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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769613/genetic-variant-for-behavioral-regulation-factor-of-executive-function-and-its-possible-brain-mechanism-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Xiao Sun, Zhaomin Wu, Qingjiu Cao, Ying Qian, Yong Liu, Binrang Yang, Suhua Chang, Li Yang, Yufeng Wang
As a childhood-onset psychiatric disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Lifelong executive function deficits in ADHD are described in many literatures and have been proposed as endophenotypes of ADHD. However, its genetic basis is still elusive. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study of executive function, rated with Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), in ADHD children. We identified one significant variant (rs852004, P = 2...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758392/effects-of-mindfulness-and-psychoeducation-on-working-memory-in-adult-adhd-a-randomised-controlled-fmri-study
#2
Katharina Bachmann, Alexandra P Lam, Peter Sörös, Manuela Kanat, Eliza Hoxhaj, Swantje Matthies, Bernd Feige, Helge Müller, Jale Özyurt, Christiane M Thiel, Alexandra Philipsen
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder associated with impaired neurocognitive performance related to working memory function. Recent clinical trials have suggested that mindfulness is a promising intervention in adults with ADHD. We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate working memory (WM) with an n-back task in adults with ADHD during fMRI before and after an 8-week mindfulness intervention (MAP) compared with psychoeducation (PE). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the self- and observer-rated Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)...
May 7, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749060/visual-processing-as-a-potential-endophenotype-in-youths-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-sibling-study-design-using-the-counting-stroop-functional-mri
#3
Li-Ying Fan, Chi-Yung Shang, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Tai-Li Chou
Deficits in inhibitory control and visual processing are common in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but little is known about endophenotypes for unaffected siblings of youths with ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the potential endophenotypes of brain activation and performance in inhibitory control and visual processing among ADHD probands, their unaffected siblings, and neurotypical youths. We assessed 27 ADHD probands, 27 unaffected siblings, and 27 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched neurotypical youths using the counting Stroop functional magnetic resonance imaging and two tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): rapid visual information processing (RVP) for inhibitory control and spatial span (SSP) for visual processing...
May 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712945/preliminary-evidence-of-altered-neural-response-during-intertemporal-choice-of-losses-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Saori C Tanaka, Noriaki Yahata, Ayako Todokoro, Yuki Kawakubo, Yukiko Kano, Yukika Nishimura, Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi, Fumio Ohtake, Kiyoto Kasai
Impulsive behaviours are common symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although previous studies have suggested functional models of impulsive behaviour, a full explanation of impulsivity in ADHD remains elusive. To investigate the detailed mechanisms behind impulsive behaviour in ADHD, we applied an economic intertemporal choice task involving gains and losses to adults with ADHD and healthy controls and measured brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the intertemporal choice of future gains, we observed no behavioural or neural difference between the two groups...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706587/frontostriatal-dysfunction-during-decision-making-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current paper is to provide the first comparison of computational mechanisms and neurofunctional substrates in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during decision making under ambiguity. METHODS: Sixteen boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD, and 20 matched control subjects (12-18 years of age) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Iowa Gambling Task...
March 24, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702087/out-of-focus-brain-attention-control-deficits-in-adult-adhd
#6
Juha Salmi, Viljami Salmela, Emma Salo, Katri Mikkola, Sami Leppämäki, Pekka Tani, Laura Hokkanen, Marja Laasonen, Jussi Numminen, Kimmo Alho
Modern environments are full of information, and place high demands on the attention control mechanisms that allow the selection of information from one (focused attention) or multiple (divided attention) sources, react to changes in a given situation (stimulus-driven attention), and allocate effort according to demands (task-positive and task-negative activity). We aimed to reveal how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects the brain functions associated with these attention control processes in constantly demanding tasks...
