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Cancer AND oncology

Isabel Rauscher, Matthias Eiber, Wolfgang A Weber, Jürgen E Gschwend, Thomas Horn, Tobias Maurer
Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography combining both functional and morphological information has emerged as a powerful tool in oncological imaging within the past decades. The most commonly used radiotracer in oncology visualizing metabolic information is 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose. However, the use of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose in urological oncology is challenging, as it is limited by physiological excretion through the urinary system. Therefore, it is only useful when applied to specific indications in selected patients with urological malignancy; for example, for detection of residual disease in the post-chemotherapy management of patients with seminoma...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Marie-Claude Pelland-Marcotte, Jason D Pole, Ketan Kulkarni, Uma Athale, David Stammers, Christine Sabapathy, Jessica Halparin, Leonardo R Brandão, Lillian Sung
There is conflicting information about the epidemiology of thromboembolism (TE) in paediatric oncology. Objectives were to describe the incidence and risk factors of TE in children with cancer. We included all children with cancer less than 15 years of age diagnosed from 2001 to 2016, treated at one of the 12 Canadian paediatric centres outside of Ontario and entered into the Cancer in Young People-Canada database. Potential risk factors for TE were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by haematological malignancies versus solid tumours...
August 13, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Ricardo Vianna de Carvalho, Monica Cristina Souza, Cíntia Silva Dos Santos, Rondinele Santos da Silva, Ana Luiza de Mattos-Guaraldi
Bloodstream and venous catheter-related corynebacterial infections in paediatric patients with haematological cancer were investigated from January 2003 to December 2014 at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We observed that during cancer treatment, invasive corynebacterial infections occurred independent of certain factors, such as age and gender, underlying diseases and neutropenia. These infections were ssscaused by Corynebacterium amycolatum and other non-diphtherial corynebacteria...
August 10, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Panayiotis Mavroidis, Jimm Grimm, Mustafa Cengiz, Shiva Das, Xianming Tan, Gozde Yazici, Gokhan Ozyigit
PURPOSE: To estimate the radiobiological parameters of three popular NTCP models, which describe the dose-response relations of carotid blowout syndrome (CBOS) after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). To evaluate the goodness-of-fit and the correlation of those models with CBOS. METHODS: The study included 61 patients with inoperable locally recurrent head and neck cancer treated with SBRT using CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA) at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey between June 2007 and March 2011...
August 13, 2018: Medical Physics
Lindy Zhang, Allison M Martin, Kathy Ruble
Pediatric oncology patients treated with antineoplastic therapy have impaired immune systems that lead to loss of protective antibodies. They require reimmunization to protect against vaccine-preventable diseases. There are a paucity of studies on the clinical practice of pediatric oncologists and the available recommendations are heterogenous. This study describes current reimmunization practices among pediatric oncologists. We surveyed the Children's Oncology Group (COG)-identified principle investigators to capture clinical practices among pediatric oncologists within their institutions regarding reimmunization of non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Frans van Workum, Annelijn E Slaman, Mark I van Berge Henegouwen, Suzanne S Gisbertz, Ewout A Kouwenhoven, Marc J van Det, Frits J H van den Wildenberg, Fatih Polat, Misha D P Luyer, Grard A P Nieuwenhuijzen, Camiel Rosman
INTRODUCTION: Totally minimally invasive esophagectomy (TMIE) is increasingly used in treatment of patients with esophageal carcinoma. However, it is currently unknown if McKeown TMIE or Ivor Lewis TMIE should be preferred for patients in whom both procedures are oncologically feasible. METHODS: The study was performed in 4 high-volume Dutch esophageal cancer centers between November 2009 and April 2017. Prospectively collected data from consecutive patients with esophageal cancer localized in the distal esophagus or gastroesophageal junction undergoing McKeown TMIE or Ivor Lewis TMIE were included...
August 10, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Akbar N Ashrafi, Alessandro Tafuri, Giovanni E Cacciamani, Daniel Park, Andre L de Castro Abreu, Inderbir S Gill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present a perspective on the current status and future directions of focal therapy for prostate cancer (PCa). RECENT FINDINGS: Focal therapy for localized PCa is a rapidly evolving field. Various recent concepts - the index lesion driving prognosis, the enhanced detection of clinically significant PCa using multiparametric MRI and targeted biopsy, improved risk-stratification using novel blood/tissue biomarkers, the recognition that reducing radical treatment-related morbidity (along with reducing pathologic progression) is a clinically meaningful end-point - have all led to a growing interest in focal therapy...
August 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Takumi Shiraishi, Osamu Ukimura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the increasing incidence of low-to-intermediate risk of prostate cancer (PCa) by the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, focal therapy has become one of the promising treatment options in the world. In Asia, same movement are occurring using several technologies including cryoablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound, brachytherapy and irreversible electroporation. However, these are still not common strategies to treat organ-confined PCa...
