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Aatif Alam, Linda Jiang, Gregory A Kittleson, Kenneth D Steadman, Somen Nandi, Joshua L Fuqua, Kenneth E Palmer, Daniel Tusé, Karen A McDonald
Griffithsin is a marine algal lectin that exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity by binding oligomannose glycans on viral envelope glycoproteins, including those found in HIV-1, HSV-2, SARS, HCV and other enveloped viruses. An efficient, scalable and cost-effective manufacturing process for Griffithsin is essential for the adoption of this drug in human antiviral prophylaxis and therapy, particularly in cost-sensitive indications such as topical microbicides for HIV-1 prevention. The production of certain classes of recombinant biologics in plants can offer scalability, cost and environmental impact advantages over traditional biomanufacturing platforms...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Abhijit Lele, Chong Cheever, Larry Healey, Kellie Hurley, Louis J Kim, Claire J Creutzfeldt
INTRODUCTION: Transition to comfort measures only (CMO) is common in the neurocritical care unit, and close communication between interdisciplinary health-care teams is vital to a smooth transition. We developed and implemented a CMO huddle in an effort to reduce inconsistencies during the process of CMO transition. METHODS: The CMO huddle was a multiphase quality improvement project in a neurocritical care unit of a level-1 trauma and comprehensive stroke center...
July 24, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Alastair C Graham, Sean McAleer
This article describes the key features of realist (realistic) evaluation and illustrates their application using, as an example, a simulation-based course for final year medical students. The use of simulation-based education (SBE) is increasing and so too is the evidence supporting its value as a powerful technique which can lead to substantial educational benefits. Accompanying these changes is a call for research into its use to be more theory-driven and to investigate both 'Did it work?' and as importantly 'Why did it work (or not)?' An evaluation methodology that is capable of answering both questions is realist evaluation...
2018: Advances in Simulation
Pratuyasha Dutta, Tulsidas G Shrivastav, Sonu Chand Thakur
In order to develop ELISA for medroxyprogesterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate-3-carboxymethyloxime (MPA-3-CMO) was coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) for immunogen preparation and to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for enzyme conjugate preparation by N-hydroxysuccinimide mediated carbodiimide reaction. The immunogen was used to raise the antiserum in New Zealand white rabbit. The immunoreactivity of MPA-3-CMO-BSA-antibody and MPA-3-CMO-HRP enzyme conjugate was checked by checkerboard assay. The MPA-3-CMO-HRP enzyme conjugate and MPA-3-CMO-BSA-antibody were used for further development, standardization and validation of the assay...
July 17, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Fadi Alfaqawi, Ambreen Sarmad, Kholoud Ayesh, Arijit Mitra, Ash Sharma
Cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is one of the most frequent postoperative macular complications to cause partial visual recovery after successful retinal detachment (RD) repair. Refractory CMO is difficult to treat and many strategies have been employed with varying degrees of success. We report for the first time the use of ILUVIEN implant to treat refractory CMO after successful RD repair. A 65-year-old female presented with right eye full-thickness macular hole and underwent pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling and cryotherapy with gas tamponade with 12% C3F8...
June 2018: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
I E Ioshin, A I Tolchinskaya, A M Bagirov
Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CMO) known to appear in 0.1-2.35% of patients after phacoemulsification is one of the common causes of vision decrease during postoperative period. The authors analyzed a case of CMO development in a pseudophakic patient diagnosed 7 months after uncomplicated phacoemulsification. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was suggested for patients with low vision and a sensation of shroud before the eye for early diagnosis of pathological process. Intravitreal injection of the 0...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Cora H Ormseth, Guido J Falcone, Sara D Jasak, David M Mampre, Audrey C Leasure, Laura C Miyares, David Y Hwang, Michael L James, Fernando D Testai, Kyra J Becker, David L Tirschwell, Carl D Langefeld, Daniel Woo, Kevin N Sheth
BACKGROUND: Prior studies of patients in the intensive care unit have suggested racial/ethnic variation in end-of-life decision making. We sought to evaluate whether race/ethnicity modifies the implementation of comfort measures only status (CMOs) in patients with spontaneous, non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: We analyzed data from the Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study, a prospective cohort study specifically designed to enroll equal numbers of white, black, and Hispanic subjects...
