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Cancer AND oncology

Reilly J de Groot, Jan-Willem Wetzels, Matthias A W Merkx, Antoine J W P Rosenberg, Anton F J de Haan, Andries van der Bilt, Jan H Abbink, Caroline M Speksnijder
BACKGROUND: Chewing ability is often compromised in patients with oral cancer. The aim of this study was to identify which factors affect masticatory performance in these patients. METHODS: Patients with primary oral cancer were assessed for up to 5 years after primary treatment. Healthy controls were assessed once. A mixed-model analysis was performed, with masticatory performance as outcome measure. RESULTS: A total of 123 patients were included in the study...
December 15, 2018: Head & Neck
Melissa Simon, Emmanuel Cordova, June M McKoy
Funded by the 21st Century Cures Act, The Beau Biden Cancer Moonshot Initiative is broad, deep, integrative, and intended to expediently address cancer's most vexing problems. Launched in 2015, it is an effort to accelerate the pace of cancer research with a focus on breaking down silos through cross-pollination of research, recruitment of multidisciplinary clinical and basic science research teams, sharing of complex scientific databases, and the creation of public-private research partnerships. This audacious approach to cancer treatment is intended to alleviate the current burden of cancer within countries and across borders...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Narissa J Nonzee, Thanh Ha Luu
Drug shortages pose a significant public health concern in the United States, and cancer drugs are among those most affected. Shortages present serious safety risks for patients and substantial burden on providers and the healthcare system. Multifaceted drivers of this complex problem include manufacturing disruptions, raw material shortages, regulatory issues, market dynamics, and limited financial incentives that reward quality and production of off-patent drugs. Oncology drugs in short supply have resulted in substitution of less effective or more toxic alternatives, medication errors, and treatment delays, and are especially concerning for medications with no adequate substitute...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Dustin B Liebling, Emmanuel Cordova, Gary Deng, June M McKoy
With the increase in utilization of alternative medications to manage cancer treatment-related side effects, pharmacovigilance of alternative drug therapies, specifically herbal supplements, has become of increasing importance in the oncologic setting. This chapter focuses on the pharmacovigilance of herbal supplements in the setting of cancer drug therapy and explores national and international drug policies that have been employed to mitigate adverse herbal supplement events (AHEs). This chapter examines common drug-herbal supplement interactions, discusses the mechanisms behind these interactions, and investigates several common pharmacovigilance reporting methods clinicians can use to report adverse events...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
J-M Cosset, M Nassef, R Saïdi, J Pugnaire, A Ben Abdennebi, A Noël
For more than a decade, the majority of radiation oncology centres have been delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (then volumetric-modulated arctherapy) with 6 MV photons as their standard of care. This « dogma » had been supported by the usual absence of dosimetric advantages with high-energy photons (15 to 18 MV or more), at least for the planning target volume and the dose received by the adjacent organs at risk, and by the neutron component as soon as the photon energy exceeds 10 MV. Recent data could question such a dogma...
December 11, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Pieter Christiaan van der Sluis, Richard van Hillegersberg
Worldwide, the standard treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer with curative intent is perioperative chemotherapy or preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by open transthoracic esophagectomy (OTE) with gastric conduit reconstruction. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) was developed to improve the postoperative outcome by reducing the surgical trauma, with comparable short-term oncologic results. However, MIE is a highly complex procedure associated with a long learning curve. In 2003, robot-assisted minimally invasive thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy (RAMIE) was developed to overcome the technical limitations of MIE...
October 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
J W van den Berg, J D Luketich, E Cheong
Historically, open oesophagectomy was the gold standard for oesophageal cancer surgery. This was associated with a relatively higher morbidity. In the last two decades, we have seen significant improvements in short and long term outcomes due to centralisation of oesophagectomy, multidisciplinary approach, enhanced recovery after surgery programmes, neoadjuvant treatments and advances in minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIO) techniques. MIO has significantly reduced postoperative morbidity and improved functional recovery, while maintaining comparable long-term oncological outcomes...
