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Ben D Cox, Alessandro De Simone, Valerie A Tornini, Sumeet P Singh, Stefano Di Talia, Kenneth D Poss
Osteoblasts are matrix-depositing cells that can divide and heal bone injuries. Their deep-tissue location and the slow progression of bone regeneration challenge attempts to capture osteoblast behaviors in live tissue at high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we have developed an imaging platform to monitor and quantify individual and collective behaviors of osteoblasts in adult zebrafish scales, skeletal body armor discs that regenerate rapidly after loss. Using a panel of transgenic lines that visualize and manipulate osteoblasts, we find that a founder pool of osteoblasts emerges through de novo differentiation within one day of scale plucking...
November 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Pablo Lehmann A, FlÁvio C T Lima, Roberto E Reis
Parotocinclus yaka is described as a new species of hypoptopomatine cascudinho from tributaries of the Rio Tiquié, tributary to the Rio Uaupés, upper Rio Negro drainage, Amazon basin, Amazonas State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners in northeastern and southeastern Brazil by having the cheek canal plate elongated posteriorly on the ventral surface of the head and in contact with the cleithrum. Parotocinclus yaka is diagnosed from the Parotocinclus species of the Amazon, Orinoco and Guianas watersheds by having a conspicuous dark spots smaller than the pupil diameter distributed dorsally and laterally on the head; it is also differentiated from P...
November 15, 2018: Zootaxa
Onur Hasturk, David L Kaplan
Unlike unicellular organisms and plant cells surrounded with a cell wall, naked plasma membranes of mammalian cells make them more susceptible to environmental stresses encountered during in vitro biofabrication and in vivo cell therapy applications. Recent advances in micro- and nanoencapsulation of single mammalian cells provide an effective strategy to isolate cells from their surroundings and protect them against harsh environmental conditions. Microemulsification and droplet-based microfluidics have enabled researchers to encapsulate single cells within a variety of microscale hydrogel materials with a range of biochemical and mechanical properties and functionalities including enhanced cell-matrix interactions or on-demand degradation...
November 24, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Chih-Yuan Fu, Francesco Bajani, Caroline Butler, Stanley Welsh, Thomas Messer, Matthew Kaminsky, Frederick Starr, Andrew Dennis, Victoria Schlanser, Justin Mis, Stathis Poulakidas, Faran Bokhari
BACKGROUND: Morbid obesity is usually accompanied by both subcutaneous and visceral fat accumulation. Fat can mimic an air bag, absorbing the force of a collision. We hypothesized that morbid obesity is mechanically protective for hollow viscus organs in blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). METHODS: The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) was queried for BAT patients from 2013 to 2015. We looked at the rate of gastrointestinal (GI) tract injuries in all BAT patients with different BMIs...
November 26, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Jelle van Schooten, Marit J van Gils
Despite enormous efforts no HIV-1 vaccine has been developed that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to protect against infection to date. The high antigenic diversity and dense N-linked glycan armor, which covers nearly the entire HIV-1 envelope protein (Env), are major roadblocks for the development of bNAbs by vaccination. In addition, the naive human antibody repertoire features a low frequency of exceptionally long heavy chain complementary determining regions (CDRH3s), which is a typical characteristic that many HIV-1 bNAbs use to penetrate the glycan armor...
November 26, 2018: Retrovirology
Guru Dutta Satyarthee, Sanjeev Lalwani
Calcification is uncommon in chronic subdural hematoma and popularly known as calcified chronic subdural hematoma (CSSDH), and about hundred cases are reported in the form of isolated cases report. The calcified inner membrane of chronic subdural hematoma gets adherent to underlying cerebral cortex preventing re-expansion of the brain and producing mass effect. Calcification can develop in chronic subdural hematoma of traumatic origin or postmeningitic effusion or extremely rarely after shunt surgery. CCSDH is also known as armored brain or Matrioska head and those related to cerebrospinal fluid diversion ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery, constitute one of the rare complications of shunt, and development is attributed to overdrainage of shunt...
