Mǎrginean, Lorena Elena Meliţ
Introduction: Childhood obesity is occurring at alarming rates in both developed and developing countries. "Obesogenic" environmental factors must be associated with variants of different risk alleles to determine polygenic or common obesity, and their impact depends on different developmental stages.The interaction between obesogenic environment and genetic susceptibility results in the so-called polygenic forms of obesity. In contrast, monogenic and syndromic obesity are not influenced by environmental events...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Xiaosong Zhang, Jilei Tang, Nan Shen, Kewei Ren
Methionine synthase (METH, i.e., MTR) is a key enzyme in the folate pathway, which plays a critical role in the synthesis, repair, and methylation of DNA. The association between METH gene polymorphisms and prostate cancer susceptibility remains ambiguous. Thus, we performed an updated meta-analysis of METH single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1805087 involving 12 independent case-control studies comprising 9986 prostate cancer patients and 40134 controls. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were applied to evaluate the relation of this single-nucleotide polymorphism with prostate cancer...
October 18, 2018: Aging
Catalina Zavala, Christopher R Beam, Brian K Finch, Margaret Gatz, Wendy Johnson, William S Kremen, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Nancy L Pedersen, Chandra A Reynolds
We examined whether attained socioeconomic status (SES) moderated genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in cognitive performance using pooled data from 9 adult twin studies. Prior work concerning SES moderation of cognitive performance has focused on rearing SES. The current adult sample of 12,196 individuals (aged 27-98 years) allowed for the examination of common sources of individual differences between attained SES and cognitive performance (signaling potential gene-environment correlation mechanisms, rGE), as well as sources of individual differences unique to cognitive performance (signaling potential gene-environment interaction mechanisms, G × E)...
October 18, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Esther Herrera-Luis, Natalia Hernandez-Pacheco, Susanne J Vijverberg, Carlos Flores, Maria Pino-Yanes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma exacerbations have been suggested to result from complex interactions between genetic and nongenetic components. In this review, we provide an overview of the genetic association studies of asthma exacerbations, their main results and limitations, as well as future directions of this field. RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies on asthma exacerbations have been performed using a candidate-gene approach. Although few genome-wide association studies of asthma exacerbations have been conducted up to date, they have revealed promising associations but with small effect sizes...
October 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Melissa L D Rayner, Simão Laranjeira, Rachael E Evans, Rebecca J Shipley, Jess Healy, James B Phillips
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) have a high prevalence and can be debilitating, resulting in life-long loss or disturbance in end-organ function, which compromises quality of life for patients. Current therapies use microsurgical approaches but there is the potential for enhancing recovery through other therapeutic modalities such as; cell-based conduits, gene therapy and small molecules. A number of molecular targets and drugs which have the potential to improve nerve regeneration have been identified, however, there are challenges associated with moving therapies toward clinical translation...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Shufeng Liu, Ming Wang, Tingting Li, Qian Chen
The cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) to microorganisms has attracted great attention over the past few decades. As an important participator in nitrogen cycle, aerobic denitrifiers have been proven to be negatively affected by TiO2 NPs, but the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In this study, bacteria-nanoparticle interaction was investigated by exposing an aerobic denitrifier, Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1 to different concentrations of TiO2 NPs at dark condition, in order to investigate the cytotoxicity mechanism...
October 17, 2018: Environmental Technology
Hitesh Pingle, Peng-Yuan Wang, Rosalia Cavaliere, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Helmut Thissen, Peter Kingshott
Extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) exists in biological environments such as those around medical implants since prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells can undergo processes such as autolysis, necrosis, and apoptosis. For bacteria, eDNA has been shown to be involved in biofilm formation and gene transfer and acts as a nutrient source. In terms of biofilm formation, eDNA in solution has been shown to be very important in increasing attachment; however, very little is known about the role played by surface immobilized eDNA in initiating bacterial attachment and whether the nature of a DNA layer (physically adsorbed or covalently attached, and molecular weight) influences biofilm formation...
October 16, 2018: Biointerphases
Bethany J Wolf, Paula S Ramos, J Madison Hyer, Viswanathan Ramakrishnan, Gary S Gilkeson, Gary Hardiman, Paul J Nietert, Diane L Kamen
Development and progression of many human diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), are hypothesized to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Current approaches to identify and evaluate interactions are limited, most often focusing on main effects and two-way interactions. While higher order interactions associated with disease are documented, they are difficult to detect since expanding the search space to all possible interactions of p predictors means evaluating 2 p - 1 terms...