October 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Zahi I Mitri, Swapnil Parmar, Brett Johnson, Annette Kolodzie, Jamie M Keck, Max Morris, Alexander R Guimaraes, Brooke R Beckett, Uma Borate, Charles D Lopez, Kathleen A Kemmer, Joshi J Alumkal, Tomasz M Beer, Christopher L Corless, Gordon B Mills, Joe W Gray, Raymond C Bergan
BACKGROUND: In order to establish the workflows required to implement a real-time process involving multi-omic analysis of patient samples to support precision-guided therapeutic intervention, a tissue acquisition and analysis trial was implemented. This report describes our findings to date, including the frequency with which mutational testing led to precision-guided therapy and outcome for those patients. METHODS: Eligible patients presenting to Oregon Health and Science University Knight Cancer Institute were enrolled on the study...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Atif A Ahmed, Divya S Vundamati, Midhat S Farooqi, Erin Guest
Precision oncologic medicine is an emerging approach for cancer treatment that has recently taken giant steps in solid clinical practice. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics that can analyze the individual tumor's variability in genes have provided greater understanding and additional strategies to treat cancers. Although tumors can be tested by several molecular methods, the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has greatly facilitated our understanding of pediatric cancer and identified additional therapeutic opportunities...
December 13, 2018: High-throughput
Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Leonardo da Rocha Sousa, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros Alencar, José Victor de Oliveira Santos, Ana Maria Oliveira da Mata, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Ricardo Melo de Carvalho, Nárcia Mariana Fonseca Nunes, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Anderson Nogueira Mendes, Juan Carlos Ramos Gonçalves, Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da Silva, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousaa
Cancer development has been directly related to oxidative stress. During chemotherapy, some cancer patients use dietary antioxidants to avoid nutritional deficiencies due to cancer treatment. Among the antioxidants consumed, there are vitamins, including retinyl palmitate (PR) and ascorbic acid (AA), which have the capacity to reduce free radicals formation, protect cellular structures and maintain the cellular homeostasis. This systematic review evaluated the antioxidant and antitumor mechanisms of retinol palmitate (a derivative of vitamin A) and/or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in cancer-related studies...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
F Ruatta, L Derosa, B Escudier, E Colomba, A Guida, G Baciarello, Y Loriot, K Fizazi, L Albiges
BACKGROUND: Bone metastases (BMs) are associated with significant morbidity and shorter survival in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Our purpose was to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in RCC patients with BMs. METHODS: Data from patients with BMs from RCC treated at Gustave Roussy between April 1992 and March 2016 were retrospectively collected. Age, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-Performance Status, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk groups, histology, number and site of bone lesions, concomitant metastases (presence and sites), therapy for BMs (radical resection or palliative surgery, radiotherapy and other local and systemic treatments) and time from diagnosis to BMs were analysed...
December 11, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Eleonora Orlando, Daniel Matthias Aebersold, Michaela Medová, Yitzhak Zimmer
Following nearly two decades of its conception, the phenomenon of oncogene addiction still represents a key concept of how progresses in basic research can translate to unprecedented translational breakthroughs. Coined by Bernard Weinstein, this term refers to the phenomenon by which cancer cells can exhibit dependence on a single oncogenic protein or signaling pathway for sustaining proliferation and survival, despite the wide burden of genetic lesions characterizing their genomic background, revealing thus a promising Achilles' heel of cancer...
December 11, 2018: Cancer Letters
James T Neal, Xingnan Li, Junjie Zhu, Valeria Giangarra, Caitlin L Grzeskowiak, Jihang Ju, Iris H Liu, Shin-Heng Chiou, Ameen A Salahudeen, Amber R Smith, Brian C Deutsch, Lillian Liao, Allison J Zemek, Fan Zhao, Kasper Karlsson, Liora M Schultz, Thomas J Metzner, Lincoln D Nadauld, Yuen-Yi Tseng, Sahar Alkhairy, Coyin Oh, Paula Keskula, Daniel Mendoza-Villanueva, Francisco M De La Vega, Pamela L Kunz, Joseph C Liao, John T Leppert, John B Sunwoo, Chiara Sabatti, Jesse S Boehm, William C Hahn, Grace X Y Zheng, Mark M Davis, Calvin J Kuo
In vitro cancer cultures, including three-dimensional organoids, typically contain exclusively neoplastic epithelium but require artificial reconstitution to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment (TME). The co-culture of primary tumor epithelia with endogenous, syngeneic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as a cohesive unit has been particularly elusive. Here, an air-liquid interface (ALI) method propagated patient-derived organoids (PDOs) from >100 human biopsies or mouse tumors in syngeneic immunocompetent hosts as tumor epithelia with native embedded immune cells (T, B, NK, macrophages)...
