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Nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis

Suhendro Suwarto, Riyanti Astrid Diahtantri, Mohammad Jauharsyah Hidayat, Bing Widjaya
A prominent histopathological feature of fatal dengue cases is hepatic steatosis. However, the association between hepatic steatosis and dengue severity is unknown. We conducted a study to determine the associations of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with laboratory markers of dengue severity and length of hospital stay (LOS). A retrospective study was conducted at a private hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, from December 2011 to December 2016. Bivariate analysis was performed to analyze the associations of laboratory markers of dengue severity and LOS with the presence or absence of NAFLD in no-plasma-leakage (no leakage) and plasma-leakage (leakage) groups...
2018: PloS One
Natalie Chaves Cayuela, Gabrielly Pascoa Negreti, Roberto Rasslan, Marcia Kiyomi Koike, Edna Frasson de Souza Montero
PURPOSE: To evaluate the oxidative stress, resulting from ischemia and hepatic reperfusion, in mice with non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice were used. Part of them were ob/ob mice, and the other part was fed with standard or MCD diets - this last used to develop steatohepatitis. The animals - MCD-I/R, ob/ob-I/R and I/R groups - were submitted to 30 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours...
September 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Guozhen Cui, Robert C Martin, Xingkai Liu, Qianqian Zheng, Harshul Pandit, Ping Zhang, Wei Li, Yan Li
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of lesions ranging from steatosis to a complex pattern, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Ultrasonography provides important information on hepatic architecture for steatosis. NASH patients have an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early detection of NASH is critical for clinicians to advise on necessary treatments to prevent the onset of HCC. Methods: We established a NASH-HCC mouse model using diethylnitrosamine as a carcinogen to induce HCC and a high-fat diet to induce metabolic disorders...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Anja Bosy-Westphal, Wiebke Braun, Viktoria Albrecht, Manfred J Müller
Common obesity-associated hepatic steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)) and insulin resistance are mainly caused by dysfunctional adipose tissue. This adipose tissue dysfunction leads to increased delivery of NEFA and glycerol to the liver that (i) drives hepatic gluconeogenesis and (ii) facilitates the accumulation of lipids and insulin signaling inhibiting lipid intermediates. Dysfunctional adipose tissue can be caused by impaired lipid storage (overflow hypothesis, characterized by large visceral adipocytes) or increased lipolysis (due to impaired postprandial suppression of lipolysis in inflamed, insulin-resistant adipocytes)...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Igor Maricic, Idania Marrero, Akiko Eguchi, Ryota Nakamura, Casey D Johnson, Suryasarathi Dasgupta, Carolyn D Hernandez, Phirum Sam Nguyen, Austin D Swafford, Rob Knight, Ariel E Feldstein, Rohit Loomba, Vipin Kumar
Innate immune mechanisms play an important role in inflammatory chronic liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of type I or invariant NKT (iNKT) cell subsets in the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We used α-galactosylceramide/CD1d tetramers and clonotypic mAb together with intracytoplasmic cytokine staining to analyze iNKT cells in choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined (CDAA)-induced murine NASH model and in human PBMCs, respectively. Cytokine secretion of hepatic iNKT cells in CDAA-fed C57BL/6 mice altered from predominantly IL-17+ to IFN-γ+ and IL-4+ during NASH progression along with the downmodulation of TCR and NK1...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Barbara Kern, Benedikt Feurstein, Josef Fritz, Cornelia Fabritius, Robert Sucher, Ivo Graziadei, Reto Bale, Herbert Tilg, Heinz Zoller, Philip Newsome, Stephan Eschertzhuber, Raimund Margreiter, Dietmar Öfner, Stefan Schneeberger
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an increasingly prevalent indication for liver transplantation (LT) across the world. The relative outcomes following transplantation are poorly described in this cohort. We aimed to analyze the incidence and outcome of LT for NASH as compared with other indications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 513 patients who underwent deceased-donor, adult LT between 2002 and 2012 as recorded at the Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mustafa R Bashir, Tanya Wolfson, Anthony C Gamst, Kathryn J Fowler, Michael Ohliger, Shetal N Shah, Adina Alazraki, Andrew T Trout, Cynthia Behling, Daniela S Allende, Rohit Loomba, Arun Sanyal, Jeffrey Schwimmer, Joel E Lavine, Wei Shen, James Tonascia, Mark L Van Natta, Adrija Mamidipalli, Jonathan Hooker, Kris V Kowdley, Michael S Middleton, Claude B Sirlin
BACKGROUND: The liver R2* value is widely used as a measure of liver iron but may be confounded by the presence of hepatic steatosis and other covariates. PURPOSE: To identify the most influential covariates for liver R2* values in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data. POPULATION: Baseline data from 204 subjects enrolled in NAFLD/NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) treatment trials...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Katerina Karaivazoglou, Maria Kalogeropoulou, Stelios Assimakopoulos, Christos Triantos
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the adoption of unhealthy dietary habits and a sedentary lifestyle has led to an alarming increase in the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in pediatric populations. Hepatic steatosis is now considered the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents and may progress to liver fibrosis and even cirrhosis, increasing long-term mortality rates. Apart from its severe medical co-morbidities, pediatric NAFLD is associated with a variety of psychosocial factors which act either as precipitants or consequences of the disease...
