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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295280/structural-and-functional-connectivity-in-children-and-adolescents-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Dienke J Bos, Bob Oranje, Michelle Achterberg, Chantal Vlaskamp, Sara Ambrosino, Marcel A de Reus, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Serge A R B Rombouts, Sarah Durston
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has frequently been associated with changes in resting-state functional connectivity, and decreased white matter (WM) integrity. In the current study, we investigated functional connectivity within Default Mode and frontal control resting-state networks (RSNs) in children with and without ADHD. We hypothesized the RSNs of interest would show a pattern of impaired functional integration and segregation and corresponding changes in WM structure...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292705/prefrontal-and-parietal-correlates-of-cognitive-control-related-to-the-adult-outcome-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-diagnosed-in-childhood
#2
Kurt P Schulz, Xiaobo Li, Suzanne M Clerkin, Jin Fan, Olga G Berwid, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Jeffrey M Halperin
The protracted and highly variable development of prefrontal cortex regions that support cognitive control has been purported to shape the adult outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This neurodevelopmental model was tested in a prospectively followed sample of 27 adult probands who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 28 carefully matched comparison subjects aged 21-28 years. Probands were classified with persistent ADHD or remitted ADHD. Behavioral and neural responses to the Stimulus and Response Conflict Task (SRCT) performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were compared in probands and comparison subjects and in probands with persistent and remitted ADHD...
February 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268524/differences-in-connectivity-patterns-between-child-and-adolescent-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-patients
#3
Bo-Yong Park, Jonghoon Kim, Hyunjin Park
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disorder for a broad range of ages. Child and adolescent ADHD patients show different behavior patterns. The differences between child and adolescent ADHD patients have not been fully explored in terms of brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the differences of connectivity patterns between child and adolescent ADHD patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) of 52 ADHD patients (26 children and 26 adolescents)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262138/prefrontal-oxygenation-during-verbal-fluency-and-cognitive-function-in-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-type-ii
#4
Yasuki Ono, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Hideo Nakatani, Masako Murakami, Manami Nishisaka, Tomoko Muramatsu, Toshio Munesue, Yoshio Minabe
Evaluation of depressive states in children can be challenging. Most of the studies that have investigated cognitive function and cerebral blood volume changes using functional MRI (fMRI) in bipolar disorder (BD) have been confined to BDI or heterogeneous cohorts with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated cognitive functions in adolescents with BDII and without ADHD using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and a Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (DN-CAS). Ten patients with BDII and without ADHD symptoms and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the present study...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235692/abnormal-fear-circuitry-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-controlled-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#5
Andrea E Spencer, Marie-France Marin, Mohammed R Milad, Thomas J Spencer, Olivia E Bogucki, Amanda L Pope, Natalie Plasencia, Brittany Hughes, Edward F Pace-Schott, Maura Fitzgerald, Mai Uchida, Joseph Biederman
We examined whether non-traumatized subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have dysfunctional activation in brain structures mediating fear extinction, possibly explaining the statistical association between ADHD and other disorders characterized by aberrant fear processing such as PTSD. Medication naïve, non-traumatized young adult subjects with (N=27) and without (N=20) ADHD underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction protocol in a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner...
February 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226698/differences-in-connectivity-patterns-between-child-and-adolescent-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-patients
#6
Bo-Yong Park, Jonghoon Kim, Hyunjin Park, Bo-Yong Park, Jonghoon Kim, Hyunjin Park, Hyunjin Park, Bo-Yong Park, Jonghoon Kim
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disorder for a broad range of ages. Child and adolescent ADHD patients show different behavior patterns. The differences between child and adolescent ADHD patients have not been fully explored in terms of brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the differences of connectivity patterns between child and adolescent ADHD patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) of 52 ADHD patients (26 children and 26 adolescents)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223034/children-s-head-motion-during-fmri-tasks-is-heritable-and-stable-over-time
#7
Laura E Engelhardt, Mary Abbe Roe, Jenifer Juranek, Dana DeMaster, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jessica A Church
Head motion during fMRI scans negatively impacts data quality, and as post-acquisition techniques for addressing motion become increasingly stringent, data retention decreases. Studies conducted with adult participants suggest that movement acts as a relatively stable, heritable phenotype that serves as a marker for other genetically influenced phenotypes. Whether these patterns extend downward to childhood has critical implications for the interpretation and generalizability of fMRI data acquired from children...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213645/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-neuronal-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Anna Sotnikova, Cornelia Soff, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Katja Becker, Michael Siniatchkin
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been repeatedly shown to improve working memory (WM). Since patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in WM, the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in ADHD patients may increase their WM performance as well as improve the activation and connectivity of the WM network. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested using a double-blind sham-controlled experimental design...
February 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176434/network-level-assessment-of-reward-related-activation-in-patients-with-adhd-and-healthy-individuals
#9
Daniel von Rhein, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman, Marjolein Luman, Stephen V Faraone, Roshan Cools, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
INTRODUCTION: Reward processing is a key aspect of cognitive control processes, putatively instantiated by mesolimbic and mesocortical brain circuits. Deficient signaling within these circuits has been associated with psychopathology. We applied a network discovery approach to assess specific functional networks associated with reward processing in participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: To describe task-related processes in terms of integrated functional networks, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to task response maps of 60 healthy participants who performed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174127/altered-functional-connectivity-in-default-mode-network-in-internet-gaming-disorder-influence-of-childhood-adhd
#10
Deokjong Lee, Junghan Lee, Jung Eun Lee, Young-Chul Jung
OBJECTIVE: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a type of behavioral addiction characterized by abnormal executive control, leading to loss of control over excessive gaming. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common comorbid disorders in IGD, involving delayed development of the executive control system, which could predispose individuals to gaming addiction. We investigated the influence of childhood ADHD on neural network features of IGD. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis was performed on 44 young, male IGD subjects with and without childhood ADHD and 19 age-matched, healthy male controls...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173729/structural-and-functional-abnormalities-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-focus-on-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#11
Chenyang Zhan, Yuhong Liu, Kai Wu, Yu Gao, Xiaobo Li
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of both, is a major public health problem. Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations of these cognitive impairments with structural and functional deficits all over the brain. Existing findings are not fully consistent because of the heterogeneity of study samples and diversity of research techniques. In this study, we propose to utilize a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to study the structural and functional brain networks in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) with a focus on the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC)...
