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Clinical Trial And Colorectal Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120161/single-agent-regorafenib-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients-with-any-ras-or-braf-mutation-previously-treated-with-folfoxiri-plus-bevacizumab-previum-trial
#1
Pilar García-Alfonso, Manuel Benavides, Esther Falcó, Andrés Muñoz, Auxiliadora Gómez, Javier Sastre, Fernando Rivera, Clara Montagut, Mercedes Salgado, Amelia López-Ladrón, Rafael López, Inmaculada Ruiz de Mena, Gema Durán, Enrique Aranda
LESSONS LEARNED: RAS- or BRAF-mutated metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRCs) progressing after first-line treatment have a poor prognosis.European and U.S. guidelines include the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib as a standard option for second-line therapy and beyond, based on the results of the randomized phase III CORRECT trial demonstrating improvement in survival.Although stopped prematurely for failing to accrue, the PREVIUM trial, the first prospective interventional study exploring regorafenib as second-line treatment for patients with mCRC bearing RAS or BRAF mutations, failed to demonstrate clinical activity in the population analyzed...
August 17, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30119911/the-impact-of-microsatellite-stability-status-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Ruby Gupta, Surajit Sinha, Rabindra N Paul
Several forms of genomic instability are known to drive the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Chromosomal instability is the most common type found in 85% of the CRC, while 15% patients have microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI tumors are the subset of CRC that are characterized by dysfunction of mismatch repair genes (MMR) causing failure to repair errors in repetitive DNA sequences called microsatellites. Twelve percent of MSI tumors are acquired, caused by methylation-associated silencing of a gene that encodes a DNA MMR protein, while the remaining 3% have germline mutations in one of the MMR genes (Lynch syndrome)...
July 18, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118796/targeting-oncogenic-raf-protein-serine-threonine-kinases-in-human-cancers
#3
REVIEW
Robert Roskoski
The Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade is arguably the most important oncogenic pathway in human cancers. Ras-GTP promotes the formation of active homodimers or heterodimers of A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf by an intricate process. These enzymes are protein-serine/threonine kinases that catalyze the phosphorylation and activation of MEK1 and MEK2 which, in turn, catalyze the phosphorylation and activation of ERK1 and ERK2. The latter catalyze the regulatory phosphorylation of dozens of cytosolic and nuclear proteins...
August 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116429/impact-of-hyoscine-bromide-use-on-polyp-detection-rate-during-colonoscopy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Muhammad Yasir Khan, Ahmed Dirweesh, Waqas Javed Siddiqui
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Polyp detection rate (PDR) and adenoma detection rate (ADR) are key focus in endoscopic research for CRC screening and prevention. Use of anti-spasmodic agents during colonoscopy to help identify adenomas and polyps has remained a controversial topic. Hyoscine butyl bromide (HBB) is the most commonly used anti-spasmodic agent in patients undergoing colonoscopy. Some randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have questioned the clinical efficacy and safety of routine use of HBB for polyp and adenoma detection rates...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115102/the-prevalence-of-lynch-syndrome-in-women-with-endometrial-cancer-a-systematic-review-protocol
#5
Neil A J Ryan, Dominic Blake, Marcus Cabrera-Dandy, Mark A Glaire, D Gareth Evans, Emma J Crosbie
BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited cancer syndrome, which predisposes individuals to a number of different cancers, principally colorectal and endometrial cancer. The early diagnosis of Lynch syndrome enables colorectal surveillance, which has been shown to save lives through the detection and removal of premalignant polyps and earlier detection of invasive disease. Endometrial cancer, which is often the sentinel cancer in women, provides an opportunity to diagnose Lynch syndrome and thus enable colorectal surveillance as well as the cascade testing for Lynch syndrome in other family members...
August 16, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113095/factors-related-to-difficult-self-expandable-metallic-stent-placement-for-malignant-colonic-obstruction-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-multicenter-study-across-japan
#6
Toshio Kuwai, Toshiki Yamaguchi, Hiroki Imagawa, Shuntaro Yoshida, Hiroyuki Isayama, Takeaki Matsuzawa, Tomonori Yamada, Shuji Saito, Mamoru Shimada, Nobuto Hirata, Takashi Sasaki, Koichi Koizumi, Iruru Maetani, Yoshihisa Saida
OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer patients often present with large bowel obstruction. Elective placement of a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) can relieve obstruction, but can be challenging. Previous studies have only compared cases by outcomes, but the present study investigated only successful cases to identify factors related to prolonged and difficult SEMS placement in patients with malignant colonic obstruction. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of a multicenter clinical trial conducted between March 2012 and October 2013 at 46 facilities across Japan (UMIN000007953) was performed; 511 patients who required SEMS placement for acute colorectal obstruction or symptomatic stricture secondary to malignant neoplasm were enrolled...
August 16, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110103/the-effect-of-therapeutic-listening-on-anxiety-and-fear-among-surgical-patients-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Ana Cláudia Mesquita Garcia, Talita Prado Simão-Miranda, Ana Maria Pimenta Carvalho, Paula Condé Lamparelli Elias, Maria da Graça Pereira, Emilia Campos de Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of therapeutic listening on state anxiety and surgical fears in preoperative colorectal cancer patients. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial with 50 patients randomly allocated in the intervention group (therapeutic listening) (n = 25) or in the control group (n = 25). The study evaluated the changes in the variables state anxiety, surgical fears and physiological variables (salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure)...
August 9, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109144/two-novel-shp-1-agonists-sc-43-and-sc-78-are-more-potent-than-regorafenib-in-suppressing-the-in-vitro-stemness-of-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#8
Shin-Yi Chung, Yen-Hsi Chen, Pei-Rong Lin, Ta-Chung Chao, Jung-Chen Su, Chung-Wai Shiau, Yeu Su
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been shown to play a critical role in the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Hence, the inhibition of STAT3 signaling has been suggested to be a viable therapeutic approach for cancers. Moreover, the efficacy of combinations of chemotherapeutic drugs and napabucasin, a small-molecule STAT3 inhibitor, have been assessed in various clinical trials, including those involving patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Two recently developed small-molecule STAT3 inhibitors, SC-43 and SC-78, which can stimulate SHP-1 to inactivate STAT3, were found to have anti-tumor activity...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101513/positive-predictive-values-of-fecal-immunochemical-tests-used-in-the-stop-crc-pragmatic-trial
#9
Carrie M Nielson, Amanda F Petrik, Lorie Jacob, William M Vollmer, Erin M Keast, Jennifer L Schneider, Jennifer S Rivelli, Tanya J Kapka, Richard T Meenan, Rajasekhara R Mummadi, Beverly B Green, Gloria D Coronado
Annual fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) is cost-effective for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. However, FIT positivity rates and positive predictive value (PPV) can vary substantially, with false-positive (FP) results adding to colonoscopy burden without improving cancer detection. Our objective was to describe FIT PPV and the factors associated with FP results among patients undergoing CRC screening. In an ongoing pragmatic clinical trial of mailed-FIT outreach, clinics delivered one of three FIT brands (InSure, OC-Micro, and Hemosure)...
August 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100734/efficacy-of-bevacizumab-versus-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibitors-for-wild-type-ras-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#10
Wei Jiang, Qitao Yu, Ruiling Ning, Wenhua Zhao, Changyuan Wei
Background: Results from several prospective clinical trials comparing anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy plus chemotherapy for wild-type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the optimal choice for these target agents. Methods: We searched for clinical trials in both electronic databases from inception until January 2018 and recent conference abstracts to identify prospective clinical studies comparing the efficacy of a VEGF inhibitor (bevacizumab) versus EGFR inhibitors (cetuximab or panitumumab) on wild-type RAS (including its subset KRAS ) mCRC...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100092/her2-an-emerging-target-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Megan Greally, Ciara M Kelly, Andrea Cercek
Despite advances in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) the 5-year survival of patients with this disease remains low. A small proportion of CRCs overexpress the HER2 oncogene and the effective targeting of this pathway in other malignancies such as breast and gastric cancer has led to efforts to determine if it can also be exploited as a target in CRC. Activation of the HER2 pathway as a bypass signalling pathway has been identified as a mechanism of resistance for antiepidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy in both the first line and salvage settings...
July 19, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099922/impact-of-time-to-start-systemic-therapy-on-the-outcomes-of-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-treated-with-first-line-folfox-chemotherapy-a-patient-level-pooled-analysis-of-two-clinical-trials
#12
Hani Oweira, Omar Abdel-Rahman, Anwar Giryes, Meinrad Mannhart, Michael Decker
BACKGROUND: Time to start adjuvant therapy has been shown to be an important determinant of survival following curative resection of colorectal cancer. Time to start systemic therapy following diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) needs to be additionally studied and assessed. METHODS: This is a pooled analysis of the raw data of the comparator arms of two randomized studies (NCT00272051; NCT00305188). Univariate and Multivariate analysis of predictors of overall and progression-free survival was conducted through Cox regression analysis...
August 11, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098223/abca1-overexpression-worsens-colorectal-cancer-prognosis-by-facilitating-tumour-growth-and-caveolin-1-dependent-invasiveness-and-these-effects-can-be-ameliorated-using-the-bet-inhibitor-apabetalone
#13
Cristina Aguirre-Portolés, Jaime Feliu, Guillermo Reglero, Ana Ramírez de Molina
At the time of diagnosis, 20% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) present with metastasis. Among individuals with primary lesions, 50% of them will develop distant tumors with time. Therefore, early diagnosis and prediction of aggressiveness is crucial for therapy design and disease prognosis. Tumoral cells must undergo significant changes in energy metabolism to meet increased structural and energetic demands for cell proliferation, and metabolic alterations are considered to be a hallmark of cancer. Here, we present ABCA1, a regulator of cholesterol transport, as a new marker for invasion and colorectal cancer survival...