September 8, 2018: Psychosomatics
Xiuli Jiang, Lei Jiang, Aijing Shan, Yutong Su, Yulong Cheng, Dalong Song, He Ji, Guang Ning, Weiqing Wang, Yanan Cao
BACKGROUND: Effective targeting therapies for common chronic liver disease nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are in urgent need. MicroRNA-targeted therapeutics would be potentially an effective treatment strategy of hepatic diseases. Here we investigated the functional role of miR-221/222 and the therapeutic effects of antimiRs-221/222 in NASH mouse models. METHODS: We generated the miR-221/222flox/flox mice on a C57BL/6 J background and the hepatic miR-221/222 knockout (miR-221/222-LKO) mice...
October 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
Hongxue Shi, Jian Jan, Josiah E Hardesty, K Cameron Falkner, Russell A Prough, Appakalai N Balamurugan, Sri Prakash Mokshagundam, Suresh T Chari, Matthew C Cave
The endocrine disrupting chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and diabetes. However, an integrative analysis of the effects of PCBs on the liver and pancreas has never been performed for the two major PCB subtypes, dioxin-like (DL) and nondioxin-like (NDL), and a mixture of NDL/DL PCBs. Therefore, male C57BL/6 J mice fed a control synthetic diet were treated with either a NDL PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg); a single DL PCB congener, PCB 126 (20 μg/kg); a NDL/DL mixture, Aroclor 1260 plus PCB 126; or vehicle control for 2 weeks...
October 9, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Donghee Kim, Won Kim, Sae Kyung Joo, Jung Ho Kim, Stephen A Harrison, Zobair M Younossi, Aijaz Ahmed
AIMS: We compared (1) demographic and clinical characteristics, and (2) determinants of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and significant fibrosis in non-obese and obese NAFLD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 664 Asian subjects (mean age 53.1 years; men 50.3%) with biopsy-proven NAFLD and controls was conducted. Subjects were divided by their body mass index (BMI) into obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 ) and non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2 ). RESULTS: Observations in subjects with non-obese NAFLD were in between non-obese controls and obese NAFLD subjects for BMI, sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), aminotransferase levels, insulin resistance, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area...
October 8, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Jose Cordoba-Chacon, Andre Sarmento-Cabral, Mercedes Del Rio-Moreno, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Papasani V Subbaiah, Rhonda D Kineman
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which includes non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is associated with reduced growth hormone (GH) input/signaling and GH therapy is effective in the reduction/resolution of NAFLD/NASH in select patient populations. Our laboratory has focused on isolating the direct vs. indirect effects of GH in preventing NAFLD/NASH. We reported that chow-fed, adult-onset hepatocyte-specific GH receptor knockdown (aHepGHRkd) mice rapidly (within 7d) develop steatosis associated with increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), independent of changes in systemic metabolic function...
October 5, 2018: Endocrinology
Ashokkumar Jain, Thomas R Riley, Karen L Krok, Ian Schreibman, Dipti M Karamchandani, Xiaojie Liao, Ye Tian, Takehiko Dohi, Zakiyah Kadry
OBJECTIVES: Newly developed, direct-acting antiviral therapy is effective in over 90% of cases to eradicate hepatitis C virus infection. Direct-acting antiviral therapy is also effective in liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C virus infection. However, hepatic function after sustained virologic response in transplant recipients is unknown. Here, we aimed to uncover the incidence of hepatic dysfunction in this patient group at our center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 40 consecutive (January 2014 to February 2016) and compliant posttransplant recipients who achieved sustained viral response from direct-acting antiviral therapy...
