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Midori Ishikawa, Kumi Eto, Mayu Haraikawa, Kemal Sasaki, Zentaro Yamagata, Tetsuji Yokoyama, Noriko Kato, Yumiko Morinaga, Yoshihisa Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: Health personnel must provide continuous support in response to problematic results from health checks of infants and toddlers (hereinafter "infant[s]"). Among this support, it is important for health personnel to provide nutritional guidance to families as a collaborative effort between the staff from multiple disciplines and community organizations. This study aimed to clarify the factors affecting collaboration with community organizations in providing nutritional guidance to families following health checks for infants in Japan...
October 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Tanusha Ramdin, Daynia Ballot, David Rakotsoane, Lethile Madzudzo, Nicolette Brown, Tobias Chirwa, Peter Cooper, Victor Davies
BACKGROUND: Late preterm infants, previously considered low risk, have been identified to be at risk of developmental problems in infancy and early childhood. There is limited information on the outcome of these infants in low and middle income countries. METHODS: Bayley scales of infant and toddler development, version III, were done on a group of late preterm infants in Johannesburg, South Africa. The mean composite cognitive, language and motor sub-scales were compared to those obtained from a group of typically developed control infants...
October 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
José Fragata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Jennifer M Re, Suzanne Dean, Jimmy Mullaert, Antoine Guedeney, Samuel Menahem
BACKGROUND: Mothers and infants are exposed to multiple stresses when cardiac surgery is required for the infant. This study reviewed infant responsiveness using a standardized objective observational measure of social withdrawal and explored its association with measures of maternal distress. METHODS: Mother-infant pairs involving infants surviving early cardiac surgery were assessed when the infant was aged two months. Infant social withdrawal was measured using the Alarm Distress Baby Scale...
November 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Stefan Pilz, Armin Zittermann, Rima Obeid, Andreas Hahn, Pawel Pludowski, Christian Trummer, Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Faustino R Pérez-López, Spyridon N Karras, Winfried März
Vitamin D deficiency is common and there exists a huge gap between recommended dietary vitamin D intakes and the poor vitamin D supply in the general population. While vitamin D is important for musculoskeletal health, there are accumulating data suggesting that vitamin D may also be important for fertility, pregnancy outcomes and lactation. Significant changes in vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy such as increased production of the "active vitamin D hormone" calcitriol support the important role of vitamin D in this setting...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Karina Obelitz-Ryom, Amalie Katrine Rendboe, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Silvia Rudloff, Anne Bladt Brandt, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Anne Birgitte Heckmann, Maciej Chichlowski, Per Torp Sangild, Thomas Thymann, Stine Brandt Bering
Oligosaccharides support gut development and bacterial colonization in term infants, but it is unknown if they benefit preterm infants. Using preterm pigs, we investigated effects of bovine milk supplements enriched with oligosaccharides to improve gut development and colonization. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs (n = 57) were reared for 19 days. The pigs were fed bovine milk supplemented with an oligosaccharide-enriched whey containing sialyllactose, or a heterogeneous oligosaccharide ingredient. To evaluate the influence of artificial rearing, near-term, vaginally born pigs raised by their sow (n = 12) were compared with artificially reared, caesarean-delivered near-term pigs (n = 14)...
October 12, 2018: Nutrients
Weiwei Zhang, Shaohua Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for bronchial dysplasia in premature infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of 248 premature infants who were highly suspected to have bronchial dysplasia and were admitted to our hospital from 2015 onwards was conducted. We observed bronchus morphologies, sizes, and tissue characteristics using fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) as the criterion standard for diagnosis. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic compliance of MSCT in the diagnosis of bronchial dysplasia...
October 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jillian Ashley-Martin, Linda Dodds, Tye E Arbuckle, Maryse F Bouchard, Gabriel D Shapiro, Mandy Fisher, Patricia Monnier, Anne-Sophie Morisset, Adrienne S Ettinger
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and toxicological evidence suggests that maternal total arsenic (As) levels are associated with an elevated risk of gestational diabetes (GDM). Uncertainty remains regarding the metabolic toxicity of specific arsenic species, comprised of both organic and inorganic sources of arsenic exposure. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between speciated As and GDM using data from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study...
October 12, 2018: Environment International
Rosa M A Martins, Joana R A Oliveira, Catarina C G Salgado, Bárbara L S Marques, Lia C F Oliveira, Graça R Oliveira, Teresa S Rodrigues, Rosário T Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances are frequent in infants. Early development of sleep routines has a positive effect on sleep quality. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of maternal education on the development of infants' sleep habits (SHs). METHODS: This was an experimental, longitudinal study. Postnatal mothers were allocated into two groups: to receive (intervention group, IG), or not receive (control group, CG) information on sleep hygiene. Individual 15-min sessions were provided and a leaflet was handed to the IG...
September 18, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Aakash Pandita, Astha Panghal, Girish Gupta, Anup Verma, Anish Pillai, Anita Singh, Kirti Naranje
BACKGROUND: Childhood vaccination is a common procedure and a part of routine medical care during infancy. Although vaccination is the cornerstone for prevention of many infectious diseases, it is associated with significant pain, which is often ignored. Non pharmacological interventions such as breast feeding and kangaroo mother care (KMC) have been used to decrease this procedural pain. However there is paucity of published data on effective use of KMC in term neonates and infants beyond the neonatal age...
