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calcium-sensing receptor

Dana Elbers, Alexander Scholten, Karl-Wilhelm Koch
Primary steps in vertebrate vision occur in rod and cone cells of the retina and require precise molecular switches in excitation, recovery, and adaptation. In particular, recovery of the photoresponse and light adaptation processes are under control of neuronal Ca2+ sensor (NCS) proteins. Among them, the Ca2+ sensor recoverin undergoes a pronounced Ca2+ -dependent conformational change, a prototypical so-called Ca2+ -myristoyl switch, which allows selective targeting of G protein-coupled receptor kinase. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) has gained attention as a model organism in vision research...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Jingya Zeng, Ying Pan, Baohong Cui, Taiyu Zhai, Song Gao, Qianyu Zhao, Yihua Sun
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a disease associated with inflammation. T lymphocytes are involved by secreting cytokines and inflammatory factors. In our previous study, it was found that the T lymphocytes exhibited certain functional changes, the onset of which was induced by modulating calcium‑sensing receptor (CaSR) in AMI. In the present study, western blotting was used to verified the expression of T lymphocyte CaSR and pathway proteins, including phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (P‑ERK)1/2 and phosphorylated c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (P‑JNK), and used cytometric bead array to detect the secretion of interleukin (IL)‑4, IL‑6, IL‑10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α in AMI onset, the results demonstrated that they were all increased...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Tania Yareli Gutiérrez-López, Lennis Beatríz Orduña-Castillo, Magda Nohemí Hernández-Vásquez, José Vázquez-Prado, Guadalupe Reyes-Cruz
Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) activates the NLRP3 inflammasome with consequences on homeostatic responses. However, little is known about how this process is orchestrated. Since proteolysis of critical regulators of NLRP3 inflammasome contribute to its activation, we aimed to understand how CaSR stimulates proteolytic pathways to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. We found that proteasome and lysosome-dependent mechanisms are activated by CaSR to promote the degradation of important regulators of NLRP inflammasome...
October 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yi Xu, Bingru Huang
Heat and drought stress are primary abiotic stresses confining growth of cool-season grass species during summer. The objective of this study was to identify common molecular factors and metabolic pathways associated with heat and drought responses in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) by comparative analysis of transcriptomic profiles between plants exposed to heat and drought stress. Plants were exposed to heat stress (35/30 °C day/night temperature) or drought stress by withholding irrigation for 21 d in growth chambers...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thomas Söllradl, Kevin Chabot, Ulrike Fröhlich, Michael Canva, Paul G Charette, Michel Grandbois
Evanescent field based biosensing systems such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), diffraction gratings, or metal-clad waveguides (MCWGs) are powerful tools for label-free real-time monitoring of signaling activity of living cells exposed to hormones, pharmacological agents, and toxins. In particular, MCWG-based imaging is well suited for studying relatively thick objects such as cells due to its greater depth of penetration into the sensing medium, compared to SPR. Label-free methods, however, provide only indirect measurements in that the measured signal arises from local changes in material properties rather than from specific biomolecular targets...
October 10, 2018: Analyst
Catherine Cormier
A genetic disorder should be suspected in patients with hypercalcemia, notably those who are young; have family members with hypercalcemia; or have had a tumor of the endocrine pancreas, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal gland, or jaw bone. All forms of hypercalcemia should be interpreted according to the serum level of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Genetic forms are thus classified as related or unrelated to a parathyroid gland disorder. When the PTH level is elevated or is not depressed despite the hypercalcemia, findings that suggest hyperparathyroidism due to a genetic cause include syndromic manifestations in the patient or family members, parathyroid cancer (either suspected before surgery or confirmed during parathyroidectomy), multiple or recurrent parathyroid tumors, a family history of primary hyperparathyroidism, and the onset of primary hyperthyroidism before 50 years of age...