October 5, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Saumya Jayakumar, Michael S Middleton, Eric J Lawitz, Parvez S Mantry, Stephen H Caldwell, Hays Arnold, Anna Mae Diehl, Reem Ghalib, Magdy Elkhashab, Manal F Abdelmalek, Kris V Kowdley, C Stephen Djedjos, Ren Xu, Ling Han, G Mani Subramanian, Robert P Myers, Zachary D Goodman, Nezam H Afdhal, Michael R Charlton, Claude B Sirlin, Rohit Loomba
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Noninvasive tools for monitoring treatment response and disease progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are needed. Our objective was to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR)-based hepatic imaging measures for the assessment of liver histology in patients with NASH. METHODS: We analyzed data from NASH patients with stage 2 or 3 fibrosis enrolled in a phase 2 study of selonsertib. Pre- and post-treatment assessments included centrally-read MR elastography (MRE)-estimated liver stiffness, MR imaging-estimated proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF), and liver biopsies evaluated according to the NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN) classification and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) Activity Score (NAS)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
María Iñiguez, Patricia Pérez-Matute, María Jesús Villanueva-Millán, Emma Recio-Fernández, Irene Roncero-Ramos, Margarita Pérez-Clavijo, José-Antonio Oteo
Obesity is a global epidemic characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by important complications such as nonalcoholic liver steatosis. Beneficial antiobesogenic effects have been described for some mushrooms. The current study aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of Agaricus bisporus (AB) supplementation against the metabolic alterations induced by high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 weeks with one of the following diets: (1) control diet (n = 7), (2) HFD (n = 7), (3) HFD supplemented with 5% AB (n = 9), and (4) HFD supplemented with 10% AB (n = 9)...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Erin E Elbel, Joel E Lavine, Michael Downes, Mark Van Natta, Ruth Yu, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Cynthia Behling, Elizabeth M Brunt, James Tonascia, Ronald Evans
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adults. This study examined the relationship between hepatic nuclear receptor (NR) expression and histologic features of NAFLD. Drugs targeting a variety of NRs for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are in clinical trials. Liver messenger RNA was isolated from 40 children (10-19 years) undergoing end-of-treatment biopsy in the Treatment of NAFLD in Children (TONIC) trial. High-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction assayed NR messenger RNA...
October 2018: Hepatology Communications
Raiya Sarwar, Nicholas Pierce, Sean Koppe
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming the most common cause of chronic liver disease due to an increase in the prevalence of obesity. The development of NASH leads to an increase in morbidity and mortality. While the first line of treatment is lifestyle modifications, including dietary changes and increased physical activity, there are no approved pharmacological treatment agents for NAFLD and NASH currently. Due to its complex pathophysiology, different pathways are under investigation for drug development with the focus on metabolic pathways, inflammation, and slowing or reversing fibrosis...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Hyo Eun Park, Heesun Lee, Su-Yeon Choi, Min-Sun Kwak, Jong In Yang, Jeong Yoon Yim, Goh Eun Chung
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) plays a significant role in coronary atherosclerosis, independent of shared metabolic risk factors. The measurement of the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) has shown to allow early and noninvasive detection of NAFLD at subclinical stage. We evaluated the significance of CAP-defined NAFLD in association with the presence of any type of coronary plaques and different plaque compositions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort of apparently healthy subjects who had liver Fibroscan and coronary computed tomography during health screening exams...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Ji-Jun Luo, Hai-Xia Cao, Rui-Xu Yang, Rui-Nan Zhang, Qin Pan
AIM: To investigate the effect of PNPLA3 polymorphisms on serum lipidomics and pathological characteristics in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Thirty-four biopsy-proven NAFLD patients from Northern, Central, and Southern China were subjected to stratification by genotyping their single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PNPLA3 . Ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry was then employed to characterize the effects of PNPLA3 SNPs on serum lipidomics...
September 26, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Hyunghee Lee, Jiwon Ahn, Soon Shik Shin, Michung Yoon
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ascorbic acid is a known cofactor in the biosynthesis of carnitine, a molecule that has an obligatory role in fatty acid oxidation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that obesity is regulated effectively through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-mediated fatty acid β-oxidation. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether ascorbic acid can inhibit obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in part through the actions of PPARα...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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