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Penny A Asbell, Heleen H DeCory
The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study evaluates in vitro antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from ocular infections. Here we report resistance rates and trends among conjunctival-sourced ocular isolates collected across the US from 2009 through 2016. A total of 1198 conjunctival isolates (483 S. aureus, 305 CoNS, 208 H...
2018: PloS One
Le Fu, Ling Xie, Wenbo Fu, Shuanglin Hu, Zhi-Bin Zhang, Klaus Leifer, Håkan Engqvist, Wei Xia
Transparent/translucent glass ceramics (GCs) have broad applications in biomedicine, armor, energy, and constructions. However, GCs with improved optical properties typically suffer from impaired mechanical properties, compared to traditional sintered full-ceramics. We present a method of obtaining high-strength, translucent GCs by preparing ZrO2-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass ceramics (NCGCs), with a microstructure of monocrystalline ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix. The ZrO2-SiO2 NCGC with a composition of 65%ZrO2-35%SiO2 (molar ratio, 65Zr) achieved an average flexural strength of 1 GPa...
October 18, 2018: Nano Letters
Matthew A Kolmann, Paulina Urban, Adam P Summers
The serrasalmids: piranhas, pacus, and their relatives, are ubiquitous Neotropical fishes with diverse diets, ecologies, and behaviors. Serrasalmids have a bony, serrated keel which lines the underbellies of these fishes, the structure for which the family is named. We examined the diversity and structure of the keel in piranhas and allies using micro-computed tomography scanning in over 30 species of serrasalmids, a third of the species richness for the family, and for 95 total characiform specimens. The keel is highly diverse across serrasalmids, with serrae shape dictating the overall form of the keel...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Anandaroop Mukhopadhyay, Jocelyn Wright, Shawna Shirley, David A Canton, Christoph Burkart, Richard J Connolly, Jean S Campbell, Robert H Pierce
Intratumoral electroporation-mediated IL-12 gene therapy (IT-pIL12/EP) has been shown to be safe and effective in clinical trials, demonstrating systemic antitumor effects with local delivery of this potent cytokine. We recently optimized our IL-12 gene delivery platform to increase transgene expression and efficacy in preclinical models. Here we analyze the immunological changes induced with the new IT-pIL12/EP platform in both electroporated and distant, non-electroporated lesions. IT-pIL12/EP-treated tumors demonstrated rapid induction of IL-12-regulated pathways, as well as other cytokines and chemokines pathways, and upregulation of antigen presentation machinery...
October 15, 2018: Gene Therapy
Dawid Dróżdż
Aetosaurs are armored basal archosaurs that played a significant role in land ecosystems during the Late Triassic (237-201 Ma). The polish species Stagonolepis olenkae Sulej, 2010 described from the Krasiejów locality (southern Poland) is one of the oldest known representatives of the group. Abundant and well-preserved material, including partially articulated specimens, allows a detailed description of the forelimbs in this species. The forelimbs of S. olenkae are the most similar to that of large aetosaurs like Desmatosuchus smalli , Desmatosuchus spurensis , Longosuchus meadei , Typothorax coccinarum or Stagonolepis robertsoni ...
2018: PeerJ
Ryan Lu, Dorothy J Miller, Wyatt L Du Frane, Swetha Chandrasekaran, Richard L Landingham, Marcus A Worsley, Joshua D Kuntz
Boron carbide (B4C) is one of the hardest materials in existence. However, this attractive property also limits its machineability into complex shapes for high wear, high hardness, and lightweight material applications such as armors. To overcome this challenge, negative additive manufacturing (AM) is employed to produce complex geometries of boron carbides at various length scales. Negative AM first involves gelcasting a suspension into a 3D-printed plastic mold. The mold is then dissolved away, leaving behind a green body as a negative copy...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Daniel A Pryma, Bennett B Chin, Richard B Noto, Joseph S Dillon, Stephanie Perkins, Lilja Solnes, Lale Kostakoglu, Aldo N Serafini, Miguel H Pampaloni, Jessica Jensen, Thomas Armor, Tess Lin, Theresa White, Nancy Stambler, Stuart Apfel, Vincent DiPippo, Syed Mahmood, Vivien Wong, Camilo Jimenez
Patients with metastatic or unresectable (advanced) pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPGL) have poor prognoses and few treatment options. This multicenter, phase 2 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of high-specific-activity I-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (HSA I-131 MIBG) in patients with advanced PPGL. Methods: In this open-label, single-arm study, 81 PPGL patients were screened for enrollment, and 74 received a treatment-planning dose of HSA I-131 MIBG. 68 patients with advanced PPGL received at least one therapeutic dose (~18...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Sherman J Alter, Chrstine M Sanfilippo, Penny A Asbell, Heleen H DeCory
BACKGROUND: The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) study is a nationwide longitudinal antibiotic resistance surveillance program specific to bacterial pathogens commonly encountered in ocular infections. We evaluated resistance rates and trends among isolates obtained from pediatric patients (≤17 years of age). METHODS: Clinical centers across the US were invited to submit ocular isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to a central laboratory...