August 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Daniela Gregolin Giannotti, Samir Abdallah Hanna, Giovanni Guido Cerri, Jose Luiz Barbosa Bevilacqua
PURPOSE: Residual breast tissue (RBT) after mastectomy represents an unknown risk for local recurrence or development of a new cancer and affects decisions regarding adjuvant radiation therapy. This study used breast magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the frequency of RBT and provide average thickness skin flap measurements in patients with total mastectomy, skin-sparing mastectomy, and nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) followed by breast reconstruction. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of 7432 consecutive postoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging examinations performed between August 2008 and July 2013, selecting 367 women (mean ± standard deviation age, 46...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Kiri A Sandler, Sandra A Mitchell, Ethan Basch, Ann C Raldow, Michael L Steinberg, Jamal Sharif, Ryan R Cook, Patrick A Kupelian, Susan A McCloskey
PURPOSE: To improve assessment of symptomatic toxicity in cancer clinical trials and complement clinician-based toxicity reporting, the US National Cancer Institute developed a measurement system called the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE). The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of PRO-CTCAE in patients undergoing radiation therapy and to establish anatomic site-specific item sets for implementation in cancer research...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Manickam Kalappan Vanitha, Pandi Anandakumar, Dhanapal Sakthisekaran
Breast cancer is one of the most severe problems in oncology. Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid with vital biological functions. The current study was intended to investigate the abnormalities in the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins that lead to the progression of 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer and to expose the protective effect of taurine on it. Rats were induced with DMBA by gastric intubation to induce breast cancer. Breast cancer-bearing animals were posttreated with taurine...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Giovanni Ribaudo, Enrico Zanforlin, Giuseppe Zagotto
The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the clinical management of oncological patients spread the light on the use of selective, rationally designed small molecules for the treatment of cancer. First-generation TKIs bared high response against these malignancies, although the unavoidable shadow of resistance limits their long-term efficacy. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of lung cancer cases, and it is the first cause of cancer deaths worldwide for men and women. Traditional chemotherapy is marginally effective against this form, and erlotinib and gefitinib were introduced as first-line treatments based on the observation that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is mutated in several cases and, thus, represents a druggable target...
August 12, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
Alessandro G Campolina, Tania Y Yuba, Tassia C Decimoni, Roseli Leandro, Maria Del Pilar Estevez Diz, Hillegonda M D Novaes, Patrícia C de Soárez
Background: A large number of health economic evaluation (HEE) studies have been published in developed countries. However, Brazilian HEE literature in oncology has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the scientific literature has provided a set of HEE in oncology capable of supporting decision making in the Brazilian context. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify and characterize studies in this field. We searched multiple databases selecting partial and full HEE studies in oncology (1998-2013)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Argyrios Ioannidis, Michael Konstantinidis, Sotirios Apostolakis, Christos Koutserimpas, Nikolaos Machairas, Konstantinos M Konstantinidis
Οncological outcomes in patients with primary rectal cancer have markedly improved over the last few years, mainly due to the widespread application of the total mesorectal excision technique. This improvement should also be largely attributed to multiple specialties, other than colorectal surgery, such as radiology, oncology and pathology. Therefore, a multimodal approach is key to efficient and appropriate rectal cancer management. Multidisciplinary tumor (MDT) boards have become an important asset for the management and treatment of patients with rectal cancer, and a number of studies published to date suggest the beneficial effect of the multidisciplinary approach on the management of such patients...
August 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Erlinda M Gordon, Joshua R Ravicz, Seiya Liu, Sant P Chawla, Frederick L Hall
Basic research in genetics, biochemistry and cell biology has identified the executive enzymes and protein kinase activities that regulate the cell division cycle of all eukaryotic organisms, thereby elucidating the importance of site-specific protein phosphorylation events that govern cell cycle progression. Research in cancer genomics and virology has provided meaningful links to mammalian checkpoint control elements with the characterization of growth-promoting proto-oncogenes encoding c-Myc, Mdm2, cyclins A, D1 and G1, and opposing tumor suppressor proteins, such as p53, pRb, p16INK4A and p21WAF1 , which are commonly dysregulated in cancer...
August 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Walter Alexander
We review key findings in the areas of prostate cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, leukemias, metastatic colon cancer, and one session on molecular profiling guidance of therapy.
August 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Erin R Currie, Steadman L McPeters, Jennifer W Mack
OBJECTIVES: To describe pediatric palliative care (PPC) in pediatric oncology, the importance of PPC for pediatric oncology patients, disparities within pediatric palliative oncology, innovative strategies for improving PPC access in underserved populations, and implications for oncology nursing practice. DATA SOURCES: Published pediatric oncology and palliative peer-reviewed articles and guidance documents. CONCLUSION: Disparities exist within pediatric palliative oncology...
August 9, 2018: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Jason A Webb, Thomas W LeBlanc
OBJECTIVE: To provide a brief review of common palliative care practices in the assessment and management of cancer pain for practicing oncology nurses. DATA SOURCES: Published literature as indexed in Medline, relevant guideline documents, textbooks, and clinical experience. CONCLUSION: All persons with cancer should undergo a comprehensive pain assessment, using validated instruments when possible, and receive expert-guided cancer pain therapy...
August 9, 2018: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Elaine Wittenberg, Anne Reb, Elisa Kanter
OBJECTIVES: To examine nurse communication in cancer care and offer communication strategies for quality palliative care nursing. DATA SOURCES: Communication strategies offered are based on the COMFORT Communication curriculum, an evidence-based communication training program. CONCLUSION: Whole-patient assessment, a major component of palliative care, involves communication that includes eliciting the patient's story, addressing health literacy needs, being mindful of burnout, and relating to the patient and family...
August 9, 2018: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Marta D'Alonzo, Silvia Pecchio, Paola Campisi, Giovanni De Rosa, Valentina Elisabetta Bounous, Andrea Villasco, Paolo Balocco, Nicoletta Biglia
INTRODUCTION: The oncological safety of nipple-areolar complex (NAC) preservation is a concern in the mastectomies performed for cancer indication. The detection of tumor cells during the intraoperative frozen section examination (IE) of sub-areolar/nipple tissue (SAT) leads to the removal of NAC, but frequently the final histology of the nipple is negative for malignancy. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of SAT examination in predicting occult NAC involvement in case of Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy (NSM)...
August 2, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
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