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Emma Twait, Rola Farah, Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus
Dyslexia is a neurobiological learning disability, reflected through deficits in written (i.e. reading) but not in spoken language. Since written and spoken language rely on cognitive control abilities, we aimed to compare functional connectivity of the understudied salience network which is related to cognitive control in children with dyslexia vs. typical readers during a functional MRI narrative comprehension task. Although children with dyslexia showed similar comprehension levels as typical readers, neuroimaging data revealed children with dyslexia showed significantly decreased functional connectivity values of an independent component (IC) related to the salience network...
October 7, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Carmen Romo-Barrientos, Juan José Criado-Álvarez, Maria Teresa Gil-Ruiz, Jaime González-González, Marta Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana Isabel Corregidor-Sánchez, Isabel Ubeda-Bañon, Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Alicia Mohedano-Moriano, Begoña Polonio-López
CONTEXT: The practice of anatomical dissection and/or prosection on human cadavers is an essential component of human anatomy training programmes. However, this activity can be stressful for inexperienced students when exposed to cadavers for the first time, and it may generate high anxiety levels. The aims of this study are threefold: 1) To analyse the thoughts and feelings of first-year students of the Occupational Therapy degree about prosection practices; 2) to examine their anxiety levels in relation to these practices; and 3) to evaluate how useful and effective they are as an educational tool for anatomy training...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Graham Staunton, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh
Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based neurofeedback represents the latest applied behavioural neuroscience methodology developed to train participants in the self-regulation of brain regions or networks. However, as with previous biofeedback approaches which rely on electroencephalography (EEG) or related approaches such as brain-machine interface technology (BCI), individual success rates vary significantly, and some participants never learn to control their brain responses at all. Given that these approaches are often being developed for eventual use in a clinical setting (albeit there is also significant interest in using NF for neuro-enhancement in typical populations), this represents a significant hurdle which requires more research...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Anita J Campbell, Christopher C Blyth, Christopher J Hewison, Yu-Ping Chen, Leanne Gough, Zoy Goff, Asha C Bowen
AIM: Bacteraemia episodes were assessed to calculate a hospital-wide central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) rate per 1000 catheter-days. Secondary objectives were to describe risk factors, microbiology and outcomes of children with CLABSI. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at an Australian tertiary paediatric hospital in children <18 years who had blood culture sampling during the 2-year period, 2014-2015. All blood culture results were extracted from the hospital's laboratory information system...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
James D Pleuss, Kevin Talty, Steven Morse, Patrick Kuiper, Michael Scioletti, Steven B Heymsfield, Diana M Thomas
A long-standing question in nutrition and obesity research involves quantifying the relationship between body fat and anthropometry. To date, the mathematical formulation of these relationships has relied on pairing easily obtained anthropometric measurements such as the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, or hip circumference to body fat. Recent advances in 3D body shape imaging technology provides a new opportunity for quickly and accurately obtaining hundreds of anthropometric measurements within seconds, however, there does not yet exist a large diverse database that pairs these measurements to body fat...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
James K Ruffle, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz
Technological advances in artificial intelligence (AI) represent an enticing opportunity to benefit gastroenterological practice. Moreover, AI, through machine or deep learning, permits the ability to develop predictive models from large datasets. Possibilities of predictive model development in machine learning are numerous dependent on the clinical question. For example, binary classifiers aim to stratify allocation to a categorical outcome, such as the presence or absence of a gastrointestinal disease. In addition, continuous variable fitting techniques can be used to predict quantity of a therapeutic response, thus offering a tool to predict which therapeutic intervention may be most beneficial to the given patient...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Alexander P N van der Jagt, Mike Smith, Bianca Ambrose-Oji, Cecil C Konijnendijk, Vincenzo Giannico, Dagmar Haase, Raffaele Lafortezza, Mojca Nastran, Marina Pintar, Špela Železnikar, Rozalija Cvejić
Urban green infrastructure (UGI) and nature-based solutions are increasingly recognized as instruments to address urban sustainability challenges, yet rely on a good understanding of complex social-ecological system (SES) to function adequately. Adaptive co-management (ACM), engaging a broad variety of stakeholders in collaborative learning, is an effective strategy to improve the resilience of a SES. However, ACM studies have been criticized for neglecting the urban context, while also offering little clarity on process objectives and outcomes...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sally Theobald, Neal Brandes, Margaret Gyapong, Sameh El-Saharty, Enola Proctor, Theresa Diaz, Samuel Wanji, Soraya Elloker, Joanna Raven, Helen Elsey, Sushil Bharal, David Pelletier, David H Peters
Implementation research is important in global health because it addresses the challenges of the know-do gap in real-world settings and the practicalities of achieving national and global health goals. Implementation research is an integrated concept that links research and practice to accelerate the development and delivery of public health approaches. Implementation research involves the creation and application of knowledge to improve the implementation of health policies, programmes, and practices. This type of research uses multiple disciplines and methods and emphasises partnerships between community members, implementers, researchers, and policy makers...