September 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Nate B Hardy, Douglas J Williams
Fourteen species of armored scale insects are known only from New Caledonia. Here, the adult female of fourteen more are described: Agrophaspisansevatae sp. n. , Aonidiamontikoghis sp. n. , Aonidiapauca sp. n. , Fernaldannawhita sp. n. , Furcaspiscostulariae sp. n. , Greeniellacasuarinae sp. n. , Greenielladacrydiae sp. n. , Lepidosaphesmonticola sp. n. , Leptaspispege gen. et sp. n. , Leucaspismontikoghis sp. n. , Melanaspisnothofagi sp. n. , Neomorganianothofagi sp. n. , Pseudaonidiadugdali sp. n. , and Pseudaonidiayateensis sp...
2018: ZooKeys
Dinaíza A Rocha-Reis, Karina de Oliveira Brandão, Lurdes F de Almeida-Toledo, Rubens Pazza, Karine F Kavalco
The genus Hypostomus has a broad geographic distribution in Brazilian rivers and comprises armored catfishes with a very complicated taxonomy due to the absence of morphological autapomorphies. The existence of nearly 10 allopatric populations with different karyotypes suggests that Hypostomusancistroides represents a species complex in the Upper Paraná River basin. In this paper, an unusual karyotype of an isolated H. aff. ancistroides population was investigated. All specimens of this sample have 2n = 66 chromosomes except for 1 male with 2n = 67, most likely due to a supernumerary chromosome...
September 28, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Chong Yan, Xin-Bing Cheng, Yu-Xing Yao, Xin Shen, Bo-Quan Li, Wen-Jun Li, Rui Zhang, Jia-Qi Huang, Hong Li, Qiang Zhang
Lithium-metal electrodes have undergone a comprehensive renaissance to meet the requirements of high-energy-density batteries due to their lowest electrode potential and the very high theoretical capacity. Unfortunately, the unstable interface between lithium and nonaqueous electrolyte induces dendritic Li and low Coulombic efficiency during repeated Li plating/stripping, which is one of the huge obstacles toward practical lithium-metal batteries. Here, a composite mixed ionic/electronic conductor interphase (MCI) is formed on the surface of Li by in situ chemical reactions of a copper-fluoride-based solution and Li metal at room temperature...
September 27, 2018: Advanced Materials
David Boffey, Idan Harat, Yftach Gepner, Cheyanne L Frosti, Shany Funk, Jay R Hoffman
Introduction: The weight that soldiers are required to carry in training and in combat has continually increased over the years. Changes in load carried or pace of activity will alter the physiological and biomechanical stress associated with the activity. Whether it is part of the soldier's training or an actual operation, managing the proper load and speed to minimize fatigue can be integral to the soldier's success. Without a proper understanding of the multitude of factors that may affect load carriage performance, mission success may be jeopardized...