April 24, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689282/impulsive-aggression-and-response-inhibition-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-disruptive-behavioral-disorders-findings-from-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Andrei A Puiu, Olga Wudarczyk, Katharina S Goerlich, Mikhail Votinov, Kerstin Konrad, Bruce Turetsky, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
BACKGROUND: Although impulsive aggression (IA) and dysfunctional response inhibition (RI) are hallmarks of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disrupted behavioral disorders (DBDs), little is known about their shared and distinct deviant neural mechanisms. AIMS AND METHODS: Here, we selectively reviewed s/fMRI ADHD and DBD studies to identify disorder-specific and shared IA and RI aberrant neural mechanisms. RESULTS: In ADHD, deviant prefrontal and cingulate functional activity was associated with increased IA...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687930/deficient-neural-activity-subserving-decision-making-during-reward-waiting-time-in-intertemporal-choice-in-adult-adhd
#8
Ayako Todokoro, Saori C Tanaka, Yuki Kawakubo, Noriaki Yahata, Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi, Yukika Nishimura, Yukiko Kano, Fumio Ohtake, Kiyoto Kasai
AIM: Impulsivity, which significantly affects social adaptation, is an important target behavioral characteristic in interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typically, people are willing to wait longer to acquire greater rewards. Impulsivity in ADHD may be associated with brain dysfunction in decision making involving waiting behavior under such situations. We tested the hypothesis that brain circuitry during a period of waiting, i.e., prior to the acquisition of reward, is altered in adults with ADHD...
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664902/a-general-prediction-model-for-the-detection-of-adhd-and-autism-using-structural-and-functional-mri
#9
Bhaskar Sen, Neil C Borle, Russell Greiner, Matthew R G Brown
This work presents a novel method for learning a model that can diagnose Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as well as Autism, using structural texture and functional connectivity features obtained from 3-dimensional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 4-dimensional resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of subjects. We explore a series of three learners: (1) The LeFMS learner first extracts features from the structural MRI images using the texture-based filters produced by a sparse autoencoder...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661516/lisdexamfetamine-targets-amygdala-mechanisms-that-bias-cognitive-control-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Kurt P Schulz, Beth Krone, Lenard A Adler, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Stephanie Duhoux, Juan Pedraza, Sanweda Mahagabin, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal-limbic circuits that form the neural architecture for emotion to influence behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and represent a potentially important target of medication treatment that has not been substantively evaluated. This study tested the effect of the psychostimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on amygdala activation and connectivity during the emotional bias of response execution and inhibition...
March 19, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656430/individual-differences-in-stop-related-activity-are-inflated-by-the-adaptive-algorithm-in-the-stop-signal-task
#11
Nicholas D'Alberto, Bader Chaarani, Catherine A Orr, Philip A Spechler, Matthew D Albaugh, Nicholas Allgaier, Alexander Wonnell, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Juliane H Fröhner, Vincent Frouin, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Itterman, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Eric Artiges, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Luise Poustka, Trevor W Robbins, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Alexandra S Potter, Hugh Garavan
Research using the Stop Signal Task employing an adaptive algorithm to accommodate individual differences often report inferior performance on the task in individuals with ADHD, OCD, and substance use disorders compared to non-clinical controls. Furthermore, individuals with deficits in inhibitory control tend to show reduced neural activity in key inhibitory regions during successful stopping. However, the adaptive algorithm systematically introduces performance-related differences in objective task difficulty that may influence the estimation of individual differences in stop-related neural activity...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651240/cognitive-neuroscience-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-its-clinical-translation
#12
REVIEW
Katya Rubia
This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593515/resting-state-brain-signal-variability-in-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-adhd-symptom-severity-in-children
#13
Jason S Nomi, Elana Schettini, Willa Voorhies, Taylor S Bolt, Aaron S Heller, Lucina Q Uddin
Atypical brain function in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been identified using both task-activation and functional connectivity fMRI approaches. Recent work highlights the potential for another measure derived from functional neuroimaging data, brain signal variability, to reveal insights into clinical conditions. Higher brain signal variability has previously been linked with optimal behavioral performance. At present, little is known regarding the relationship between resting-state brain signal variability and ADHD symptom severity...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569801/anterior-insula-hyperactivation-in-adhd-when-faced-with-distracting-negative-stimuli
#14
Nora C Vetter, Judith Buse, Lea L Backhausen, Katya Rubia, Michael N Smolka, Veit Roessner
Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from poor emotion regulation that might arise from problems in the distribution of attentional resources when confronted with emotional distractors. Previous studies investigating the neurocognitive basis of these problems remain inconclusive. Moreover, most of these studies did not exclude participants with comorbidity, particularly of conduct or oppositional defiant disorder. The aim of this study was to assess alterations in fronto-limbic activation in ADHD adolescents specifically during negative distractors in an emotional attention task...