October 12, 2018: Early Human Development
Alina I Esterhuizen, Heather C Mefford, Rajkumar S Ramesar, Shuyu Wang, Gemma L Carvill, Jo M Wilmshurst
PURPOSE: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a well-described, severe genetic epileptic encephalopathy with an increased risk of SUDEP. The incidence and genetic architecture of DS in African patients is virtually unknown, largely due to lack of awareness and unavailability of genetic testing. The clinical benefits of the available precision medicine approaches to treatment emphasise the importance of an early, correct diagnosis. We investigated the genetic causes and clinical features of DS in South African children to develop protocols for early, cost-effective diagnosis in the local setting...
September 14, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Yang Chen, Sheng-Lin Yu, Yi-Ping Li, Ming-Ming Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression and function of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins NOD1 and NOD2 and provide guidance for prophylaxis and treatment of neonatal infection. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from preterm infants, term infants and, healthy adult volunteers. A portion of collected blood was used to examine the expression of NOD1 and NOD2 by real-time PCR. The remaining blood was stimulated in vitro with NOD2 agonist L-Ala-D-Glu-meso (Tri-DAP) or NOD1 agonist muramyl dipeptide (MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGln; MDP) for 4 h...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Barbara Luke, Morton B Brown, Ethan Wantman, Valerie L Baker, Kevin J Doody, David B Seifer, Logan G Spector
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades the characteristics of women giving birth in the United States and the nature of the births themselves have changed dramatically, with increases in older maternal age, plural births, cesarean deliveries, and conception from infertility treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of severe maternal morbidity by maternal fertility status, and for IVF pregnancies, by oocyte source and embryo state combinations. STUDY DESIGN: Women in eight States who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles resulting in a live birth during 2004-13 were linked to their infant's birth certificates; a 10:1 sample of births from non-IVF deliveries were selected for comparison; those with an indication of infertility treatment on the birth certificate were categorized as subfertile, all others were categorized as fertile...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Amy L Slogrove, Leigh F Johnson, Kathleen M Powis
We aimed to quantify the contribution of excess mortality in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants to total mortality in HIV-uninfected infants in Botswana and South Africa in 2013. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) and excess infant deaths associated with HIV exposure in HIV-uninfected infants were estimated. Additionally, the Thembisa South African demographic model estimated the proportion of all infant mortality associated with excess mortality in HEU infants from 1990 to 2013. The PAF (lower bound; upper bound) of mortality associated with HIV exposure in HIV-uninfected infants was 16...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Ruklanthi de Alwis, Le Thi Phuong Tu, Nhi Le Thi Quynh, Corinne N Thompson, Katherine L Anders, Nguyen Thi Van Thuy, Nguyen Trong Hieu, Lu Lan Vi, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Vu Thuy Duong, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Tran Vu Thieu Nga, Pham Van Minh, Trinh Van Tan, Trang Nguyen Hoang Thu, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Guy E Thwaites, Cameron Simmons, Stephen Baker
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) organisms are a major cause of gastroenteritis and bacteremia, but little is known about maternally acquired immunity and natural exposure in infant populations residing in areas where NTS disease is highly endemic. Methods: We recruited 503 pregnant mothers and their infants (following delivery) from urban areas in Vietnam and followed infants until they were 1 year old. Exposure to the dominant NTS serovars, Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, were assessed using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O antigen-specific antibodies...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sarah A Mbayei, Amanda Faulkner, Christine Miner, Karen Edge, Victor Cruz, Sandra A Peña, Kathy Kudish, Joan Coleman, Eva Pradhan, Stepy Thomas, Stacey Martin, Tami H Skoff
Background: The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased in recent years. While characteristics of severe pertussis infection have been described in infants, fewer data are available in older children and adults. In this analysis, we characterize pertussis infections in hospitalized patients of all ages. Methods: Cases of pertussis with cough onset from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 from 7 U.S. Emerging Infections Program Network states were reviewed...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Anton Tokariev, Susanna Stjerna, Aulikki Lano, Marjo Metsäranta, J Matias Palva, Sampsa Vanhatalo
Preterm birth is the greatest risk factor for lifelong neurocognitive deficits, globally. The effect of prematurity on early cortical network function has, however, remained poorly understood. Here, we developed a novel methodology that allows reliable assessment of functional connectivity in neonatal brain activity at millisecond and multisecond scales in terms of cortical phase and amplitude correlations, respectively. We measured scalp electroencephalography at term-equivalent age in infants exposed to very early prematurity as well as in healthy controls...
February 23, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Trishnee Bhurosy, Velarie Ansu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yahua Xu, Ce Qi, Renqiang Yu, Xiangyu Wang, Qin Zhou, Jin Sun, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
Data on the total fatty acid (FA) profile and position-specific triacylglycerides (TAGs) in preterm infants' maternal milk are essential for establishing the recommended requirement of FA in preterm infants in China. We aimed to determine the composition and positional distribution of FAs in preterm infants' maternal milk in China and further investigate the effect of maternal background on the FA composition. Breast milk samples (4, 11, 30, 60, and 90 (all ±3) days post-partum) were collected from 59 healthy women delivering preterm infants...
October 15, 2018: Food & Function
Debra Teitelbaum
Patients and their families have expressed that they want information (Hendricks, 2000) and as a result often turn to Google for health and medical information. Society as a whole is more informed than ever and no longer rely only on medical practitioners as in previous generations. Instead, and rightly so, they question medical experts and want to know the reasoning and rationale behind everything they experience. This combined with the shift towards family-centred principles over the last 20 years underscores the need to provide comprehensive and effective education to families...
October 15, 2018: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
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