September 25, 2018: Military Medicine
Yao-Guang Qin, Qing-Song Zhou, Fang Yu, Xu-Bo Wang, Jiu-Feng Wei, Chao-Dong Zhu, Yan-Zhou Zhang, Alfried P Vogler
Host specificity of parasitoids may be measured by various specialization indices to assess the variation of interaction strength among species and the structure of the wider interaction network. However, the conclusions from analyses at the species and network levels may differ, which remains poorly explored. In addition, the recovery of cryptic species of hosts and parasitoids with molecular data may affect the structure of inferred interaction links. We quantified host specificity of hymenopteran parasitoids (family Encyrtidae) on armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) from a wide geographic sampling range across the Chinese Mainland based on both morphological and molecular species delimitation...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Maryam Khan, Qayyum Husain, Shamoon Asmat
The unexpected discovery of graphene and especially the follow-up explosion of interest in its properties and applications marked the beginning of a new carbon era. Graphene-based nanostructured materials are highly useful because they show great promise in the field of biotechnology and biomedicine. Owing to their unique structural features, exceptional chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties, and their ability to affect the microenvironment of biomolecules, graphene-armored nanomaterials are suitable for use in various applications, such as immobilization of enzymes, field-effect transistors, photovoltaic devices, and biosensors, which in turn is extremely vital to the development of biomedical instruments, clinical diagnosis, and disease treatment...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Qiang Ou, Georg Mayer
Cambrian marine lobopodians are generally considered as predecessors of modern panarthropods (onychophorans, tardigrades, and arthropods). Hence, further study of their morphological diversity and early radiation may enhance our understanding of the ground pattern and evolutionary history of panarthropods. Here, we report a rare lobopodian species, †Lenisambulatrix humboldti gen. et sp. nov. ("Humboldt lobopodian"), from the early Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte and describe new morphological features of †Diania cactiformis, a coeval armoured lobopodian nicknamed "walking cactus"...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amanda L Forster, Viviana Rodriguez Cardenas, Ajay Krishnamurthy, Zois Tsinas, Amy Engelbrecht-Wiggans, Nolan Gonzalez
Traditionally, soft body armor has been made from poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. However, to diversify the fiber choices in the United States body armor market, copolymer fibers based on the combination of 5-amino-2-(p-aminophenyl) benzimidazole (PBIA) and the more conventional PPTA were introduced. Little is known regarding the long-term stability of these fibers, but as condensation polymers, they are expected to have potential sensitivity to moisture and humidity...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Scott A Schneider, Akiko Okusu, Benjamin B Normark
The armored scale insect tribe Aspidiotini comprises many pest species that are globally invasive and economically damaging. The taxonomy of scale insects is based almost solely upon morphological characters of adult females, and little prior work has been done to test the classification of aspidiotines against molecular evidence. To address these concerns, we reconstruct a molecular phylogeny for aspidiotine armored scales that expands greatly upon taxonomic and character representations from previous studies...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Niall O'Sullivan, Cosimo Posth, Valentina Coia, Verena J Schuenemann, T Douglas Price, Joachim Wahl, Ron Pinhasi, Albert Zink, Johannes Krause, Frank Maixner
From historical and archeological records, it is posited that the European medieval household was a combination of close relatives and recruits. However, this kinship structure has not yet been directly tested at a genomic level on medieval burials. The early 7th century CE burial at Niederstotzingen, discovered in 1962, is the most complete and richest example of Alemannic funerary practice in Germany. Excavations found 13 individuals who were buried with an array of inscribed bridle gear, jewelry, armor, and swords...
September 2018: Science Advances
Christophe A Monnier, Daniel G DeMartini, J Herbert Waite
The mussel cuticle, a thin layer that shields byssal threads from environmental exposure, is a model among high-performance coatings for being both hard and hyper-extensible. However, despite avid interest in translating its features into an engineered material, the mechanisms underlying this performance are manifold and incompletely understood. To deepen our understanding of this biomaterial, we explore here the ultrastructural, scratch-resistant, and mechanical features at the submicrometer scale and relate our observations to individual cuticular components...
August 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Hannah M Houle, Cary B Lopez, Jeffrey D Leblond
Pyrodinium bahamense is a dinoflagellate of concern in subtropical and tropical coastal environments. To date, there is only a single published study on its fatty acids, but no published data on its sterol composition. Sterols, which are membrane-reinforcing lipids in eukaryotes, display a great diversity of structures in dinoflagellates, with some serving as chemotaxonomic markers. We have examined the sterol compositions of two isolates of P. bahamense from Indian River Lagoon and Tampa Bay, Florida, and have found both to produce three sterols: cholesterol, dinosterol, and 4α-methylgorgostanol...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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