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Christian Heck, Yael Michaeli, Ilko Bald, Yuval Ebenstein
The field of epigenetics describes the relationship between genotype and phenotype, by regulating gene expression without changing the canonical base sequence of DNA. It deals with molecular genomic information that is encoded by a rich repertoire of chemical modifications and molecular interactions. This regulation involves DNA, RNA and proteins that are enzymatically tagged with small molecular groups that alter their physical and chemical properties. It is now clear that epigenetic alterations are involved in development and disease, and thus, are the focus of intensive research...
October 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Minna Joki-Erkkilä, Elina Suikki
BACKGROUND: Residual anogenital findings following sexual abuse are rare. There is a need for further understanding of the interpretation of hymenal findings. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates which is more significant with respect to posterior hymenal tissue morphology - previous consensual penile vaginal penetrations or vaginal delivery. DESIGN: A post hoc study comparing nulliparous and parous hymen in heterosexually active female volunteers, with the focus on healed hymenal defects...
September 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
An Tang, Amit G Singal, Donald G Mitchell, Elizabeth M Hecht, Kathryn J Fowler, Laura Kulik, Neehar D Parikh, Yuko Kono, Claude B Sirlin
The Liver Imaging Reporting And Data System (LI-RADS) was created with the support of the American College of Radiology (ACR) to standardize the acquisition, interpretation, reporting and data collection for imaging examinations in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A comprehensive and rigorous system developed by radiologists, hepatologists, pathologists, and surgeons, LI-RADS addresses a wide range of imaging contexts. Currently, four algorithms are available publicly on the ACR website: ultrasound for HCC surveillance, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for HCC diagnosis and tumor staging, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for HCC diagnosis, and CT/MRI for treatment response assessment...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Cai Liu, Yifan Zhang, Weili Chen, Youming Lu, Wei Li, Yongqiang Liu, Xiaojuan Lai, Yanchun Gong, Xuefang Liu, Yongguo Li, Xiaoyan Chen, Xuening Li, Hongbin Sun, Jin Yang, Dafang Zhong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vicagrel, a novel thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, is an analogue of clopidogrel in development for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic properties of vicagrel after single oral dosing with a direct comparison with clopidogrel in healthy Chinese subjects in the first two phase I clinical studies. The relationship between the exposure to the active metabolite and the platelet reactivity was also assessed for vicagrel...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Martin H Bernardi, Harald Rinoesl, Robin Ristl, Ulrike Weber, Dominik Wiedemann, Michael J Hiesmayr
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces hemolysis, which manifests as plasma free hemoglobin. We investigated in a post hoc analysis of a single-center, blinded, controlled study whether the use of a novel hemoadsorption device (CytoSorb, CytoSorbents Europe GmbH, Berlin, Germany) affects hemolysis during CPB. A total of 35 patients undergoing elective CPB surgery with an expected CPB duration of more than 120 min were included in the analysis. The hemoadsorption device was used in 17 patients (intervention group) and not used in 18 patients (control group)...
October 8, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
D A Nehru, G S Dhaliwal, M H Jan, R S Cheema, S Kumar
This study examined the effect of single IU administration of cephapirin on clinical recovery, clearance of uterine bacteria and reproductive performance of postpartum buffaloes with subclinical endometritis (SCE). Buffaloes (n=86) at 35 days postpartum (DPP) with >10% polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in endometrial cytosmears were designated as positive (SCEP, n=29) and buffaloes with ≤10% PMN cell were designated as negative (SCEN, n=57) for SCE. Out of 29 positive buffaloes, 15 were administered a single intrauterine dose of cephapirin benzathine on 40 DPP (SCEP-CB), while the remaining 14 animals were kept as untreated control (SCEP-C)...