October 6, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Olivia Leitch, Chris Lennard, K Paul Kirkbride, Alisha Anderson
The ability to detect and identify substances based on the volatile compounds (odors) they emit is relied upon heavily for numerous investigative purposes. Animals have an innate olfactory sensitivity and selectivity that out-performs current instrumentation. This has led to immense interest in their employment as chemical sensors for a range of applications, including forensic science, both as whole organisms and as sensing elements in biosensors. Using electrophysiological and calcium imaging assays, this research examined the response of Drosophila melanogaster olfactory receptors (ORs) to odor compounds significant in forensic science and assessed their potential utility as volatile compound sensors...
October 3, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Luca Iamartino, Taha Elajnaf, Enikö Kallay, Martin Schepelmann
The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is best known for its action in the parathyroid gland and kidneys where it controls body calcium homeostasis. However, the CaSR has different roles in the gastrointestinal tract, where it is ubiquitously expressed. In the colon, the CaSR is involved in controlling multiple mechanisms, including fluid transport, inflammation, cell proliferation and differentiation. Although the expression pattern and functions of the CaSR in the colonic microenvironment are far from being completely understood, evidence has been accumulating that the CaSR might play a protective role against both colonic inflammation and colorectal cancer...
September 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Y Zhou, Z Zhou, J Peng, J J Loor
Amino acids play a key role in regulating milk protein synthesis partly through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. However, the involvement of extracellular AA sensing receptors in this process is not well understood. In nonruminants, it is well established that the AA taste 1 receptor member 1/3 (TAS1R1/TAS1R3) heterodimer contributes to the sensing of most l-AA. Whether this receptor is functional in bovine mammary cells is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine essential AA signaling through TAS1R1/TAS1R3 and their roles in regulating mTOR signaling pathway and casein mRNA abundance in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells and the Mac-T cell line...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Takashi Shigematsu, Ryutaro Shimazaki, Masafumi Fukagawa, Tadao Akizawa
Purpose: Cinacalcet is a positive allosteric modulator of calcium-sensing receptors in the parathyroid gland and an effective treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, this agent has considerable side effects and dosage limitations, which impair effective treatment. Therefore, we investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of the novel calcimimetic, evocalcet. Patients and methods: This was a multicenter, open-label study of single oral doses of 1, 4, and 12 mg evocalcet using an intrapatient dose escalation protocol in 29 Japanese secondary hyperparathyroidism patients receiving hemodialysis...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Paramarajan Piranavan, Yan Li, Edward Brown, E Helen Kemp, Nitin Trivedi
Context: While therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab have substantially improved survival in several types of cancer, increased attention has been given to adverse immune events associated with their use, including the development of endocrine autoimmunity. Objectives: First, to describe a patient with a two-year history of metastatic small cell lung cancer who had been treated with nivolumab a few months prior to presentation with the signs and symptoms of severe hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Pamela Mattar, Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Nicolás Tobar, Cecilia Fuentes, Rodrigo Troncoso, Gerda Breitwieser, Sergio Lavandero, Mariana Cifuentes
Obesity is a major current public health problem worldwide due to the severe co-morbid conditions that this disease entails. The development of obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders is in direct association with adipose tissue inflammation that leads to its functional impairment. Activation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) in adipose tissue contributes to inflammation and adipose dysfunction. Autophagy, a process of cell component degradation, is closely related to inflammation in many diseases, however, whether autophagy is associated with CaSR-induced inflammation remains unknown...
November 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Werner E G Müller, Maximilian Ackermann, Emad Tolba, Meik Neufurth, Ivan Ivetac, Maria Kokkinopoulou, Heinz C Schröder, Xiaohong Wang
The in vitro tube formation assay with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was applied to identify the extra- and intracellular sources of metabolic energy/ATP required for cell migration during the initial stage of microvascularization. Extracellularly, the physiological energy-rich polymer, inorganic polyphosphate [polyP], applied as biomimetic amorphous calcium polyP microparticles [Ca-polyP-MP], is functioning as a substrate for ATP generation most likely via the action of the alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and the adenylate kinase [AK] T he linear Ca-polyP-MP with a size of 40 phosphate units, close to the physiological polyP in the blood platelets , were found to increase endothelial cell tube formation, as well as the intracellular ATP levels...