October 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
S Ghods, S Murcia, E A Ossa, D Arola
Natural dermal armors are serving as a source of inspiration in the pursuit of "next-generation" structural materials. Although the dynamic strain response of these materials is arguably the most relevant to their performance as armors, limited work has been performed in this area. Here, uniaxial tension and transverse puncture tests were performed on specimens obtained from the scales of Asian carp over strain rates spanning seven decades, from 10-4 to 103 s-1 . The importance of anatomical variations was explored by comparing the performance of scales from the head, middle and tail regions...
November 2, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Devin K Hoffman, Andrew B Heckert, Lindsay E Zanno
Aetosaurs comprise a clade of quadrupedal, armored, omnivores to herbivores that lived across much of the supercontinent of Pangea during the Late Triassic. Their relative abundance in many units, and the rarity of other Triassic herbivores, points to them as key components of Late Triassic ecosystems. Debate persists about whether they were growing more or less slowly when compared to extant crocodylians, and bone histology is sparsely sampled within the group. We undertook a histological examination of Coahomasuchus chathamensis to address its ontogenetic trajectory and characterize its histology...
November 8, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Junyong Park, Patrick S Doyle
Hierarchical assembly of heterogeneous particles is of great importance to interface and colloid science. In this work, a facile but powerful approach for the large-scale production of multifunctional hydrogel particles armored with biological colloidal species is developed by combining Pickering stabilization and photopolymerization. Biocompatible hollow pollen grains extracted from naturally occurring pollen species with an average diameter of ∼32 μm serve as universal solid emulsifiers dispersed in an oil phase and are self-assembled at the interface between an oil phase and a photo-cross-linkable hydrogel to make water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion droplets...
November 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Vera R S Wolff, Caio F S Efrom, Daniele C DA Silva, Adilson Tonietto
Olive production (Olea europaea L.) is a recent activity in Brazil and studies on the adaptability of olive trees varieties in the States are required. One of the problems that can hamper the development of olive trees is the incidence of pests, such as scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha). In this study, the associated scale insect species were found in ten varieties in an olive grove located at the Research Center of the Serra do Sudeste Region (30º33'15"S, 52º23'45"W) in Brazil. The surveys were carried out twice in each season (2013-2014)...
October 18, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Lu-Yi Wang, Hamed Rajabi, Nima Ghoroubi, Chung-Ping Lin, Stanislav N Gorb
Robust body armor is one of many anti-predator strategies used among animal taxa. The exoskeleton of insects can serve as the secondary defense mechanism in combination with the primary defense such as warning color. Aposematic Pachyrhynchus weevils advertise their unprofitability and use their robust exoskeleton for effective defense against lizard predators. While the mature weevils survive after the predatory attack, the soft teneral ones can easily be consumed. To reveal how the mature weevils achieve such effective protection, we investigated the ontogenetic changes in the microstructure and material properties of the exoskeleton of the adult weevils...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Edward A Luce, Sonia M Alvarez
Acquisition of a secure airway is an essential element of the operative management of maxillofacial trauma. Of the options available, submental intubation is an alternative to tracheostomy. The access should be accomplished via a midline approach rather than lateral through the mylohyoid, an armored endotracheal tube utilized to prevent kinking, and the passage facilitated by use of wound dilators obtained from a percutaneous tracheostomy set.
September 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Penny A Asbell, Heleen H DeCory
The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study evaluates in vitro antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from ocular infections. Here we report resistance rates and trends among conjunctival-sourced ocular isolates collected across the US from 2009 through 2016. A total of 1198 conjunctival isolates (483 S. aureus, 305 CoNS, 208 H...
2018: PloS One
Le Fu, Ling Xie, Wenbo Fu, Shuanglin Hu, Zhibin Zhang, Klaus Leifer, Håkan Engqvist, Wei Xia
Transparent/translucent glass ceramics (GCs) have broad applications in biomedicine, armor, energy, and constructions. However, GCs with improved optical properties typically suffer from impaired mechanical properties, compared to traditional sintered full-ceramics. We present a method of obtaining high-strength, translucent GCs by preparing ZrO2 -SiO2 nanocrystalline glass ceramics (NCGCs) with a microstructure of monocrystalline ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix. The ZrO2 -SiO2 NCGC with a composition of 65%ZrO/35%SiO2 (molar ratio, 65Zr) achieved an average flexural strength of 1 GPa...