October 16, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Hyun Jung Koo, Joon-Won Kang, Sang Young Oh, Dae-Hee Kim, Jong-Min Song, Duk-Hyun Kang, Jae-Kwan Song, Joon Bum Kim, Sung-Ho Jung, Suk Jung Choo, Cheol Hyun Chung, Jae Won Lee, Dong Hyun Yang
Aims: We compared the diagnostic accuracy of cardiac computed tomography (CT) with that of echocardiography for the detection of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) on a scallop-by-scallop basis, using surgical inspection as a reference standard. Methods and results: This retrospective study included 145 patients (mean age 53 years; 94 men) who underwent surgical MVP repair or replacement and preoperative cardiac CT between May 2011 and October 2013. The prolapsed scallop was localized using cardiac CT and echocardiography according to the Carpentier method (anterior leaflet: from lateral to medial A1, A2, A3; posterior leaflet: P1, P2, P3)...
October 15, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Alexander L Luryi, Michael LaRouere, Seilesh Babu, Dennis I Bojrab, John Zappia, Eric W Sargent, Christopher A Schutt
Objective To compare characteristics between traumatic and idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) focusing on outcomes. Study Design Retrospective chart review. Setting High-volume tertiary otology center. Subjects and Methods Records of patients with BPPV treated at a single institution from 2007 to 2017 were analyzed. Traumatic BPPV was defined as BPPV symptoms beginning within 30 days following head trauma. Patient, disease, treatment, and outcome characteristics were compared between traumatic and idiopathic BPPV groups...
October 16, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Selmen Wannes, Monique Elmaleh-Bergès, Dominique Simon, Delphine Zénaty, Laetitia Martinerie, Caroline Storey, Georges Gelwane, Anne Paulsen, Emmanuel Ecosse, Nicolas De Roux, Jean Claude Carel, Juliane Léger
OBJECTIVE: Non-idiopathic CPP is caused by acquired or congenital hypothalamic lesions visible on MRI or is associated with various complex genetic and/or syndromic disorders. This study investigated the different types and prevalence of non-isolated CPP phenotypes. DESIGN AND METHODS: This observational cohort study included all patients identified as having non-idiopathic CPP in the database of a single academic pediatric care center over a period of 11.5 years...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Alireza Shokouhifar, Nasrin Askari, Shaghayegh Yazdani, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar illness are common psychological disorders with high heritability and variable phenotypes. The disrupted in schizophrenia 1 ( DISC1) gene, on chromosome 1q42, has an essential role in neurite outgrowth and cell signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6675281, rs2255340, and rs2738864) with schizophrenia disorder. These three SNPs were chosen as they had been used in most of the previous studies...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Amy X Hu, Jarrett J Adams, Parvez Vora, Maleeha Qazi, Sheila K Singh, Jason Moffat, Sachdev S Sidhu
The ability to elucidate the phenotype of brain tumor initiating cell (BTIC) in the context of bulk tumor in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) provides significant therapeutic benefits for therapeutic evaluation. For the identification of such an elusive and rare subpopulation of cells, a single cell analysis technology with deep profiling capabilities known as Mass Cytometry (CyTOF) can prove to be highly useful. CyTOF circumvents the spectral overlap limitations of traditional flow cytometry by replacing fluorophores with metal isotope tags, allowing the accurate detection of significantly more parameters at the same time...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Heng-Chuan Su, Yao Zhu, Si-Long Hu, Chang Liu, Guo-Wen Lin, Bo Dai, Ying-Jian Zhang, Ding-Wei Ye
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effect of technetium-99m (99m Tc)-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-based image-guided surgery on the oncologic outcomes for patients with primary or recurrent prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 54 consecutive patients with PCa who underwent 99m Tc-labeled PSMA-based image-guided surgery between January 2016 and September 2017. These patients received a radical prostatectomy (RP) with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) or salvage lymph node dissection (sLND)...
October 15, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Tania Sierra, Silvia Dortez, María Cristina González, F Javier Palomares, Agustin G Crevillen, Alberto Escarpa
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a serum glycoprotein whose levels are increased two or three times during disease or injury. This makes it a potential biomarker for inflammatory bowel diseases and sepsis. Consequently, fast, simple, and cheap analytical methods for prognosis, diagnosis, and follow-up of these diseases are demanded. In this work, we propose a simple electrochemical approach based on carbon nanotubes scaffold films (CNSFs) for total AGP determination in serum samples. Firstly, AGP is labeled with an electrochemical tag (osmium(VI) complex), and then the total amount of AGP is quantified by adsorptive transfer stripping square wave voltammetry (AdTSWV)...
