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Nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis

Seung Joo Kang, Hwa Jung Kim, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
We investigated the relationship of H. pylori stratified by cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) status with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the general population of the United States (US). We utilized the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1988 to 1994 in this study. NAFLD was defined by ultrasonographic detection of hepatic steatosis in the absence of other known causes of liver diseases and significant alcohol consumption. Hepatic steatosis was assessed by parenchymal brightness, liver to kidney contrast, deep beam attenuation, bright vessel walls and gallbladder wall definition...
2018: PloS One
Michał Byra, Grzegorz Styczynski, Cezary Szmigielski, Piotr Kalinowski, Łukasz Michałowski, Rafał Paluszkiewicz, Bogna Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Krzysztof Zieniewicz, Piotr Sobieraj, Andrzej Nowicki
PURPOSE: The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver abnormality. Up to date, liver biopsy is the reference standard for direct liver steatosis quantification in hepatic tissue samples. In this paper we propose a neural network-based approach for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease assessment in ultrasound. METHODS: We used the Inception-ResNet-v2 deep convolutional neural network pre-trained on the ImageNet dataset to extract high-level features in liver B-mode ultrasound image sequences...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Devika Kapuria, Varun K Takyar, Ohad Etzion, Pallavi Surana, James H O'Keefe, Christopher Koh
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming common in the United States and throughout the world and can progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. There is a strong association between coronary artery disease and NAFLD due to common risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic patients, has been shown to have a higher incidence in patients with NAFLD. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the association of NAFLD with subclinical atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring...
August 2018: Hepatology communications
Stanley Dumeus, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Wan-Teng Lin, Ming-Fu Wang, Chao-Hung Lai, Chia-Yao Shen, Yueh-Min Lin, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses therapeutic challenges in elderly subjects. Due to lack of efficient drug therapy, plant-based bioactive peptides have been studied as alternative strategy in NAFLD and for less toxicity in elderly. To mimic fatty liver in aging conditions, researchers highly commended the genetically engineered strains SAMP8 (senescence-accelerated mice prone 8). However, there is a paucity of reports about the anti-steatosis effects of bioactive peptides against fatty liver development under a combined action of high-fat diet exposure and aging process...
August 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Matthew Goodus, Andrew David Sauerbeck, Phillip G Popovich, Richard S Bruno, Dana M McTigue
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts autonomic regulation of visceral organs. As a result, a leading cause of mortality in the SCI population is metabolic dysfunction, and an organ central to metabolic control is the liver. Our recent work showed that rodent SCI promotes Kupffer cell (hepatic macrophage) activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and liver steatosis. These are symptoms of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, and these pre-clinical data replicate aspects of post-SCI human metabolic dysfunction...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nina Graffmann, Martina Bohndorf, Audrey Ncube, Wasco Wruck, Karl Kashofer, Kurt Zatloukal, James Adjaye
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and its prevalence increases continuously. Here, we reprogrammed fibroblasts of a high grade NAFLD patient with homozygous wildtype PNPLA3 genotype. We characterized the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, embryoid body formation, pluritest DNA-fingerprinting, and karyotype analysis.
July 27, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Stelina Alkagiet, Achilleas Papagiannis, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease and affects a considerable proportion of the general population. NAFLD is independently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events, particularly coronary heart disease. Importantly, even though NAFLD is more prevalent in patients with major cardiovascular risk factors ( e.g ., type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension), the association between NAFLD and cardiovascular disease appears to be independent of these risk factors...
July 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Norihiro Imai, David E Cohen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the hepatic accumulation of excess fatty acids in the form of triglycerides. Normally, the steady state concentration of triglycerides in the liver is low. This is because the accrual of fatty acids due to uptake from the plasma and de novo lipogenesis is balanced by ß-oxidation within liver mitochondria and by secretion into plasma as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides. In the setting of insulin resistance, increased rates of lipolysis within white adipose tissue lead to elevated concentrations of plasma fatty acids and increased rates of uptake into the liver...
August 3, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Meejung Ahn, Jeongtae Kim, Seunghyun Hong, Jungeun Kim, Hana Ko, Nam-Ho Lee, Gi-Ok Kim, Taekyun Shin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a serious liver disorder associated with oxidative stress. Black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. niger) extract (BRE) can lower the risk of this disease. The hepatoprotective effect of BRE containing 3-(E)-(methylthio)methylene-2-pyrrolidinethione was evaluated in human hepatocyte carcinoma (HepG2) cells and in rat livers with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced hepatic injury. BRE was administered at 125, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/mL to the oleic acid-induced HepG2 cells...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Xu-Yun Zhao, Xuelian Xiong, Tongyu Liu, Lin Mi, Xiaoling Peng, Crystal Rui, Liang Guo, Siming Li, Xiaoying Li, Jiandie D Lin
Hepatic lipogenesis is aberrantly induced in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) via activation of the LXR-SREBP1c pathway. To date, a number of protein factors impinging on the transcriptional activity of LXR and SREBP1c have been elucidated. However, whether this regulatory axis interfaces with long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) remains largely unexplored. Here we show that hepatic expression of the lncRNA Blnc1 is strongly elevated in obesity and NAFLD in mice. Blnc1 is required for the induction of SREBP1c and hepatic lipogenic genes in response to LXR activation...