June 8, 2018: Neurocritical Care
John A Ford, Andy Jones, Geoff Wong, Allan Clark, Tom Porter, Nick Steel
BACKGROUND: Realist approaches seek to answer questions such as 'how?', 'why?', 'for whom?', 'in what circumstances?' and 'to what extent?' interventions 'work' using context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations. Quantitative methods are not well-established in realist approaches, but structural equation modelling (SEM) may be useful to explore CMO configurations. Our aim was to assess the feasibility and appropriateness of SEM to explore CMO configurations and, if appropriate, make recommendations based on our access to primary care research...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Allison J Cox, Polly J Ferguson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current advances in our understanding or the genetic basis of nonbacterial osteomyelitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a complex genetic disorder. Past discoveries identified several single gene defects (LPIN2, Pstpip2 and IL1RN) that cause IL-1-mediated sterile multifocal osteomyelitis. Recently Lorden et al.'s studies show that LIPIN2 deficiency can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome through alterations in the function of P2X7 receptor providing evidence that Majeed syndrome is an NLRP3 inflammasomopathy...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Nourhène Zammel, Nahed Amri, Rim Chaabane, Tarek Rebai, Riadh Badraoui
This study was assessed to examine whether Zingiber officinale (ZO) can prevent spine disorder and trabecular microarchitecture disruption in osteoporotic murin model. Three groups of male rats were selected: Controls (CTRL), combined model of osteoporosis (CMO), in which rats were orchidectomized and treated with cortisol, and CMO treated with ZO (CMO + ZO). One month after the surgical procedures, the rats were sacrificed. Lumbar curve of the spine has been evaluated using the kyphotic method. The spines were submitted to histological and histomorphometric analysis and mineral (calcium and phosphorus) metabolism assessment...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Stephen D Porter, David S Reay, Elizabeth Bomberg, Peter Higgins
Since 1962 the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has enabled payment of subsidy to some food producers for withdrawal of specific commodities - including fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV) - where market prices have fallen below a pre-set level. These deliberate withdrawals have led to large amounts of usable food (~60% of withdrawals) being destroyed on farms across the EU. Such wasted food incurs a significant climate change cost through its production-phase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Stacey A Strong, Nashila Hirji, Ana Quartilho, Angelos Kalitzeos, Michel Michaelides
BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are frequently used as an initial step to treat retinitis pigmentosa-associated cystoid macular oedema (RP-CMO). Interestingly, it has been postulated that CAIs might reduce outer nuclear layer (ONL) fluid more effectively than inner nuclear layer (INL) fluid due to better access to retinal pigment epithelium basolateral membrane than neurosensory retina. This retrospective cohort study explores if an association between spatial distribution of cystoid spaces in RP-CMO and CAI response exists...
April 29, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
C Lyons, D Gallagher, T McSwiney, E McElnea, F Kinsella
INTRODUCTION: Werner syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the Werner syndrome WRN gene, on chromosome 8. Those affected manifest early the features of ageing. DISCUSSION: Cataract surgery is prone to post-operative complications in those with Werner syndrome. The development of cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is likely multifactorial. Patients with WS have diabetes mellitus type 2 which can contribute to macular oedema. There is a deposition of abnormal WRN proteins in the macula which also predisposes to macular oedema...
April 28, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Frank Diamond
The CMO of Molina Healthcare of Utah grew up, let's say, not rich. He says that and a varied background-including a stint in the Air Force-helps him deal with changing policies involving a challenging population.
