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Amanda C Kentner, Stephanie Scalia, Junyoung Shin, Mattia M Migliore, Alejandro N Rondón-Ortiz
Both basic and clinical research support the use of tactile stimulation to rescue several neurobiobehavioral consequences that follow early life stress including. Here, using a translational rodent model of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), we tested the individual prophylactic potential of a variety of sensory interventions including tactile (brushing pups with a paint brush to mimic maternal licking), auditory (a simulated lactating rat dam heart beat), and olfactory (a series of aroma therapy scents) stimulation...
July 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
D Mangan, B V McCleary, H Culleton, C Cornaggia, R Ivory, V McKie, E Delaney, T Kargelis
BACKGROUND: In recent years there has been a surge in the number of commercially available lactose-free variants of a wide variety of products. This presents an analytical challenge for the measurement of the residual lactose content in the presence of high levels of mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides. RESULTS: In the current work, we describe the development of a novel enzymatic low-lactose determination method termed LOLAC which is based on an optimised glucose removal pre-treatment step followed by a sequential enzymatic assay which measures residual glucose and lactose in a single cuvette...
August 17, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Paschal F Mdoe, Hege L Ersdal, Estomih Mduma, Robert Moshiro, Ingvild Dalen, Jeffrey M Perlman, Hussein Kidanto
OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of abnormal fetal heart rate (FHR) detection between continuous Doppler and intermittent fetoscope monitoring. METHOD: A randomized controlled open-label trial was conducted between February 1, 2016, and January 31, 2017, at Haydom Lutheran hospital, Tanzania. Women in active labor with singleton pregnancies and normal FHR at admission were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive either continuous or intermittent FHR monitoring...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Dilip R Bhatt, Alexandria I Kristensen-Cabrera, Henry C Lee, Sunjeeve Weerasinghe, David K Stevenson, Vinod K Bhutani, M Jeffrey Maisels, Rangasamy Ramanathan
OBJECTIVES: Transcutaneous bilirubin measurements (TcBs) provide a noninvasive method for screening infants for hyperbilirubinemia and have been used extensively in term and late preterm newborns in well baby nurseries, offices, and outpatient clinics. Several studies have also demonstrated the utility of TcBs as a screening tool for infants > 28 weeks' gestation and their ability to reduce the need for blood sampling. The objectives of this study are to identify how often TcBs are used among California Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICUs) in preterm, late preterm and term infants, and other aspects of jaundice management...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Melissa Scala, Suna Seo, Juniper Lee-Park, Christina McClure, Maria Scala, Judith Jones Palafoutas, Kabir Abubakar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of parental bedside reading (PR) on cardio-respiratory (CR) stability of preterm infants. METHODS/STUDY DESIGN: Prospective examination of the impact of PR on CR stability in preterm NICU infants. CR data from 3 time points: pre-reading (3 and 1 h before reading), during PR, and post-reading (1 h after reading) were compared. RESULTS: Eighteen infants born at 23-31wks gestation, and 8 to 56 days old, were enrolled...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Daniel Fink, Itamar Nitzan, Alona Bin-Nun, Francis Mimouni, Cathy Hammerman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The hemodynamically insignificant (hisPDA) ductus arteriosus often progresses to hemodynamic significance. In this review, we sought risk factors predictive of progression. METHODS: Early hisPDAs were subdivided into those that closed spontaneously vs. those that progressed to hsPDA. RESULTS: Sixty percent of early hisPDAs subsequently progressed to hsPDAs. In all but one, the ductus never closed, but rather became progressively more significant over time...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Ryan Sun, Zhaoxi Wang, Birgit Claus Henn, Li Su, Quan Lu, Xihong Lin, Robert O Wright, David C Bellinger, Molly Kile, Maitreyi Mazumdar, Martha Maria Tellez-Rojo, Lourdes Schnaas, David C Christiani
It is believed that genetic factors play a large role in the development of many cognitive and neurological processes; however, epidemiological evidence for the genetic basis of childhood neurodevelopment is very limited. Identification of the genetic polymorphisms associated with early-stage neurodevelopment will help elucidate biological mechanisms involved in neuro-behavior and provide a better understanding of the developing brain. To search for such variants, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for infant mental and motor ability at two years of age with mothers and children recruited from cohorts in Bangladesh and Mexico...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Tove Grip, Thomas S Dyrlund, Linda Ahonen, Magnus Domellöf, Olle Hernell, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Mikael Knip, Bo Lönnerdal, Matej Orešič, Niklas Timby
BACKGROUND: Supplementation of formula with bovine milk fat globule membranes has been shown to narrow the gap in immunological and cognitive development between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. METHOD: In a double-blinded randomized controlled trial 160 formula-fed infants received an experimental formula (EF), supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes, or standard formula until 6 months of age. A breast-fed reference group was recruited. Lipidomic analyses were performed on plasma and erythrocyte membranes at 6 months and on serum at 4 and 12 months of age...