October 15, 2018: Genes
Malte Lehmann, Elisabeth Knust, Sarita Hebbar
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a complex inherited disease. It is associated with mutations in a wide variety of genes with many different functions. These mutations impact the integrity of rod photoreceptors and ultimately result in the progressive degeneration of rods and cone photoreceptors in the retina, leading to complete blindness. A hallmark of this disease is the variable degree to which symptoms are manifest in patients. This is indicative of the influence of the environment, and/or of the distinct genetic makeup of the individual...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xinhua Zheng, Qian Liu, Ming Yi, Shuang Qin, Kongming Wu
Tumor environment plays a pivotal role in determining cancer biology characteristics. Cytokine factors, as a critical component in tumor milieu, execute distinct functions in the process of tumorigenesis and progression via the autocrine or paracrine manner. The retinal determination gene network (RDGN), which mainly comprised DACH, SIX, and EYA family members, is required for the organ development in mammalian species. While the aberrant expression of RDGN is involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumors via interacting with different cytokine-related signals, such as CXCL8, IL-6, TGF-β, FGF, and VEGF, in a cell- or tissue-dependent manner...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Michele Carbone, Ivano Amelio, El Bachir Affar, James Brugarolas, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, Lewis C Cantley, Webster K Cavenee, Zhijian Chen, Carlo M Croce, Alan D' Andrea, David Gandara, Carlotta Giorgi, Wei Jia, Qing Lan, Tak Wah Mak, James L Manley, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Jose N Onuchic, Harvey I Pass, Paolo Pinton, Carol Prives, Nathaniel Rothman, Said M Sebti, James Turkson, Xifeng Wu, Haining Yang, Herbert Yu, Gerry Melino
The relative contribution of intrinsic genetic factors and extrinsic environmental ones to cancer aetiology and natural history is a lengthy and debated issue. Gene-environment interactions (G x E) arise when the combined presence of both a germline genetic variant and a known environmental factor modulates the risk of disease more than either one alone. A panel of experts discussed our current understanding of cancer aetiology, known examples of G × E interactions in cancer, and the expanded concept of G × E interactions to include somatic cancer mutations and iatrogenic environmental factors such as anti-cancer treatment...
October 15, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Bing Tian, Koa Hosoki, Zhiqing Liu, Jun Yang, Yingxin Zhao, Hong Sun, Jia Zhou, Erik Rytting, Lata Kaphalia, William J Calhoun, Sanjiv Sur, Allan R Brasier
BACKGROUND: Frequent exacerbations of allergic asthma leads to airway remodeling and a decline in pulmonary function, producing morbidity. Cat dander is an aeroallergen associated with asthma risk. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate the mechanism of cat dander-induced inflammation-remodeling. METHODS: We identified remodeling in mucosal samples from allergic asthma by Q-RT-PCR. We developed a model of aeroallergen-induced experimental asthma by repetitive cat dander extract exposure...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Alexandra Ulin, Jake Henderson, Minh-Tam Pham, James Meyo, Yuying Chen, Sibel I Karchner, Jared V Goldstone, Mark E Hahn, Larissa M Williams
Interactions between regulatory pathways allow organisms to adapt to their environment and respond to stress. One interaction that has been recently identified occurs between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor (NRF) family. Each transcription factor regulates numerous downstream genes involved in the cellular response to toxicants and oxidative stress; they are also implicated in normal developmental pathways. The zebrafish model was used to explore the role of AHR regulation of nrf genes during development and in response to toxicant exposure...
October 13, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Konstantin A Demin, Murilo S de Abreu, Polina A Alekseeva, Ashton J Friend, Anton M Lakstygal, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Wandong Bao, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff
Currently becoming widely recognized, personalized psychiatry focuses on unique physiological and genetic profiles of patients to best tailor their therapy. However, the role of individual differences, as well as genetic and environmental factors, in human psychiatric disorders remains poorly understood. Animal experimental models are a valuable tool to improve our understanding of disease pathophysiology and its molecular mechanisms. Due to high reproduction capability, fully sequenced genome, easy gene editing, and high genetic and physiological homology with humans, zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a novel powerful model in biomedicine...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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