April 2018: Managed Care
Cong Fang, Jianmin Luo, Chengbin Jin, Huadong Yuan, Ouwei Sheng, Hui Huang, Yongping Gan, Yang Xia, Chu Liang, Jun Zhang, Wenkui Zhang, Xinyong Tao
The metal-CO2 batteries, especially Na-CO2 , batteries come into sight owing to their high energy density, ability for CO2 capture, and the abundance of sodium resource. Besides the sluggish electrochemical reactions at the gas cathodes and the instability of the electrolyte at a high voltage, the final discharge product Na2 CO3 is a solid and poor conductor of electricity, which may cause the high overpotential and poor cycle performance for the Na-CO2 batteries. The promotion of decomposition of Na2 CO3 should be an efficient strategy to enhance the electrochemical performance...
May 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Abdallah Dib, Cyrielle Payen, Jennifer Bourreau, Mathilde Munier, Linda Grimaud, Ziad Fajloun, Laurent Loufrani, Daniel Henrion, Céline Fassot
Aim/hypothesis: In utero exposure to maternal diabetes increases the risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disorders during adulthood. We have previously shown that this is associated with changes in vascular tone in favor of a vasoconstrictor profile, which is involved in the development of hypertension. This excessive constrictor tone has also a strong impact on vascular structure. Our objective was to study the impact of in utero exposure to maternal diabetes on vascular structure and remodeling induced by chronic changes in hemodynamic parameters...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Shohei Kitahata, Yasuhiko Hirami, Seiji Takagi, Cody Kime, Masashi Fujihara, Yasuo Kurimoto, Masayo Takahashi
Objective: We investigated the efficacy of additional topical betamethasone in persistent cystoid macular oedema (CMO) after carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) therapy. Methods and analysis: This retrospective cohort study included 16 eyes of 10 patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). All patients were previously administered CAI for at least 3 months to treat CMO secondary to RP and lacking an effective reduction (≥11%) of central foveal thickness (CFT)...
2018: BMJ Open Ophthalmology
Joanne W Y Goh, Rhys Harrison, Shokufeh Tavassoli, Derek M Tole
PURPOSE: Sphincterotomy, an alternative to iris hooks or pupil stretching, is a technique that can aid in small pupil phacoemulsification. The incidence of post-operative complications of this procedure, however, has not been studied. Our study evaluates the post-operative outcomes of phacoemulsification surgery with adjunctive pupillary sphincterotomy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of case notes and Medisoft ® electronic record of patients that had undergone simultaneous sphincterotomy, phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation by a single surgeon between March 2012 and February 2017...
April 5, 2018: Eye
Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya Mohan, Nirvanappa C Anilkumar, Shobith Rangappa, Muthu K Shanmugam, Srishti Mishra, Arunachalam Chinnathambi, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Atanu Bhattacharjee, Gautam Sethi, Alan Prem Kumar, Basappa, Kanchugarakoppal S Rangappa
Aberrant activation of NF-κB is linked with the progression of human malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and blockade of NF-κB signaling could be a potential target in the treatment of several cancers. Therefore, designing of novel small molecule inhibitors that target NF-κB activation is of prime importance in the treatment of several cancers. In the present work, we report the synthesis of series of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, investigated their anticancer potential against HCC cells, and identified 2-(3-chlorobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (CMO) as the lead compound...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Thiyagarajan Subramanian, Edwin Geo Varuvel, Saravanan Ganapathy, S Vedharaj, R Vallinayagam
The present study intends to explore the effect of the addition of fuel additives with camphor oil (CMO) on the characteristics of a twin-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. The lower viscosity and boiling point of CMO when compared to diesel could improve the fuel atomization, evaporation, and air/fuel mixing process. However, the lower cetane index of CMO limits its use as a drop in fuel for diesel in CI engine. In general, NOX emission increases for less viscous and low cetane (LVLC) fuels due to pronounced premixed combustion phase...
June 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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