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Ziwei Chen, Maria Digiacomo, Yalin Tu, Qiong Gu, Shengnan Wang, Xiaohong Yang, Jiaqi Chu, Qiuhe Chen, Yifan Han, Jingkao Chen, Giulia Nesi, Simona Sestito, Marco Macchia, Simona Rapposelli, Rongbiao Pi
A series of rivastigmine-caffeic acid and rivastigmine-ferulic acid hybrids were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as multifunctional agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in vitro. The new compounds exerted antioxidant neuroprotective properties and good cholinesterases (ChE) inhibitory activities. Some of them also inhibited amyloid protein (Aβ) aggregation. In particular, compound 5 emerged as promising drug candidates endowed with neuroprotective potential, ChE inhibitory, Aβ self-aggregation inhibitory and copper chelation properties...
September 17, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Pia Basaure, Fiona Peris-Sampedro, Maria Cabré, Ingrid Reverte, Maria Teresa Colomina
Cholinesterases (ChE) are common targets of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and play a critical role in the pathology of some dementias. While chlorpyrifos (CPF) remains one of the most commonly used OPs in the world, numerous investigations have reported its neurotoxic potential and highlighted behavioral disturbances upon its administration. Rivastigmine currently serves to treat Alzheimer's disease, but it may induce cholinergic overstimulation in non-demented individuals. The present investigation aimed to compare the acute and delayed effects caused by both ChE inhibitors in adult C57BL/6 male mice...
October 9, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Saeed Shoja Shafti, Abbas Azizi Khoei
BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest that the cholinergic system may be disrupted in schizophrenia and so this may contribute to the cognitive impairments of schizophrenic patients. Because such deficits do not respond to neuroleptic treatment, different approaches have been done by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). The objective of the present assessment was to evaluate the safety and clinical effects of rivastigmine, as an adjunctive drug, on the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Lutfu Hanoglu, Sultan Yildiz, Burcu Polat, Sema Demirci, Ahmet Mithat Tavli, Nesrin Yilmaz, Burak Yulug
BACKGROUND: Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is a rare clinical condition which is characterized with complex hallucinations by visually impaired patients. The pathophysiology of this disorder remains largely unknown, and there is still no proven treatment for this disease. In our study, we aimed to investigate the neural activity through Electroencephalography (EEG) power and evaluate the effect of rivastigmine in combination with alpha-lipoic acid on hallucination in two CBS patients with diabetic retinopathy...
October 3, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Gilbert Lefèvre, Francesca Callegari, Sandro Gsteiger, Yuan Xiong
INTRODUCTION: The glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a measure of renal function, decreases by approximately 10 mL/min every 10 years after the age of 40 years, which could lead to the accumulation of drugs and/or renal toxicity. Pharmacokinetic studies of drugs excreted both renally and non-renally are desirable in patients with impaired renal function, defined by parameters including estimated GFR (eGFR) and creatinine clearance (CLCR). OBJECTIVE: We describe here a population pharmacokinetic analysis of the possible effects of renal impairment on steady-state plasma concentrations of rivastigmine and its metabolite NAP226-90 after rivastigmine patch (5 cm(2) [4...
September 28, 2016: Drugs & Aging
Namrata Singh, Jana Hroudová, Zdeněk Fišar
Impairment of mitochondrial metabolism, particularly the electron transport chain (ETC), as well as increased oxidative stress might play a significant role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some effects of drugs used for symptomatic AD treatment may be related to their direct action on mitochondrial function. In vitro effects of pharmacologically different cognitives (galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine, 7-MEOTA, memantine) and nootropic drugs (latrepirdine, piracetam) were investigated on selected mitochondrial parameters: activities of ETC complexes I, II + III, and IV, citrate synthase, monoamine oxidase (MAO), oxygen consumption rate, and hydrogen peroxide production of pig brain mitochondria...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Timothy M Morgan, Bob Soh
AIMS: To test the feasibility of a novel rivastigmine nasal spray as prospective treatment for dementia. METHODS: A single dose, crossover absolute bioavailability and safety study was conducted with rivastigmine intravenous solution (1 mg) and nasal spray (3.126 mg) in eight healthy elderly individuals, aged 58 to 75 years. RESULTS: The absolute bioavailability (F) of the nasal spray was significant at 0.62 (0.15) for F > 0 (p < 0...