September 21, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Ipek Acar, Alper Cetinkaya, Incilay Lay, Esin Ileri-Gurel
OBJECTIVES: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), the major sensor of extracellular Ca2+ , is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. Although the essential ligand of CaSR is calcium, its activity can be regulated by aromatic L-amino acids. The expression of CaSR on enteroendocrine cells suggests that CaSR functions as a physiological amino acid sensor for gut hormone release. Here, we investigated the effects of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) on rat glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and insulin secretion, and the role of CaSR in this mechanism in vivo...
September 17, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Kannikar Wongdee, Mayuree Rodrat, Chutiya Keadsai, Walailak Jantarajit, Jarinthorn Teerapornpuntakit, Jirawan Thongbunchoo, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Long-term high-calcium intake and intestinal calcium hyperabsorption are hazardous to the body. It is hypothesized that enterocytes possess mechanisms for preventing superfluous calcium absorption, including secretion of negative regulators of calcium absorption and utilization of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to detect luminal calcium. Herein, Caco-2 monolayers were treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)2 D3 to induce calcium hyperabsorption or directly exposed to high apical calcium. The expression of counterregulatory factor of calcium absorption, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, was also investigated in the intestine of lactating rats, which physiologically exhibit calcium hyperabsorption...
September 11, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Masatsugu Toyota, Dirk Spencer, Satoe Sawai-Toyota, Wang Jiaqi, Tong Zhang, Abraham J Koo, Gregg A Howe, Simon Gilroy
Animals require rapid, long-range molecular signaling networks to integrate sensing and response throughout their bodies. The amino acid glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system, facilitating long-range information exchange via activation of glutamate receptor channels. Similarly, plants sense local signals, such as herbivore attack, and transmit this information throughout the plant body to rapidly activate defense responses in undamaged parts. Here we show that glutamate is a wound signal in plants...
September 14, 2018: Science
Annarita Di Mise, Marianna Ranieri, Mariangela Centrone, Maria Venneri, Grazia Tamma, Daniela Valenti, Giovanna Valenti
Autosomal Dominant Polycistic kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a renal channelopathy due to loss-of-function mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes, encoding polycystin-1 (PC1) or polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively. PC1 is a large protein found predominantly on the plasma membrane where interacts with different proteins, including PC2. PC2 is a smaller integral membrane protein also expressed in intracellular organelles, acting as a non-selective cation channel permeable to calcium. Both PC1 and PC2 are also localized to the primary cilium of renal epithelial cells serving as mechanosensor that controls calcium influx through the plasma membrane and regulates intracellular calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Boye L Jensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Yanmei Yang, Bin Wang
Metastatic breast cancer (BrCa) is currently incurable despite great improvements in treatment of primary BrCa. The incidence of skeletal metastases in advanced BrCa occurs up to 70%. Recent findings have established that the distribution of BrCa metastases to the skeleton is not a random process but due to the favorable microenvironment for tumor invasion and growth. The complex interplay among BrCa cells, stromal/osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the osseous microenvironment creates a bone-tumor vicious cycle (a feed-forward loop) that results in excessive bone destruction and progressive tumor growth...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Hussam Abusahmin, Ashutosh Surya, Andrew Aldridge, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Gautam Das
Objective: Parathyroidectomy is usually curative in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), but its utility would be limited if patients are elderly who may either refuse surgery or may have advanced frailty and multimorbidity. We evaluated the effectiveness of cinacalcet, an allosteric modulator of calcium-sensing receptor in PHPT in an elderly cohort of patients. Methods: A prospective analysis of 29 patients who had PHPT and despite fulfilling criteria for surgery were unable to undergo parathyroidectomy either due to self-refusal ( n = 12) or due to advanced multimorbidity ( n = 17)...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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