March 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564731/dopamine-d4-receptor-gene-associated-with-the-frontal-striatal-cerebellar-loop-in-children-with-adhd-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#15
Andan Qian, Xin Wang, Huiru Liu, Jiejie Tao, Jiejie Zhou, Qiong Ye, Jiance Li, Chuang Yang, Jingliang Cheng, Ke Zhao, Meihao Wang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder that has been linked to the dopaminergic system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulation of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on functional brain activity during the resting state in ADHD children using the methods of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in 49 children with ADHD. All participants were classified as either carriers of the DRD4 4-repeat/4-repeat (4R/4R) allele (n = 30) or the DRD4 2-repeat (2R) allele (n = 19)...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486868/aberrant-time-varying-cross-network-interactions-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-the-relation-to-attention-deficits
#16
Weidong Cai, Tianwen Chen, Luca Szegletes, Kaustubh Supekar, Vinod Menon
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to stem from aberrancies in large-scale cognitive control networks. However, the exact nature of aberrant brain circuit dynamics involving these control networks is poorly understood. Using a saliency-based triple-network model of cognitive control, we tested the hypothesis that dynamic cross-network interactions among the salience, central executive, and default mode networks are dysregulated in children with ADHD, and we investigated how these dysregulations contribute to inattention...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451300/decreased-anterior-cingulate-activation-in-a-motor-task-in-youths-with-bipolar-disorder
#17
Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd, Punitha Subramaniam, Marie R Ehrler, Melissa P Lopez-Larson
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BP) is characterized by abnormal shifts in mood between episodes of mania and severe depression, both of which have been linked with psychomotor disturbances. This study compares brain activation patterns in motor networks between euthymic youths with BP and healthy controls (HC) during the completion of a simple motor task. METHODS: Thirty-five youths with BP and 35 HC (aged 10-19) completed a self-paced sequential bilateral finger-tapping task, consisting of a 4-minute scan block with alternating 20-second periods of either the tapping task (six blocks) or rest (six blocks), while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409566/brain-behavior-patterns-define-a-dimensional-biotype-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky, Jinglei Lv, Alistair Perry, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Prantik Kundu, Michael Breakspear, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND: Childhood-onset attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is clinically heterogeneous and commonly presents with different patterns of cognitive deficits. It is unclear if this clinical heterogeneity expresses a dimensional or categorical difference in ADHD. METHODS: We first studied differences in functional connectivity in multi-echo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) acquired from 80 medication-naïve adults with ADHD and 123 matched healthy controls...
February 7, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395624/anterior-cingulate-cortex-glutamate-and-its-association-with-striatal-functioning-during-cognitive-control
#19
Jilly Naaijen, David J Lythgoe, Marcel P Zwiers, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jan K Buitelaar, Esther Aarts
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by structural, functional and neurochemical alterations of the fronto-striatal circuits and by deficits in cognitive control. In particular, ADHD has been associated with impairments in top-down fronto-striatal glutamate-signalling. However, it is unknown whether fronto-striatal glutamate is related to cognitive control dysfunction. Here we explored whether and how anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) glutamate relates to striatal BOLD-responses during cognitive control...
March 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324299/boys-with-conduct-problems-and-callous-unemotional-traits-neural-response-to-reward-and-punishment-and-associations-with-treatment-response
#20
Amy L Byrd, Samuel W Hawes, Jeffrey D Burke, Rolf Loeber, Dustin A Pardini
Abnormalities in reward and punishment processing are implicated in the development of conduct problems (CP), particularly among youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, no studies have examined whether CP children with high versus low CU traits exhibit differences in the neural response to reward and punishment. A clinic-referred sample of CP boys with high versus low CU traits (ages 8-11; n = 37) and healthy controls (HC; n = 27) completed a fMRI task assessing reward and punishment processing...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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