March 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125735/fmri-neurofeedback-training-for-increasing-anterior-cingulate-cortex-activation-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-exploratory-randomized-single-blinded-study
#12
Anna Zilverstand, Bettina Sorger, Dorine Slaats-Willemse, Cornelis C Kan, Rainer Goebel, Jan K Buitelaar
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor cognitive control/attention and hypofunctioning of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In the current study, we investigated for the first time whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI) training targeted at increasing activation levels within dACC in adults with ADHD leads to a reduction of clinical symptoms and improved cognitive functioning. An exploratory randomized controlled treatment study with blinding of the participants was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115995/distinct-neural-bases-of-disruptive-behavior-and-autism-symptom-severity-in-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Y J Daniel Yang, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Jiedi Lei, Eran Dayan, Kevin A Pelphrey, Pamela Ventola
BACKGROUND: Disruptive behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important clinical problem, but its neural basis remains poorly understood. The current research aims to better understand the neural underpinnings of disruptive behavior in ASD, while addressing whether the neural basis is shared with or separable from that of core ASD symptoms. METHODS: Participants consisted of 48 male children and adolescents: 31 ASD (7 had high disruptive behavior) and 17 typically developing (TD) controls, well-matched on sex, age, and IQ...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041692/neurofeedback-one-of-today-s-techniques-in-psychiatry
#14
M Arns, J-M Batail, S Bioulac, M Congedo, C Daudet, D Drapier, T Fovet, R Jardri, M Le-Van-Quyen, F Lotte, D Mehler, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, D Purper-Ouakil, F Vialatte
OBJECTIVES: Neurofeedback is a technique that aims to teach a subject to regulate a brain parameter measured by a technical interface to modulate his/her related brain and cognitive activities. However, the use of neurofeedback as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders remains controversial. The aim of this review is to summarize and to comment the level of evidence of electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback and real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback for therapeutic application in psychiatry...
December 29, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919751/less-head-motion-during-mri-under-task-than-resting-state-conditions
#15
Willem Huijbers, Koene R A Van Dijk, Meta M Boenniger, Rüdiger Stirnberg, Monique M B Breteler
Head motion reduces data quality of neuroimaging data. In three functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments we demonstrate that people make less head movements under task than resting-state conditions. In Experiment 1, we observed less head motion during a memory encoding task than during the resting-state condition. In Experiment 2, using publicly shared data from the UCLA Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics LA5c Study, we again found less head motion during several active task conditions than during a resting-state condition, although some task conditions also showed comparable motion...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904952/what-to-expect-and-when-to-expect-it-an-fmri-study-of-expectancy-in-children-with-adhd-symptoms
#16
Branko M van Hulst, Patrick de Zeeuw, Yvonne Rijks, Sebastiaan F W Neggers, Sarah Durston
Changes in cognitive control and timing have both been implicated in ADHD. Both are involved in building and monitoring expectations about the environment, and altering behavior if those expectations are violated. In ADHD, problems with expectations about future events have high face validity, as this would be associated with behavior that is inappropriate only given a certain context, similar to symptoms of the disorder. In this fMRI study, we used a timing manipulated go/nogo task to assess brain activity related to expectations about what (cognitive control) and when (timing) events would occur...
December 1, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881961/functional-connectivity-of-child-and-adolescent-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-patients-correlation-with-iq
#17
Bo-Yong Park, Jisu Hong, Seung-Hak Lee, Hyunjin Park
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869148/motor-noise-is-rich-signal-in-autism-research-and-pharmacological-treatments
#18
E B Torres, K Denisova
The human body is in constant motion, from every breath that we take, to every visibly purposeful action that we perform. Remaining completely still on command is a major achievement as involuntary fluctuations in our motions are difficult to keep under control. Here we examine the noise-to-signal ratio of micro-movements present in time-series of head motions extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans in 1048 participants. These included individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and healthy-controls in shared data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) and the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-200) databases...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866154/the-correlation-between-cognitive-and-movement-shifting-and-brain-activity-in-children-with-adhd
#19
Kyoung Doo Kang, Doug Hyun Han, Sun Mi Kim, Sujin Bae, Perry F Renshaw
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the correlation between the deficits of cognition, movement, and brain activity in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactvity Disorder (ADHD). METHOD: We recruited 15 children with ADHD and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Clinical symptoms, cognitive shifting, movement shifting, and brain activity were assessed using the Korean ADHD Rating Scale, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the 7- and 14-ring drill test with hop jumps (7 HJ and 14 HJ), and 3...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851842/estimating-the-heritability-of-structural-and-functional-brain-connectivity-in-families-affected-by-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Gustavo Sudre, Saadia Choudhuri, Eszter Szekely, Teighlor Bonner, Elanda Goduni, Wendy Sharp, Philip Shaw
Importance: Despite its high heritability, few risk genes have been identified for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Brain-based phenotypes could aid gene discovery. There is a myriad of structural and functional connections that support cognition. Disruption of such connectivity is a key pathophysiologic mechanism for ADHD, and identifying heritable phenotypes within these connections could provide candidates for genomic studies. Objective: To identify the structural and functional connections that are heritable and pertinent to ADHD...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
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