October 15, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Satoshi Kawada, Atsuyuki Watanabe, Yoshimasa Morimoto, Koji Nakagawa, Nobuhiro Nishii, Kazufumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Morita, Hiroshi Ito
Atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently coexists with cardiovascular disease (CAD) in a clinical setting. However, the optimum therapy for AF patients who have concomitant CAD is unclear. We retrospectively examined the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with AF who had concomitant stable CAD. Between January 2014 and December 2015, a total 264 patients (179 men; mean age, 65.5 ± 10.1 years) who were referred to undergo a first RFCA procedure were reviewed in this study...
October 15, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Arthur Vrignaud, Simon Pelletier, Emmanuelle Dernis, Yvon Moui, Bénédicte Haettich
Osteoporosis is responsible for fragility fractures, thus causing significant morbidity and mortality. This study shows that care pathways, such as Le Mans General Hospital Fracture Liaison Service, are useful and efficient in improving the prevention of osteoporosis and of its consequences. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a major public health concern, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Care pathways, called Fracture Liaison Services, have demonstrated their utility in preventing osteoporosis-associated morbidity and mortality...
October 15, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Mepur H Ravindranath, Edward J Filippone, Grace Mahowald, Carly Callender, Adarsh Babu, Susan Saidman, Soldano Ferrone
The accurate measurement of anti-HLA alloantibodies in transplant candidates is required for determining the degree of sensitization and for the listing of unacceptable antigens for organ allocation. Both the configuration of the HLA molecules coated on the beads and the nature of detection antibodies may impede assessment of the presence and strength of anti-HLA IgG- with the Luminex single-antigen-bead assay. Sera antibodies of the end-stage renal disease patients were compared using LIFECODES (LC) and LABScreen (LS) beadsets monitored with polyclonal-Fab (IgHPolyFab) and monoclonal-IgG (FcMonoIgG) second antibodies...
October 16, 2018: Immunologic Research
Fraser P Filice, Zhifeng Ding
Single live cell analysis methods provide information on the characteristics of individual cells, yielding not only bulk population averages but also their heterogeneity. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) offers single live cell activities along its topography with high accuracy probe tip positioning. Both intracellular and extracellular processes can be electrochemically examined through the use of SECM. This non-invasive technique allows for high resolution mapping of electrochemical measurements in or around the cell sample of interest...
October 16, 2018: Analyst
Abhay N Singh, Harsha Devnani, Shwetambara Jha, Pravin P Ingole
For the first time, the process of Fermi level equilibration has been studied and compared for plasmonic metal nanoparticles (PMNPs) supported on conducting substrates i.e. graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The extent of Fermi level equilibration has been monitored by recording the changes in the position and intensity of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Ag and Au PMNPs supported on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Ag PMNPs supported on rGO show larger variation in the SPR band position and intensity as compared to rGO supported Au PMNPs...
October 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Bahareh Moazen, Amir Zarrinhaghighi, Foroogh Nejatollahi
Background: CD90, a membrane-associated glycoprotein is a marker used to identify mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recent studies have introduced CD90, which induces tumorigenic activity, as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker in various malignancies. Blocking CD90 activity with anti-CD90 monoclonal antibodies enhanced anti-tumor effects. To date, highly specific antibody single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) have been isolated against various targets and showed promising results in cancer immunotherapy...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Lucy A Brunton, Alison Prosser, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Sara H Downs
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an important animal health issue in many parts of the world. In England and Wales, the primary test to detect infected animals is the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test, which compares immunological responses to bovine and avian tuberculins. Inconclusive test reactors (IRs) are animals that demonstrate a positive reaction to the bovine tuberculin only marginally greater than the avian reaction, so are not classified as reactors and immediately removed. In the absence of reactors in the herd, IRs are isolated, placed under movement restrictions and re-tested after 60 days...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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