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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778945/self-administration-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-mpdv-enhances-reward-function-via-a-nicotinic-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#1
Jean R Geste, Marjory Pompilus, Marcelo Febo, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is an addictive synthetic drug with severe side effects. Previous studies have shown that MDPV has positive reinforcing properties. However, little is known about the effect of MDPV self-administration on the state of the brain reward system and the neuronal mechanisms by which MDPV mediates its effects. The goal of the present studies was to determine the effect of MDPV self-administration on reward function and the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in the reinforcing effects of MDPV...
May 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778907/association-of-the-fto-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-rs9939609-polymorphism-with-rewarding-value-of-food-and-eating-behavior-in-chilean-children
#2
Ana Maria Obregón Rivas, Jose L Santos, Macarena A Valladares, Jameson Cameron, Gary Goldfield
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 in the FTO gene and homeostatic/non-homeostatic eating behavior patterns in Chilean children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 258 children (44% female; 8-14 y of age). Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, Z-score of height, body mass index, and waist circumference) were performed. Eating behavior was assessed using the Eating in Absence of Hunger Questionnaire; the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire; the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, and the Food Reinforcement Value Questionnaire...
March 27, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777968/ecological-momentary-assessment-of-food-perceptions-and-eating-behavior-using-a-novel-phone-application-in-adults-with-or-without-obesity
#3
Kholoud Alabduljader, Marion Cliffe, Francesco Sartor, Gabriele Papini, W Miles Cox, Hans-Peter Kubis
We developed a smart phone application to measure participants' food-reward perceptions and eating behavior in their naturalistic environment. Intensity ratings (0 - not at all to 10 - very strongly) of perceived anticipation of food (wanting) and food enjoyment at endpoint of intake (liking) were recorded as they occurred over a period of 14 days. Moreover, food craving trait, implicit and explicit attitude towards healthy food, and body composition were assessed. 53 participants provided complete data. Participants were classified by percentage of body fat; 33 participants with lower body fat (L-group) and 20 with higher body fat (H-group; ≥25% body fat for males and ≥32% for females)...
May 12, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777342/selective-predation-on-acorn-weevils-by-seed-caching-siberian-chipmunk-tamias-sibiricus-in-a-tripartite-interaction
#4
Yueqin Yang, Zhenyu Wang, Chuan Yan, Yihao Zhang, Dongyuan Zhang, Xianfeng Yi
Although food-hoarding animals benefit plant seeds by generating predation pressure on granivorous insects, we lack experimental evidence of whether the tripartite interactions maintain a mutualistic relationship between the third trophic level and primary producers. Relying on the behavior of shelling, Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) selectively consumed weevil larvae infested in acorns of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) but chose the non-infested acorns to scatter-hoard. Shelling not only reduced volatile emission from acorns but also decreased cache loss to pilferers, weevil larvae and fungi, allowing T...
May 19, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773982/training-rats-using-water-rewards-without-water-restriction
#5
Pamela Reinagel
High-throughput behavioral training of rodents has been a transformative development for systems neuroscience. Water or food restriction is typically required to motivate task engagement. We hypothesized a gap between physiological water need and hedonic water satiety that could be leveraged to train rats for water rewards without water restriction. We show that when Citric Acid (CA) is added to water, female rats drink less, yet consume enough to maintain long term health. With 24 h/day access to a visual task with water rewards, rats with ad lib CA water performed 84% ± 18% as many trials as in the same task under water restriction...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771559/body-mass-index-across-adolescence-and-substance-use-problems-in-early-adulthood
#6
Ashley N Gearhardt, Rebecca Waller, Jennifer M Jester, Luke W Hyde, Robert A Zucker
Excessive substance use and obesity are underpinned by a number of shared risk factors (e.g., reward dysfunction, impulsivity). Food and drugs of abuse engage similar reward-related neural circuitry and the food-drug competition hypothesis proposes that excess consumption of food may diminish desire for drugs of abuse by competing for neural receptors associated with reward and motivation. Adolescence is a high-risk period for both increased substance use and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the authors tested whether, consistent with the food-drug competition hypothesis, elevated body mass index (BMI) across adolescence predicted fewer substance use problems in young adulthood...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769793/a-marker-of-biological-ageing-predicts-adult-risk-preference-in-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#7
Clare Andrews, Daniel Nettle, Sophie Reichert, Tom Bedford, Pat Monaghan, Melissa Bateson
Why are some individuals more prone to gamble than others? Animals often show preferences between 2 foraging options with the same mean reward but different degrees of variability in the reward, and such risk preferences vary between individuals. Previous attempts to explain variation in risk preference have focused on energy budgets, but with limited empirical support. Here, we consider whether biological ageing, which affects mortality and residual reproductive value, predicts risk preference. We studied a cohort of European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) in which we had previously measured developmental erythrocyte telomere attrition, an established integrative biomarker of biological ageing...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762471/the-impact-of-caloric-and-non-caloric-sweeteners-on-food-intake-and-brain-responses-to-food-a-randomized-crossover-controlled-trial-in-healthy-humans
#8
Camille Crézé, Laura Candal, Jérémy Cros, