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Plasma cell myeloma

Tzu-Chuan Huang, Shang-Yi Huang, Ming Yao, Chen-Yuan Lin, Wen-Li Hwang, Jyh-Pyng Gau, Tran-Der Tan, Po-Nan Wang, Yi-Chang Liu, Shih-Chiang Lin, Ruey-Ho Kao, Sung-Nan Pei, Ming-Sun Yu, Hsuan-Yu Lin, Yung-Cheng Su, Chih-Cheng Chen, Sin-Syue Li, Yi-Ying Wu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a monoclonal plasma cell malignancy. The primary choice of treatment for MM is induction therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). This study aimed to analyze the treatment efficacy of ASCT in a Taiwanese cohort and evaluate possible prognostic factors. METHODS: From the database of the Taiwan Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry, data on 396 patients with MM who underwent ASCT were reviewed...
August 14, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
N Tahiliani, P Kataria, A Patel, P Kendre
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a monoclonal gammopathy, also known as the malignant proliferation of plasma cells, presenting with typical complications such as hypercalcemia, osteolytic bone lesions, anemia, renal insufficiency, and frequent infections. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in MM in the form of parenchymal involvement is very uncommon and has been reported only in 1% of patients. CNS involvement as an initial presentation is very rare and has poor prognosis. Also specific treatment guidelines do not exist for the treatment of such patients...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Ross Tomlinson
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is an uncommon haematological cancer of plasma cells. Improvements in understanding of this disease have lead to drastic changes regarding diagnosis, management and its prognosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to provide a concise update regarding the current management of myeloma in Australia, and important management issues for general practitioners. DISCUSSION: With the advent of new treatments, the outcomes of myeloma have changed drastically in the past decade, and it is now a disease that requires long-term monitoring by both haematologists and general practitioners...
August 2018: Australian journal of general practice
Wei Wang, Yuyue Ren, Lianjie Wang, Weiwei Zhao, Xiushuai Dong, Jiaqi Pan, Haiyan Gao, Yaoyao Tian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm which constitutes about 10% of all hematologic malignancies. Despite the development and application of novel agents, MM still undergoes an aggressive and incurable course in the vast majority of patients. Ca2+ is one of the critical regulators of cell migration. Ca2+ influx is essential for the migration of various types of cells including tumor cells. However, the role of store-operated calcium entry (SOC) channels, the only Ca2+ channels of non-excitable cells, has not yet been reported in MM cell survival...
August 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jing Jia, Huijuan Wang, Miaomiao Wu, Feilong Zhang, Xuelin Liu, Wenming Chen, Aijun Liu
A 62-year-old female presenting with anemia and extensive hemorrhages is reported. Coagulation tests showed significantly prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time. Decreased levels of clotting factor X activity were determined (5.4%). Bone marrow biopsy revealed neoplastic plasma cells. Serum and urine protein electrophoresis were both negative for monoclonal gammopathy, and both bone marrow and abdominal fat biopsies were negative for amyloid deposition. The patient was diagnosed as suffering from nonsecretory multiple myeloma (MM) complicated by acquired factor X deficiency...
August 16, 2018: Acta Haematologica
Sandy W Wong, Ute Hegenbart, Giovanni Palladini, Gunjan L Shah, Heather J Landau, Melissa Warner, Denis Toskic, Arnaud Jaccard, Timon Hansen, Joan Bladé, M Teresa Cibeira, Efstathios Kastritis, Angela Dispenzieri, Ashutosh Wechalekar, Cindy Varga, Stefan O Schönland, Raymond L Comenzo
INTRODUCTION: Deletion 17p (del 17p) portends a poor prognosis in myeloma, but its significance in light-chain amyloidosis is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified patients with light-chain amyloidosis and del 17p at diagnosis, and analyzed presenting characteristics, treatments, and clinical outcomes. All had baseline biopsy results showing amyloid and serologic and marrow studies, including standard fluorescence in-situ hybridization determinations of del 17p using commercial probes...
July 25, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Olwen Amy Westerland, Guy Pratt, Majid Kazmi, Inas El-Najjar, Matthew Streetly, Kwee Yong, Monica Morris, Rakesh Mehan, Martin Sambrook, Margaret Hall-Craggs, David Silver, Vicky Goh
OBJECTIVES: Cross-sectional imaging is now recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for patients with suspected and newly diagnosed myeloma instead of skeletal survey. The objectives of this study were: (1) To evaluate compliance of current UK imaging practice with reference to national NICE best-practice clinical guidelines for plasma cell malignancies. (2: To identify factors which may influence diagnostic imaging choices. METHODS: We conducted a national online survey to assess compliance with guidelines and to identify challenges to implementation (endorsed by Myeloma UK, UK Myeloma Forum and the British Society of Skeletal Radiologists)...
August 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Tae Yeul Kim, Ja-Yoon Gu, Hye Soo Jung, Youngil Koh, Inho Kim, Hyun Kyung Kim
Leukemic cells release their nuclear contents into the extracellular space upon activation. The released nuclear contents, called extracellular traps, can activate the contact system of coagulation. This study accessed the extent of contact system activation, the levels of extracellular traps, and coagulation activation in hematologic malignancies including acute leukemia. In 154 patients with hematologic malignancies (acute leukemia, n = 29; myelodysplastic syndrome, n = 20; myeloproliferative neoplasms, n = 69; plasma cell myeloma, n = 36) and 48 normal controls, the levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen and factor VII, VIII, IX, and XII), D-dimer, thrombin generation, extracellular trap markers (histone-DNA complex, cell-free dsDNA, leukocyte elastase), and contact system markers (activated factor XII [XIIa], high-molecular-weight kininogen, prekallikrein, bradykinin) were measured...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Alessandro Agnarelli, Tim Chevassut, Erika J Mancini
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematologic malignancy characterized by abnormal proliferation of plasma cells. Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4), a member of the interferon regulatory family of transcription factors, is central to the genesis of MM. IRF4 is highly expressed in B cells and plasma cells where it plays essential roles in controlling B cell to plasma cell differentiation and immunoglobulin class switching. Overexpression of IRF4 is found in MM patients' derived cells, often as a result of activating mutations or translocations, where it is required for their survival...
August 3, 2018: Leukemia Research
Normann Steiner, Udo Müller, Roman Hajek, Sabina Sevcikova, Bojana Borjan, Karin Jöhrer, Georg Göbel, Andreas Pircher, Eberhard Gunsilius
INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignant plasma cell disorder, is still an incurable disease. Thus, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is of utmost importance. Here, we evaluated the peripheral blood-based metabolic profile of patients with MM. MATERIAL & METHODS: Peripheral blood plasma levels of 188 endogenous metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, sphingomyelins, and hexoses were determined in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, a precursor stage of MM (MGUS, n = 15), newly diagnosed MM, (NDMM, n = 32), relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM, n = 19) and in 25 healthy controls by mass spectrometry...
2018: PloS One
Yin Liu, Zhibin Jin, Haiyan Zhang, Yingwei Zhang, Minke Shi, Fanqing Meng, Qi Sun, Hourong Cai
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary is an uncommon site of extramedullary involvement in multiple myeloma (MM). Diffuse parenchymal amyloidosis as pulmonary manifestation of MM is even rarer. We report a rare case of diffuse parenchymal pulmonary amyloidosis associated with MM diagnosed by video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy (VATLB). CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old woman complained of cough and shortness of breath. HRCT disclosed diffuse ground-glass opacifications with interlobular septal thickening in bilateral lungs...
August 8, 2018: BMC Cancer
M Hasib Sidiqi, Mohammed A Aljama, Dragan Jevremovic, William G Morice, Michael Timm, Francis K Buadi, Rahma Warsame, Martha Q Lacy, Angela Dispenzieri, David Dingli, Wilson I Gonsalves, Shaji Kumar, Prashant Kapoor, Taxiarchis Kourelis, Nelson Leung, William J Hogan, Eli Muchtar, John A Lust, Vincent S Rajkumar, Morie A Gertz
Myeloma patients failing to achieve a complete response post autologous stem cell transplantation are heterogeneous, some ultimately achieving deeper responses and prolonged remission, whilst others relapse rapidly with poor outcomes. We evaluated the prognostic impact of the plasma cell proliferative index (PCPI) post-therapy, in 382 patients with myeloma failing to achieve complete response at 100 days post-transplant. Sixty percent (n = 230) of patients had zero clonal or too few clonal plasma cells to accurately assess PCPI (No PCPI)...
August 7, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Melda Sarıman, Neslihan Abacı, Sema Sırma Ekmekçi, Aris Çakiris, Ferda Perçin Paçal, Duran Üstek, Mesut Ayer, Mustafa Nuri Yenerel, Sevgi Beşışık, Kıvanç Çefle, Şükrü Palandüz, Şükrü Öztürk
Background: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by transformation of B cells into malignant cells. Although there are data regarding molecular pathology of multiple myeloma, molecularmechanisms of the disease has not been fully explained. Aims: To investigate gene expression profiles in bone marrow myeloma cells via RNA sequencing technology. Study Design: Cell study. Methods: Four untreated MM patients myeloma cells and 4 healthy donors B cells from bone marrow were sorted using FACSAria II...
August 6, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Anja Seckinger, Jens Hillengass, Martina Emde, Susanne Beck, Christoph Kimmich, Tobias Dittrich, Michael Hundemer, Anna Jauch, Ute Hegenbart, Marc-Steffen Raab, Anthony D Ho, Stefan Schönland, Dirk Hose
Monoclonal antibodies against the cell surface antigen CD38, e.g., isatuximab, daratumumab, or Mor202, have entered the therapeutic armamentarium in multiple myeloma due to single agent overall response rates of 29 vs. 36 vs. 31%, effectivity in combination regimen, e.g., with lenalidomide or bortezomib plus dexamethasone, and tolerable side effects. Despite clinical use, many questions remain. In this manuscript, we address three of these: first, upfront CD38 target-expression in AL-amyloidosis, monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), asymptomatic, symptomatic, and relapsed multiple myeloma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jérôme Debus, Pierre Lemaire, Mustafa Alani, Jonathan Farhi, Johann Rose, Vincent Cussac, Sabine Defasque, Nathalie Denizon, Habib Ghnaya, Anne Besançon-Bergelin, Kamel Laribi, Fabienne Pineau-Vincent
We report here a case of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with IgA paraproteinemia and a case of concomitant Waldenström macroglobulinemia and monoclonal gammapathy of unknown significance. These rare cases show that the isotype of a monoclonal immunoglobulin does not allow to foresee every time the underlying pathology. Clinical data and medical imaging are essential. From a biological point of view, additional analysis such as immunophenotyping, cytogenetics and molecular biology are required in addition to the cytological features in order to make an accurate differential diagnosis between lymphoid and plasma cell malignancy...
August 1, 2018: Annales de Biologie Clinique
Cyrille Touzeau, Paulo Maciag, Martine Amiot, Philippe Moreau
Despite advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma, the disease still remains incurable for the majority of patients. The overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins (i.e., Bcl-2, Bcl-XL or Mcl-1) is a hallmark of cancer and favors tumor cell survival and resistance to therapy. The oral drug venetoclax is the first-in-class Bcl-2-specific BH3 mimetic. In myeloma, in vitro sensitivity to venetoclax is mainly observed in plasma cells harboring the t(11;14) translocation, a molecular subgroup associated with high Bcl-2 and low Mcl-1/Bcl-XL expression...
August 3, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Priya Choudhry, Derek Galligan, Arun P Wiita
For over a decade, the mainstay of multiple myeloma therapy has been small molecules that directly attack malignant plasma cell biology. However, potent immunotherapies have recently emerged, transforming the myeloma therapeutic landscape. Here we first review new promising strategies to target plasma cells through protein homeostasis and epigenetic modulators. We then discuss emerging immunotherapy strategies that are leading to dramatic results in patients. Finally, we focus on recent preclinical data suggesting that enforcing cell-surface antigen expression through small molecules may enhance immunotherapy efficacy and avoid resistance...
August 2018: Trends in Cancer
Donald C Moore, Justin R Arnall, R Donald Harvey
Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm that has seen impressive improvements in outcomes in recent years with combination therapies, such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. Histone deacetylase inhibition is an additional unique mechanism of action with established biological relevance in multiple myeloma. Panobinostat is the first histone deacetylase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma in patients who have received at least two prior regimens, including bortezomib and an immunomodulatory agent...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Tomas Radivoyevitch, Robert M Dean, Bronwen E Shaw, Ruta Brazauskas, Heather R Tecca, Remco J Molenaar, Minoo Battiwalla, Bipin N Savani, Mary E D Flowers, Kenneth R Cooke, Betty K Hamilton, Matt Kalaycio, Jaroslaw P Maciejewski, Ibrahim Ahmed, Görgün Akpek, Ashish Bajel, David Buchbinder, Jean-Yves Cahn, Anita D'Souza, Andrew Daly, Zachariah DeFilipp, Siddhartha Ganguly, Mehdi Hamadani, Robert J Hayashi, Peiman Hematti, Yoshihiro Inamoto, Nandita Khera, Tamila Kindwall-Keller, Heather Landau, Hillard Lazarus, Navneet S Majhail, David I Marks, Richard F Olsson, Sachiko Seo, Amir Steinberg, Basem M William, Baldeep Wirk, Jean A Yared, Mahmoud Aljurf, Muneer H Abidi, Heather Allewelt, Amer Beitinjaneh, Rachel Cook, Robert F Cornell, Joseph W Fay, Gregory Hale, Jennifer Holter Chakrabarty, Sonata Jodele, Kimberly A Kasow, Anuj Mahindra, Adriana K Malone, Uday Popat, J Douglas Rizzo, Harry C Schouten, Anne B Warwick, William A Wood, Mikkael A Sekeres, Mark R Litzow, Robert P Gale, Shahrukh K Hashmi
BACKGROUND: Exposures to DNA-damaging drugs and ionizing radiations increase risks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). METHODS: 9028 recipients of hematopoietic cell autotransplants (1995-2010) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL; n = 916), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; n = 3546) and plasma cell myeloma (PCM; n = 4566), reported to the CIBMTR, were analyzed for risk of subsequent AML or MDS. RESULTS: 335 MDS/AML cases were diagnosed posttransplant (3...
July 19, 2018: Leukemia Research
Sarah Ordway, Laura Gilbert, Sam Wanko
Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a rare systemic disease, often unrecognised in the primary care setting. POEMS syndrome is associated with plasma cell dyscrasias and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor leading to systemic oedema, papilloedema and pulmonary hypertension. A wide constellation of presenting symptoms often leads to late diagnosis. Unrecognised and untreated disease rapidly leads to death from neuropathic exhaustion or cardiopulmonary failure...
July 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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