August 4, 2018: Pediatric Research
Yiting Zhang, Lei Jin, Jian-Meng Liu, Rongwei Ye, Aiguo Ren
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in mothers before and during pregnancy and those in children at 3-5 years of age. METHODS: The study included 78,923 women who conceived during 1993-1996 and delivered a singleton live infant. Maternal Hb concentrations were measured at pre-pregnancy health check-up and first prenatal visit, and during the second and third trimester. Hb concentrations of children born to these women were measured at 3-5 years of age...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Mingliang Chen, Charlene M C Rodrigues, Odile B Harrison, Chi Zhang, Tian Tan, Jian Chen, Xi Zhang, Min Chen, Martin C J Maiden
Serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is increasing in China, but little is known about the causative meningococci. Here, IMD and carriage isolates in Shanghai characterised and the applicability of different vaccines assessed. Seven IMD epidemic periods have been observed in Shanghai since 1950, with 460 isolates collected including 169 from IMD and 291 from carriage. Analyses were divided according to the period of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPV) introduction: (i) pre-MPV-A, 1965-1980; (ii) post-MPV-A, 1981-2008; and (iii) post-MPV-A + C, 2009-2016...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
David Martino, Melanie Neeland, Thanh Dang, Joanna Cobb, Justine Ellis, Alice Barnett, Mimi Tang, Peter Vuillermin, Katrina Allen, Richard Saffery
Food allergy poses a significant clinical and public health burden affecting 2-10% of infants. Using integrated DNA methylation and transcriptomic profiling, we found that polyclonal activation of naive CD4+ T cells through the T cell receptor results in poorer lymphoproliferative responses in children with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy. Reduced expression of cell cycle-related targets of the E2F and MYC transcription factor networks, and remodeling of DNA methylation at metabolic (RPTOR, PIK3D, MAPK1, FOXO1) and inflammatory genes (IL1R, IL18RAP, CD82) underpins this suboptimal response...
August 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Elizabeth Leith, Paul Aurora, Colin Wallis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
L Pirazzoli, S Lloyd-Fox, R Braukmann, M H Johnson, T Gliga
In adults, affective touch leads to widespread activation of cortical areas including posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus (pSTS) and Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG). Using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), we asked whether similar areas are activated in 5-month-old infants, by comparing affective to non-affective touch. We contrasted a human touch stroke to strokes performed with a cold metallic spoon. The hypothesis that adult-like activation of cortical areas would be seen only in response to the human touch stroke was not confirmed...
July 5, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Malte S Depping, Philipp A Thomann, Nadine D Wolf, Nenad Vasic, Zrinka Sosic-Vasic, Mike M Schmitgen, Fabio Sambataro, Robert C Wolf
Abnormal gray matter volume has been consistently reported in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but markers of cortical neurodevelopment have been rarely investigated. Also, it is unclear whether there exist common versus distinct spatial patterns of abnormal cortical development across different disorders presenting with negative emotions and deficient affective regulation. In this study, we used structural MRI at 3T to investigate the local gyrification index (LGI), a marker of fetal/infant neurodevelopment, in adult female patients with MDD (n = 22), in adult female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) (n = 17), and in controls (n = 22)...
August 14, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
P Ghaemmaghami, S M Taghi Ayatollahi, V Alinejad, Z Sharafi
BACKGROUND: Growth trajectory standards are important components that need to be monitored for suitable child growth. This study examined longitudinal data to identify the factors affecting growth trajectory standards of height and weight for infants. METHODS: This study included 566 neonates (286 boys and 280 girls) born in West Azerbaijan Province, northwest Iran, who were followed from birth to 4 years of age. The subjects' weight and height were recorded at birth, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9 months and 1, 1...
August 14, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Shuhua Luo, Glen S Van Arsdell, Osami Honjo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Antonio M Chiarelli, Alberto Verrotti, Massimo Caulo, Arcangelo Merla, Francesco Chiarelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Bolajoko O Olusanya, Michael Kaplan, Thor W R Hansen
Hyperbilirubinaemia, presenting as jaundice, is a ubiquitous and frequently benign condition in newborn babies but is a leading cause of hospitalisation in the first week of life. In some infants jaundice can become severe, progressing to acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus with a substantial risk of neonatal mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. Severe hyperbilirubinaemia and its sequelae continue to occur in industrialised countries with functioning medical systems and a disproportionately high burden also persists in low-income and middle-income countries due primarily to delays in delivering effective treatments that are routinely available in high-income countries...
August 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Francesca Gaccioli, Ulla Sovio, Emma Cook, Martin Hund, D Stephen Charnock-Jones, Gordon C S Smith
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction is a major determinant of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This condition has no gold standard definition, but a widely used proxy is delivery of a small for gestational age infant (<10th percentile) combined with an adverse pregnancy outcome. Effective screening for fetal growth restriction is an area of unmet clinical need. We aimed to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of a combination of ultrasonic fetal biometry and measurement of the ratio of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (sFLT1) to placental growth factor (PlGF) in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with delivery of a small for gestational age infant...
August 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Rosie Perkins, Sarah Yorke, Daisy Fancourt
BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated that making music can enhance positive emotions as well as support positive psychological functioning. However, studies tend to be limited by lack of comparison with other psychosocial interventions. This study builds on a three-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) that demonstrated that group singing for mothers and babies, but not group creative play, can lead to faster recovery from moderate-severe symptoms of postnatal depression than usual care...
August 17, 2018: BMC Psychology
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