October 8, 2018: Lancet
Nicole Brys, Julie A Keating, Mary Jo Knobloch, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: We describe stakeholder engagement from a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded project to identify patients' research priorities for health care-associated infections (HAI). We summarize insights from these activities to highlight feasibility and benefits of stakeholder engagement in health care epidemiology research.Patients and caregivers who had an HAI experience were involved in a patient and caregiver stakeholder group. We engaged clinicians, infection prevention experts, state public health professionals, and quality improvement experts in an institutional stakeholder (IS) group in an academic tertiary care medical center...
October 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Rebecca A Falter, Megan R Ealey, Kacey A Carroll
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine if changing the focus of team-based learning (TBL) grading from written to verbal responses impacted students' exam performance in those subjects and to assess student perception of utilization of course time. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Assessment data from two consecutive respiratory therapeutics semesters was analyzed. These were the classes immediately before and after the TBL structural change. All data were de-identified, and student performance was assessed based on exam scores in each major subject that was covered by a TBL activity...
August 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Ettie Rosenberg, Hoai-An Truong, Shih-Ying Hsu, Reza Taheri
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To describe implementation and lessons learned from use of a mock trial as a teaching-learning and assessment activity in a required evidence-based practice course. This innovative self-directed learning strategy reinforced evidence-based skills and affective domain competencies in Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education (CAPE) 2013 Outcomes and Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards 2016. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: During spring semesters 2015 and 2016, first professional year (P1) cohorts were divided into teams and assigned controversial topics to research and debate in mock trials...
August 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Patrick Chan, Sarah Kim, Linda Garavalia, Jeffrey Wang
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this paper is to describe the evolution and effectiveness of instructional strategies that were implemented over a seven-year period to enhance the authenticity of instruction and assessment in a pharmacokinetics (PK) course. METHODS: Baseline data from 2011 and 2012 were analyzed to identify opportunities for improvement. In 2013 and 2014, lectures, PK workshops, and exam questions were modified to represent more authentic learning and assessment...
August 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Wing-Fai Yeung, Agnes Yuen-Kwan Lai, Fiona Yan-Yee Ho, Lorna Kwai-Ping Suen, Ka-Fai Chung, Janice Yuen-Shan Ho, Lai-Ming Ho, Branda Yee-Man Yu, Lily Ying-Tung Chan, Tai-Hing Lam
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effects of a lifestyle-integrated exercise, namely zero-time exercise (ZTEx), on improving insomnia in inactive adults with insomnia disorder. METHODS: In this pilot randomized controlled trial, 37 physically inactive adults (mean age: 49.9 years; SD: 13.6 91.9% female) fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of insomnia disorder recruited from the community were randomly assigned to ZTEx training or sleep hygiene education (SHE) groups...
August 24, 2018: Sleep Medicine
M Cecilia Latham, Dean P Anderson, Grant Norbury, Catherine J Price, Peter B Banks, A David M Latham
Foraging mammalian predators face a myriad of odors from potential prey. To be efficient they must focus on rewarding odor while ignoring consistently unrewarding ones. This may be exploited as a non-lethal conservation tool if predators can be deceived into ignoring odors of vulnerable secondary prey. To explore critical design components and assess the potential gains to prey survival of this technique, we created an individual-based model that simulated the hunting behavior of three introduced mammalian predators on one of their secondary prey (a migratory shorebird) in the South Island of New Zealand...