September 18, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Ikunobu Muramatsu, Hatsumi Yoshiki, Junsuke Uwada, Takayoshi Masuoka, Kiyonao Sada, Takanobu Taniguchi, Matomo Nishio
Functional acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) were recently demonstrated to exist not only in the plasma membrane but also intracellularly in brain tissues. In order to activate intracellular AChRs, endogenous hydrophilic ACh must cross the plasma membrane. Here, we examined the pharmacological characteristics of this process, including whether it is mediated by active ACh uptake. When ACh esterase (AChE) was suppressed by diisopropylfluorophosphate, [(3) H]ACh was effectively taken up into segments of rat cerebral cortex and other brain regions, in contrast to peripheral tissues such as liver and kidney...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Kerstin Amadori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Rona R Ramsay, Magdalena Majekova, Milagros Medina, Massimo Valoti
HIGHLIGHTS Compounds that interact with multiple targets but minimally with the cytochrome P450 system (CYP) address the many factors leading to neurodegeneration.Acetyl- and Butyryl-cholineEsterases (AChE, BChE) and Monoamine Oxidases A/B (MAO A, MAO B) are targets for Multi-Target Designed Ligands (MTDL).ASS234 is an irreversible inhibitor of MAO A >MAO B and has micromolar potency against the cholinesterases.ASS234 is a poor CYP substrate in human liver, yielding the depropargylated metabolite.SMe1EC2, a stobadine derivative, showed high radical scavenging property, in vitro and in vivo giving protection in head trauma and diabetic damage of endothelium...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Alberto Castagna, Antonino Maria Cotroneo, Giovanni Ruotolo, Pietro Gareri
BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs), such as rivastigmine, coadministered with cholinergic precursors, such as citicoline, could be effective in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in mixed dementia (MD), because they are able to increase the intrasynaptic levels of acetylcholine more than the single drugs given alone. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to show the effectiveness of oral citicoline plus rivastigmine in patients with AD and MD. METHODS: The CITIRIVAD study was a retrospective case-control study on 174 consecutive outpatients aged ≥65 years, affected with AD or MD, mean age 81...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Alice Simon, Maria Inês Amaro, Anne Marie Healy, Lucio Mendes Cabral, Valeria Pereira de Sousa
In the present study, in vitro permeation experiments in a Franz diffusion cell were performed using different synthetic polymeric membranes and pig ear skin to evaluate a rivastigmine (RV) transdermal drug delivery system. In vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) were examined to determine the best model membrane. In vitro permeation studies across different synthetic membranes and skin were performed for the Exelon(®) Patch (which contains RV), and the results were compared. Deconvolution of bioavailability data using the Wagner-Nelson method enabled the fraction of RV absorbed to be determined and a point-to-point IVIVC to be established...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Bo-Lin Ho, Yi-Hui Kao, Mei-Chuan Chou, Yuan-Han Yang
BACKGROUND: Rivastigmine has been approved in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as it can inhibit acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase and provide neuroprotective effects involving the synapses. White matter changes (WMCs) are frequently observed in AD, and clinical-pathological correlations imply their possible impacts on cognitive function by interference with cortical and subcortical neuronal pathways. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of rivastigmine in AD patients with cerebral WMCs...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anat Fisher, Greg Carney, Ken Bassett, Neena L Chappell
BACKGROUND: In October 2007, British Columbia started to cover the cost of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs)-donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine-for patients with mild to moderate dementia and prominent Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of this policy on persistence with ChEIs. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted using British Columbia administrative health data. We examined 45,537 new ChEI users aged 40 years and older between 2001 and 2012; 20,360 (45%) started the treatment after the coverage policy was launched...