December 13, 2018: Cell
Sunny C Lin, Scott E Regenbogen, John M Hollingsworth, Russell Funk, Julia Adler-Milstein
PURPOSE: To improve care coordination for complex cancers, it is critical to establish a more nuanced understanding of the types of providers involved. As the number of provider types increases, strategies to support cancer care coordination must adapt to a greater variety of information needs, communication styles, and treatment strategies. METHODS: We categorized providers into 11 types, using National Provider Identifier specialties. Using Medicare claims, we counted the number of unique combinations of provider types billed during preoperative, operative, and postdischarge care for colon cancer surgery and assessed how this count varies across hospitals...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Eden R Brauer, Elisa F Long, Joy Melnikow, Peter M Ravdin, Patricia A Ganz
PURPOSE: According to the Institute of Medicine, high-quality cancer care should include effective communication between clinicians and patients about the risks and benefits, expected response, and impact on quality of life of a recommended therapy. In the delivery of oncology care, the barriers to and facilitators of communication about potential long-term and late effects, post-treatment expectations, and transition to survivorship care have not been fully defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected qualitative data through semistructured interviews with medical oncologists and focus groups with breast cancer survivors and applied the Theoretical Domains Framework to systematically analyze and identify the factors that may influence oncologists' communication with patients with breast cancer about the long-term and late effects of adjuvant therapy...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
David F L Liew, Jessica L Y Leung, Bonnia Liu, Jonathan Cebon, Albert G Frauman, Russell R C Buchanan
AIM: To investigate whether any patient or treatment characteristics are associated with the development of rheumatic immune-related adverse events (irAEs) following programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapy for cancer. METHOD: This was a retrospective chart review of all patients who were dispensed nivolumab or pembrolizumab at a single center before 1 January, 2017, with follow-up until 1 July, 2017. Patients with any diagnosis of a non-cutaneous irAE were identified, regardless of severity, and rheumatic irAEs were characterized...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Akshitkumar M Mistry, Allison R Greenplate, Rebecca A Ihrie, Jonathan M Irish
Single-cell technologies that can quantify features of individual cells within a tumor are critical for treatment strategies aiming to target cancer cells while sparing or activating beneficial cells. Given that key players in protein networks are often the primary targets of precision oncology strategies, it is imperative to transcend the nucleic acid message and read cellular actions in human solid tumors. Here, we review the advantages of single-cell mass cytometry. Leveraging its multiplexing capability, mass cytometry can quantitatively probe nearly any cellular feature or target, for tissue and solid tumor investigations...
December 13, 2018: FEBS Journal
Amir Torshizi Esfahani, Seyed Yoosef Seyedna, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ahmad Majd, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei
BACKGROUND: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer (CRC). The biological significance of MSI-low (MSI-L) phenotype and its differences with microsatellite stable (MSS) phenotype remains unclear. The aim of this study is indicating the role of mononucleotide repeat in identifying MSI-L and revealing the association of MSI-L with elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST) and oncologic outcome in CRC patients. METHODS: MSI and EMAST status were analyzed using three quasimonomorphic panel (BAT-25, BAT-26, and NR-27) and five tetranucleotide repeats (D20S82, D20S85, D9S242, D8S321, and MYCL1), respectively, by capillary electrophoresis method without the need to fluorescent primers...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jesper Frank Christensen, Casper Simonsen, Pernille Hojman
Exercise training is playing an increasing role in cancer care, as accumulating evidence demonstrates that exercise may prevent cancer, control disease progression, interact with anti-cancer therapies, and improve physical functioning and psychosocial outcomes. In this overview article, we present the current state of the field of exercise oncology, which currently comprises of nearly 700 unique exercise intervention trials with more than 50,000 cancer patients. First, we summarize the range of these interventions with regard to diagnoses, clinical setting, timing, and type of intervention...
December 13, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Vasu Tumati, Lawrence Hoang, Baran D Sumer, John M Truelson, Larry L Myers, Saad Khan, Randall S Hughes, Lucien Nedzi, David J Sher
BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine the oncologic impact of delays to surgery, radiotherapy, and completion of therapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: The impact of biopsy to surgery (BTS) time, surgery to start of radiation time (STSR), and radiation treatment time (RTT) on locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastases (DMs), and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) was examined. The cumulative incidences (CI) of LRR, DMs, and CSM were examined using Fine-Gray testing...
December 13, 2018: Head & Neck
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