October 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Barbara J Turner, Natalia Rodriguez, Raudel Bobadilla, Arthur E Hernandez, Zenong Yin
Objective: To examine factors influencing initial engagement, ongoing participation, learned behaviors, and subjective functional outcomes after a trial of the Living Better Beyond Pain (LBBP) chronic pain self-management program. Design: Qualitative study using the Grounded Theory approach. Setting: Two 60-minute focus groups and phone interviews in May 2017. Subjects: Focus groups with 18 participants who completed LBBP and six-month measures; telephone interviews with 17 participants who stopped attending...
October 11, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Raquel Esteves Marques, Nuno Pinto Ferreira, David Cordeiro Sousa, Joana Pinto, André Barata, Paula Sens, Luís Abegão Pinto
PURPOSE: XEN® gel stent is a minimally invasive surgical device aimed at creating a subconjunctival drainage of aqueous humor, thereby reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). Being a novel device, doubts remain regarding the efficacy and safety of its implantation in the early stage of new users. This paper illustrates the XEN® implantation learning curve, assessed through several surgeons of different expertise. METHODS: Retrospective study on the first 6 XEN® implants performed by each of 10 certified ophthalmic surgeons...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Graziano Vignolini, Riccardo Campi, Francesco Sessa, Isabella Greco, Aida Larti, Saverio Giancane, Arcangelo Sebastianelli, Mauro Gacci, Adriano Peris, Vincenzo Li Marzi, Alberto Breda, Giampaolo Siena, Sergio Serni
OBJECTIVE: To report the development of the first robot-assisted kidney transplantation (RAKT) program from deceased donors examining technical feasibility and early perioperative and functional outcomes at a referral academic Centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A robotic kidney transplantation program was developed in 2016 at our Institution following a structured modular training. Specific inclusion/exclusion criteria for both living and deceased donors were set. Data from patients undergoing RAKT from January 2017 to April 2018 were prospectively collected in an a priori developed web-based dataset...
October 12, 2018: BJU International
Krishnan V Chakravarthy, Fang Xing, Kelly Bruno, Alexander R Kent, Adil Raza, Rene Hurlemann, Thomas M Kinfe
BACKGROUND: There is increasing literature evidence both clinically and experimentally on the existence of potent, adaptive interactions between the central and peripheral aspects of the neuroimmune system in the genesis and maintenance of chronic neuropathic extremity pain and nociceptive back pain. The neuroinflammatory pathways are modulated by the interaction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which are released by peripheral immune system-derived cell species (macrophages and leukocytes)...
October 12, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Ana Paula M Resende, Bruno T Bernardes, Liliana Stüpp, Emerson Oliveira, Rodrigo A Castro, Manoel J B C Girão, Marair G F Sartori
AIMS: To verify if hypopressive exercises (HEs) can improve pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms equally or better than pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). METHODS: Randomized controlled trial. Symptomatic women with untreated stage II POP according to the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System (POP-Q) having the ability to contract their pelvic floor muscles were invited. The outcome measures were POP symptoms as measured by specific questions and Prolapse Quality of Life (P-QoL); POP severity as measured by POP-Q; and PFM function...
October 12, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Jennifer Reath, Penelope Abbott, Linda Kurti, Ruth Morgan, Mary Martin, Ada Parry, Elaine Gordon, Julian Thomas, Marlene Drysdale
BACKGROUND: Promoting cultural competence of health professionals working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is key to improving health outcomes. Cultural Educators and Cultural Mentors (CE/ CMs) have critical roles in Australian general practice training, yet these are not well understood. METHODS: Guided by a CE/CM Network, our research team including experienced CE/CMs, used surveys and semi-structured interviews to explore these roles and investigate best practice in employment and support...
October 11, 2018: BMC Medical Education
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