July 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Mariana Nikolova-Karakashian
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a group of liver disorders encompassing simple hepatic steatosis and its more aggressive forms of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. It is a rapidly growing health concern and the major cause for the increasing incidence of primary liver tumors. Unequivocal evidence shows that sphingolipid metabolism is altered in the course of the disease and these changes might contribute to NAFLD progression. Recent data provide solid support to the notion that deregulated ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate metabolism are present at all stages of NAFLD, i...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Rohit Loomba, Zeid Kayali, Mazen Noureddin, Peter Ruane, Eric J Lawitz, Michael Bennett, Lulu Wang, Eliza Harting, Jacqueline M Tarrant, Bryan J McColgan, Chuhan Chung, Adrian S Ray, G Mani Subramanian, Robert P Myers, Michael S Middleton, Michelle Lai, Michael Charlton, Stephen A Harrison
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: De novo lipogenesis is increased in livers of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in this process. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of GS-0976, an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in liver, in a phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of patients with NASH. METHODS: We analyzed data from 126 patients with hepatic steatosis ≥8%, based on the magnetic resonance imaging-estimated proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF), and liver stiffness ≥2...
July 27, 2018: Gastroenterology
Francisca Echeverría, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Andrés Bustamante, Daniela Álvarez, Macarena Ortiz, Sandra A Soto-Alarcon, Patricio Muñoz, Alicia Corbari, Luis A Videla
Pharmacological therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not approved at the present time. For this purpose, the effect of combined eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 50 mg/kg/day) modulating hepatic lipid metabolism and hydroxytyrosol (HT; 5 mg/kg/day) exerting antioxidant actions was evaluated on hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat, 20% protein, and 20% carbohydrates) compared to a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, and 70% carbohydrates) in mice fed for 12 weeks...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Lina Jiang, Mei Yang, Xi Li, Yijin Wang, Guangde Zhou, Jingmin Zhao
Context: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the focus of significant attention due to its prevalence. CXC motif ligand 16 (CXCL16) has been studied in inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Objective: To investigate the role of CXCL16 in steatosis and fibrosis in NAFLD patients. Design: Liver specimens and sera of NAFLD patients from 2012 to 2017 were collected. Setting: Beijing 302 Hospital. Patients or Other Participants: 117 NAFLD patients and 15 healthy controls...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Simona Cernea, Andrada Larisa Roiban, Emőke Both, Adina Huţanu
AIMS: Leptin/leptin resistance has been suggested to play a role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and therefore we investigated the correlations of leptin/leptin-receptor system with markers of hepatic steatosis (HS) and fibrosis (HF) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 159 T2D subjects with disease duration of 6.0(0.0-27.0) years, HS was evaluated by semi-quantitative ultrasonographic (US) scores and by clinical/biochemical variables: Fatty liver index and Hepatic steatosis index...
July 27, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Yoshio Sumida, Kenta Murotani, Miyoko Saito, Atsuko Tamasawa, Yusuke Osonoi, Masashi Yoneda, Takeshi Osonoi
AIMS: No pharmacological therapies are approved for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Luseogliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been developed for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this prospective, single arm study is to evaluate the efficacy of luseogliflozin on hepatic fat content and HbA1c in T2DM patients with NAFLD. METHODS: Forty T2DM patients with NAFLD were treated with luseogliflozin 2...
July 27, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Takujiro Homma, Toshihiro Kurahashi, Jaeyong Lee, Atsunori Nabeshima, Sohsuke Yamada, Junichi Fujii
Mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1), an antioxidative enzyme, are susceptible to developing liver steatosis. Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prdx4) catalyzes disulfide bond formation in proteins via the action of hydrogen peroxide and hence decreases oxidative stress and supports oxidative protein folding for the secretion of lipoproteins. Because elevated reactive oxygen species induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, this negative chain reaction is likely involved in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases and more advanced steatohepatitis (NASH)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Li-Li Ma, Yan-Yan Yuan, Ming Zhao, Xin-Rong Zhou, Tashina Jehangir, Fu-Yan Wang, Yang Xi, Shi-Zhong Bu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are highly prevalent diseases and are closely associated, with NAFLD being present in the majority of T2DM patients. In Asian traditional medicine, Mori Cortex is widely used for the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. However, whether it has a therapeutic effect on T2DM associated with NAFLD is still unknown. The present study showed that the oral treatment with Mori Cortex extract (MCE; 10 g·kg-1 ·d-1 ) lowered the blood lipid levels and reversed insulin resistance (IR) in high fat-diet/streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in rats...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Katsuhisa Omagari, Kazuhito Suruga, Akira Kyogoku, Satomi Nakamura, Ai Sakamoto, Shinta Nishioka, Mayuko Ichimura, Yuji Miyata, Koichi Tajima, Koichi Tsuneyama, Kazunari Tanaka
Background: Established treatments for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are few, thus it is imperative to develop novel dietary strategies that can prevent NASH. A fermented mixed tea (FMT) made with Camellia japonica (Japanese camellia) and third- crop green tea leaves by tea-rolling processing was reported to reduce body weight and adipose tissue weight in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Because visceral fat is one of the most important factors for the development of hepatic steatosis, this FMT supplementation can be a candidate dietary strategy for the prevention of NASH...
June 2018: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
Yanrong Guo, Haoming Lin, Changfeng Dong, Xinyu Zhang, Huiying Wen, Yuanyuan Shen, Tianfu Wang, Siping Chen, Yingxia Liu, Xin Chen
Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography is a non-invasive method for performing liver assessment via liver shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the ARFI technique in the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis and to investigate the effect of steatosis and inflammation on liver fibrosis SWV measurements in a rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The ex vivo right liver lobes from 110 rats were processed and embedded in a fabricated gelatin phantom, and the other lobes were used for histologic assessment...
July 2, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
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