November 14, 2018: Nano Letters
Matthew A Kolmann, Paulina Urban, Adam P Summers
The serrasalmids: piranhas, pacus, and their relatives, are ubiquitous Neotropical fishes with diverse diets, ecologies, and behaviors. Serrasalmids have a bony, serrated keel which lines the underbellies of these fishes, the structure for which the family is named. We examined the diversity and structure of the keel in piranhas and allies using micro-computed tomography scanning in over 30 species of serrasalmids, a third of the species richness for the family, and for 95 total characiform specimens. The keel is highly diverse across serrasalmids, with serrae shape dictating the overall form of the keel...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Anandaroop Mukhopadhyay, Jocelyn Wright, Shawna Shirley, David A Canton, Christoph Burkart, Richard J Connolly, Jean S Campbell, Robert H Pierce
Intratumoral electroporation-mediated IL-12 gene therapy (IT-pIL12/EP) has been shown to be safe and effective in clinical trials, demonstrating systemic antitumor effects with local delivery of this potent cytokine. We recently optimized our IL-12 gene delivery platform to increase transgene expression and efficacy in preclinical models. Here we analyze the immunological changes induced with the new IT-pIL12/EP platform in both electroporated and distant, non-electroporated lesions. IT-pIL12/EP-treated tumors demonstrated rapid induction of IL-12-regulated pathways, as well as other cytokines and chemokines pathways, and upregulation of antigen presentation machinery...
October 15, 2018: Gene Therapy
Dawid Dróżdż
Aetosaurs are armored basal archosaurs that played a significant role in land ecosystems during the Late Triassic (237-201 Ma). The polish species Stagonolepis olenkae Sulej, 2010 described from the Krasiejów locality (southern Poland) is one of the oldest known representatives of the group. Abundant and well-preserved material, including partially articulated specimens, allows a detailed description of the forelimbs in this species. The forelimbs of S. olenkae are the most similar to that of large aetosaurs like Desmatosuchus smalli , Desmatosuchus spurensis , Longosuchus meadei , Typothorax coccinarum or Stagonolepis robertsoni ...
2018: PeerJ
Ryan Lu, Dorothy J Miller, Wyatt L Du Frane, Swetha Chandrasekaran, Richard L Landingham, Marcus A Worsley, Joshua D Kuntz
Boron carbide (B4C) is one of the hardest materials in existence. However, this attractive property also limits its machineability into complex shapes for high wear, high hardness, and lightweight material applications such as armors. To overcome this challenge, negative additive manufacturing (AM) is employed to produce complex geometries of boron carbides at various length scales. Negative AM first involves gelcasting a suspension into a 3D-printed plastic mold. The mold is then dissolved away, leaving behind a green body as a negative copy...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Daniel A Pryma, Bennett B Chin, Richard B Noto, Joseph S Dillon, Stephanie Perkins, Lilja Solnes, Lale Kostakoglu, Aldo N Serafini, Miguel H Pampaloni, Jessica Jensen, Thomas Armor, Tess Lin, Theresa White, Nancy Stambler, Stuart Apfel, Vincent DiPippo, Syed Mahmood, Vivien Wong, Camilo Jimenez
Patients with metastatic or unresectable (advanced) pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPGL) have poor prognoses and few treatment options. This multicenter, phase 2 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of high-specific-activity I-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (HSA I-131 MIBG) in patients with advanced PPGL. Methods: In this open-label, single-arm study, 81 PPGL patients were screened for enrollment, and 74 received a treatment-planning dose of HSA I-131 MIBG. 68 patients with advanced PPGL received at least one therapeutic dose (~18...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Sherman J Alter, Chrstine M Sanfilippo, Penny A Asbell, Heleen H DeCory
BACKGROUND: The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) study is a nationwide longitudinal antibiotic resistance surveillance program specific to bacterial pathogens commonly encountered in ocular infections. We evaluated resistance rates and trends among isolates obtained from pediatric patients (≤17 years of age). METHODS: Clinical centers across the US were invited to submit ocular isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to a central laboratory...
September 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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