August 11, 2018: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097241/ablative-stereotactic-radiotherapy-for-oligometastatic-colorectal-cancer-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
J Kobiela, P Spychalski, G Marvaso, D Ciardo, V Dell'Acqua, F Kraja, A Błażyńska-Spychalska, A J Łachiński, A Surgo, R Glynne-Jones, B A Jereczek-Fossa
BACKGROUND: SBRT is a novel modality in treatment for oligometastatic colorectal cancer. We aimed to perform a systematic review of results of SBRT in maintaining LC (local control) for CRC liver and lung oligometastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The review was performed according to PRISMA and PICO guidelines. Database search using keywords: stereotactic, colon, colorectal, cancer, sbrt, sabr returned 457 results. 15 were included in the study. Only cohorts with CRC histology and reported LC were included...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096840/clinically-relevant-anti-inflammatory-agents-for-chemoprevention-of-colorectal-cancer-new-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Altaf Mohammed, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Venkateshwar Madka, Chinthalapally V Rao
Substantial efforts are underway for prevention of early stages or recurrence of colorectal cancers (CRC) or new polyp formation by chemoprevention strategies. Several epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies to date have supported the chemopreventive potentials of several targeted drug classes including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (aspirin, naproxen, sulindac, celecoxib, and licofelone), statins and other natural agents-both individually, and in combinations. Most preclinical trials although were efficacious, only few agents entered clinical trials and have been proven to be potential chemopreventive agents for colon cancer...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092572/triplet-chemotherapy-folfoxiri-plus-bevacizumab-versus-doublet-chemotherapy-folfox-folfiri-plus-bevacizumab-in-conversion-therapy-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#16
Lin Shui, Yu-Shen Wu, Huapeng Lin, Pixian Shui, Qin Sun, Xiaopin Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Conversion therapy can convert unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) into resectable. However, the optimal conversion regimen was not yet defined. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of the triplet chemotherapy (FOLFOXIRI) plus bevacizumab (Bev) with doublet chemotherapy (FOLFOX/FOLFIRI) plus Bev in conversion therapy. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from databases, including Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane clinical trials, clinicaltrial...
August 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091652/a-within-trial-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-panitumumab-compared-with-bevacizumab-in-the-first-line-treatment-of-patients-with-wild-type-ras-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-in-the-us
#17
Christopher N Graham, Alexandra Christodoulopoulou, Hediyyih N Knox, Lorenzo Sabatelli, Guy Hechmati, Tamer Garawin, John H Strickler
AIMS: In this analysis, we investigated the cost-effectiveness of panitumumab plus mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin) compared with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6 in the first-line treatment of patients with wild-type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cost-effectiveness analysis was developed from a third-party payer perspective in the United States and was implemented using a partitioned survival model with health states for first-line treatment (progression-free), disease progression with and without subsequent active treatment, and death...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087314/targeting-interleukin-6-il-6-sensitizes-anti-pd-l1-treatment-in-a-colorectal-cancer-preclinical-model
#18
Jibin Li, Jian Xu, Xiaofei Yan, Keer Jin, Wenya Li, Rui Zhang
BACKGROUND Limited efficacy of immune checkpoint blockades was observed in clinical trials in colorectal (CRC) patients, especially in the microsatellite-stable patients. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is critical in modeling immune responses in cancers. However, the effects of targeting IL-6 in combination with immune checkpoint blockades is unknown in CRC. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the present study, we investigated the profile of IL-6 expression in tumor tissues of CRC patient and we established CRC mouse models with various IL-6 expression levels using CT26 cells and MC38 cells...
August 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087246/liquid-biopsy-in-endometrial-cancer-new-opportunities-for-personalized-oncology
#19
REVIEW
Laura Muinelo-Romay, Carlos Casas-Arozamena, Miguel Abal
The identification of new molecular targets and biomarkers associated with high risk of recurrence and response to therapy represents one of the main clinical challenges in the management of advanced disease in endometrial cancer. In this sense, the field of liquid biopsy has emerged as a great revolution in oncology and is considered "the way" to reach personalised medicine. In this review, we discuss the promising but already relatively limited advances of liquid biopsy in endometrial cancer compared to other types of tumours like breast, colorectal or prostate cancer...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086061/enhanced-recovery-protocols-for-adults-undergoing-colorectal-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Nancy L Greer, William P Gunnar, Philipp Dahm, Alice E Lee, Roderick MacDonald, Aasma Shaukat, Shahnaz Sultan, Timothy J Wilt
BACKGROUND: Enhanced surgical recovery protocols are designed to reduce hospital length of stay and health care costs. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to systematically review and summarize evidence from randomized and controlled clinical trials comparing enhanced recovery protocols versus usual care in adults undergoing elective colorectal surgery with emphasis on recent trials, protocol components, and subgroups for surgical approach and colorectal condition. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE from 2011 to July 2017; reference lists of existing systematic reviews and included studies were reviewed to identify all eligible trials published before 2011...
September 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
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