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Learning outcomes

Yuhong V Jiang, Caitlin A Sisk
The control of selective attention is traditionally considered to be either goal-driven or stimulus-driven. Increasing research, however, has linked past experience to attentional selection. Effects of selection history may be transient, as in inter-trial priming, or durable. Here we review several examples of enduring changes of attention and relate them to properties of habits. Like motor habits, reading direction is reinforced over an extended period of time. Despite the brevity of training, probability learning, context learning, value-driven attention, and learned attentional set also exhibit habit-like properties, including automaticity, insensitivity to outcome devaluation, and inflexibility...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Mark Farha, Eric Masson, Helen Tomkinson, Ganesh Mugundu
Evaluation of the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of oral oncology drugs is critical to drug development, as food can mitigate or exacerbate toxicities and alter systemic exposure. Our aim is to expand on current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance and provide data-driven food-effect study design recommendations specific to the oncology therapeutic area. Data for recently approved small-molecule oncology drugs was extracted from the clinical pharmacology review in the sponsor's FDA submission package...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Peng Yue, Zhiyong Zhu, Yongli Wang, Yimin Xu, Jia Li, Karen V Lamb, Yahong Xu, Ying Wu
AIMS: To explore the motivation of family members of patients at high risk for sudden cardiac death for undertaking cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. BACKGROUND: Home cardiac arrests are associated with poor outcomes because few family members learn CPR. Little is known about factors that motivate family members to participate in CPR training. DESIGN: We used grounded theory to establish a theoretical framework to explore the motivational factors for learning CPR among family members...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Bohong Cai, Rajendran Kanagasuntheram, Boon Huat Bay, Jieying Lee, Ching-Chiuan Yen
In recent decades, three-dimensional (3D) printing as an emerging technology, has been utilized for imparting human anatomy knowledge. However, most 3D printed models are rigid anatomical replicas that are unable to represent dynamic spatial relationships between different anatomical structures. In this study, the data obtained from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a normal knee joint were used to design and fabricate a functional knee joint simulator for anatomical education. Utility of the 3D printed simulator was evaluated in comparison with traditional didactic learning in first year medical students (n= 35), so as to understand how the functional 3D simulator could assist in their learning of human anatomy...
December 7, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Hasibe Kadioglu, Sevil Albayrak, Ayse Ergun, Seher Yurt, Kamer Gur, Kader Mert, Saime Erol, Melek Nihal Esin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to construct a consensus on the undergraduate learning objectives and topics for public health nursing (PHN) in Turkey. DESIGN: A three-round e-mail-based Delphi study was conducted between May and July 2015 with a national sample. SAMPLE: Ninety-one academics from 54 universities were invited as experts to participate by e-mail. Fifty-nine academics from 43 universities participated in the study. MEASUREMENTS: Data were analyzed by computing the median, quartiles one and three, and the interquartile range for each learning outcome and topic...
December 10, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Mohammed Aradaib, Paul Neary, Adnan Hafeez, Reza Kalbassi, Amjad Parvaiz, Diarmuid O'Riordain
Robotic surgery enhances the precision of minimally invasive surgery through improved three-dimensional views and articulated instruments. There has been increasing interest in adopting this technology to colorectal surgery and this has recently been introduced to the Irish health system. This paper gives an account of our early institutional experience with adoption of robotic colorectal surgery using structured training. Analysis was conducted of a prospectively maintained database of our first 55 consecutive robotic colorectal cases, performed by four colorectal surgeons, each at the beginning of his robotic surgery experience, using the Da Vinci Si® system and undergoing training as per the European Academy of Robotic Colorectal Surgery (EARCS) programme...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Brad Love, Catherine Benedict, Aubrey Van Kirk Villalobos, Joshua N Cone
PURPOSE: Comprehensive cancer control (CCC) coalitions and programs have delivered effective models and approaches to reducing cancer burden across the United States over the last two decades. Communication plays an essential role in diverse coalition activities from prevention to survivorship, including organizational and community capacity-building and as cancer control intervention strategies. METHODS: Based upon a review of published CCC research as well as public health communication best practices, this article describes lessons learned to assist CCC coalitions and programs with systematic implementation of communication efforts as key strategies in cancer control...
December 10, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Megan Y Roberts
Purpose: Despite advances in cochlear implant and hearing aid technology, many children with hearing loss continue to exhibit poorer language skills than their hearing peers. This randomized pilot trial tested the effects of a parent-implemented communication treatment targeting prelinguistic communication skills in infants and toddlers with hearing loss. Method: Participants included 19 children between 6 and 24 months of age with moderate to profound, bilateral hearing loss...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Christian Lucas, André Kemmling, Nassim Bouteldja, Linda F Aulmann, Amir Madany Mamlouk, Mattias P Heinrich
Cerebrovascular diseases, in particular ischemic stroke, are one of the leading global causes of death in developed countries. Perfusion CT and/or MRI are ideal imaging modalities for characterizing affected ischemic tissue in the hyper-acute phase. If infarct growth over time could be predicted accurately from functional acute imaging protocols together with advanced machine-learning based image analysis, the expected benefits of treatment options could be better weighted against potential risks. The quality of the outcome prediction by convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is so far limited, which indicates that even highly complex deep learning algorithms are not fully capable of directly learning physiological principles of tissue salvation through weak supervision due to a lack of data (e...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Limor Raz, Yi Yang, Jeffrey Thompson, Sasha Hobson, John Pesko, Shahriar Mobashery, Mayland Chang, Gary Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment dementia (VCID) is a major cause of cognitive loss in the elderly. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases involved in remodeling the extracellular matrix in development, injury and repair. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption due to inflammation mediated by MMPs is a mechanism of white matter injury. Currently there are no treatments besides the control of vascular risk factors. We tested two MMP-9 inhibitors that improved outcome in acute stroke: DP-460 and SB-3CT...