July 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Young Chul Youn, Hae-Won Shin, Byung-Sun Choi, SangYun Kim, Jung-Yeop Lee, Yong-Chan Ha
OBJECTIVE: To date, data regarding the efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in preventing postoperative delirium (POD) are inconsistent and conflicting. Older individuals with cognitive dysfunction are thought to show POD more frequently. Our aim was to study the effectiveness of rivastigmine prophylaxis on the incidence, severity, and risk factors for POD in older patients with cognitive impairment undergoing hip fracture surgery. METHODS: Of 62 older patients with cognitive impairment about to undergo surgery after a hip fracture, 31 were randomly assigned to receive a rivastigmine patch from 3 days before to 7 days after the operation (Group I), and the other 31 did not receive a rivastigmine patch (Group II)...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Nobuyasu Bando, Yu Nakamura
AIM: To investigate whether the inhibitory rate of serum butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity in Japanese patients with Alzheimer's disease is correlated with cognitive function, behavioral symptoms and caregiver burden. METHODS: A total of 61 patients with mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease who were not undergoing cholinesterase enzyme inhibitor/memantine combinatorial treatment received a rivastigmine (18 mg) patch for 24 weeks. The rate of inhibition of BuChE was correlated with scores obtained on cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination), behavioral (the Japanese version of the modified Crichton Geriatric Behavioral Rating Scale [CGBRS] and Vitality Index [VI]) and burden (the Japanese version of Zarit Burden Inventory [ZBI]) scales; and the Clinical Global Impression of Change scale...
August 21, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Keran Ma, JoAnne McLaurin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation and aggregation of beta-amyloid peptide, neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau, neuroinflammation, synaptic degeneration and eventual neuronal cell loss. Current treatment options for AD provide temporary symptomatic relief in a subset of patients. These drugs include cholinesterase inhibitors that improve cholinergic innervation such as rivastigmine, donepezil and galatamine. In addition, memantine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, is used to treat moderate to severe AD by reducing excitotoxicity...
August 19, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Jianqiao Zhang, Leiming Zhang, Xue Sun, Yanting Yang, Liang Kong, Chengwen Lu, Guangyao Lv, Tian Wang, Hongbo Wang, Fenghua Fu
Acetaminophen (APAP) is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent, but it may induce acute liver injury at high doses. Alzheimer's disease patients, while treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI), may take APAP when they suffer from cold or pain. It is generally recognized that inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity may also result in liver injury. To clarify whether AChEI could deteriorate or attenuate APAP hepatotoxicity, the effects of AChEI on APAP hepatotoxicity were investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice were administrated with the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) blocker atropine (Atr), or classic α7 nicotine acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) 1 hour before administration of AChEIs-donepezil (4 mg/kg), rivastigmine (2 mg/kg), huperzine A (0...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Dan Zhou, Wei Zhou, Jun-Ke Song, Zhang-Ying Feng, Ran-Yao Yang, Song Wu, Lin Wang, Ai-Lin Liu, Guan-Hua Du
AIM: 1,1'-([1,1'-Biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propan-1-one)dihydrochloride (DL0410) is a novel synthetic dual acetylcholinesterase (AChE)/butyrocholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitor, which has shown a potential therapeutic effect on Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we examined whether DL0410 produced neuroprotective effects in an AD cellular model and an Aβ1-42-induced amnesia mouse model. METHODS: The in vitro inhibitory activities against AChE and BuChE were estimated using Ellman's assay...
August 8, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Daniela Galimberti, Elio Scarpini
INTRODUCTION: To date, pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) includes Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors (AChEIs) for mild-to-moderate AD, and memantine for moderate-to-severe AD. AChEIs reversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), thus increasing the availability of acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, enhancing cholinergic transmission. These drugs provide symptomatic short-term benefits, without clearly counteracting the progression of the disease. AREAS COVERED: On the wake of successful clinical trials which lead to the marketing of AChEIs donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine, many compounds with AChEI properties have been developed and tested mainly in Phase I-II clinical trials in the last twenty years...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
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