2018: PloS One
Elizabeth Cedars, Hayley Kriss, Ann A Lazar, Curtis Chan, Dylan K Chan
INTRODUCTION: Hearing loss substantially impacts pediatric development, and early identification improves outcomes. While intervening before school-entry is critical to optimize learning, early-childhood hearing screening practices are highly variable. Conditioned play audiometry (CPA) is the gold standard for preschool hearing screening, but otoacoustic emission (OAE) testing provides objective data that may improve screening outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes of a community-based low-income preschool hearing program before and after implementation of OAE in a single-visit, two-tiered paradigm...
2018: PloS One
Omer Linkovski, Michael G Wheaton, Jordana Zwerling, Zagaa Odgerel, Peter van Roessel, Maria Filippou-Frye, Anthony Lombardi, Brianna Wright, Shari A Steinman, Helen Blair Simpson, Francis Lee, Carolyn I Rodriguez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Pairoj Boonluksiri, Hathaitip Tumviriyakul, Rajin Arora, Win Techakehakij, Parinya Chamnan, Nawapat Umthong
Background: Rural doctor shortage is a problem in many countries. Factors associated with doctor retention were reported such as colleagues, workload, accommodations, transportation, proximity of family and friends, incentives and career path. Rural background recruitment, increasing the quantity of doctor production to supply in rural and remote areas, and regulation are claimed to alleviate doctor scarcity in rural communities. Many programs have been developed, but an imbalance in physician distribution persists...
May 2018: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
Gayatri Gopal, Clemens Suter-Crazzolara, Luca Toldo, Werner Eberhardt
Healthcare providers all over the world are faced with a single challenge: the need to improve patient outcomes while containing costs. Drivers include an increasing demand for chronic disease management for an aging population, technological advancements and empowered patients taking control of their health experience. The digital transformation in healthcare, through the creation of a rich health data foundation and integration of technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT), advanced analytics, Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), is recognized as a key component to tackle these challenges...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Joseph Hartge, Patricia Toledo
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyper-activity disorder's (ADHD) prevalence rate has been increasing during the last decade. Evidence from different studies suggests that the effect of ADHD on earnings and employment could be more detrimental than other disorders such as depression or anxiety. Although it is widely known that these mental disorders can coexist with ADHD, none of these studies has considered the joint evaluation of ADHD and its comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we evaluate whether ADHD is a more severe disorder than three other comorbid mental disorders -- learning disabilities, depression, and anxiety -- regarding their effects on earnings and employment...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
Sofian Berrouiguet, David Ramírez, María Luisa Barrigón, Pablo Moreno-Muñoz, Rodrigo Carmona Camacho, Enrique Baca-García, Antonio Artés-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: The emergence of smartphones, wearable sensor technologies, and smart homes allows the nonintrusive collection of activity data. Thus, health-related events, such as activities of daily living (ADLs; eg, mobility patterns, feeding, sleeping, ...) can be captured without patients' active participation. We designed a system to detect changes in the mobility patterns based on the smartphone's native sensors and advanced machine learning and signal processing techniques. OBJECTIVE: The principal objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of detecting mobility pattern changes in a sample of outpatients with depression using the smartphone's sensors...
December 10, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Farren B S Briggs, Justin C Yu, Mary F Davis, Jinghong Jiangyang, Shannon Fu, Erica Parrotta, Douglas D Gunzler, Daniel Ontaneda
BACKGROUND: The phenotypic presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) may predict long-term outcomes and little is known about factors contributing to heterogeneity at MS onset. Given temporality, it is likely MS risk factors also influence presentation of the disease near onset. METHODS: Using a retrospective cross-sectional study of MS cases, we investigated: age of onset (AOO), number of impaired functional domains (NIFDs), time to second relapse (TT2R), and early relapse activity (ERA)...
December 4, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Bogdana Suchorska, Ulrich Schüller, Annamaria Biczok, Markus Lenski, Nathalie L Albert, Armin Giese, Friedrich-Wilhelm Kreth, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Jörg-Christian Tonn, Michael Ingrisch
BACKGROUND: Mutation of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene and co-deletion on chromosome 1p/19q is becoming increasingly relevant for the evaluation of clinical outcome in glioma. Among the imaging parameters, contrast enhancement (CE) in WHO II/III glioma has been reported to indicate poor outcome in the past. We aimed at reassessing the prognostic value of CE in these tumours within the framework of molecular markers using a machine learning approach (random survival forests [RSF]) as well as conventional Cox regression modelling...
December 6, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Ori Weiss, Einat Levy-Gigi, Miriam Adelson, Einat Peles
Previously we showed that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients displayed difficulties in generalization and reversal learning in the presence of drug-related context, compared to prolonged abstinence individuals. We now tested how history of childhood trauma, affects their reversal learning abilities. Fifty-one MMT patients were evaluated on a performance- based paradigm which assesses the ability to acquire and reverse stimulus-outcome associations in neutral and drug-related context. Patients with a history of childhood trauma (n = 32) as compared to patients without such a history showed decreased ability to learn associations with positive outcome, and had poorer performance in drug compare to neutral-related context...
November 27, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Hue T Truong, Joanne Ramsbotham, Alexandra McCarthy
The quality of students' experiences in an education environment directly affect learning outcomes. In an applied profession such as nursing, students undertake work-integrated learning in unpredictable health settings where multiple influences interact. Understanding students' perspectives with a valid instrument is the first step in improving learning environments and maximizing learning outcomes. It is important that language and cultural nuances are accounted for when instruments are translated. This paper reports translation and psychometric properties of the Vietnamese language version (V-CLEI) of the modified English language Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) (Newton et al...
November 29, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
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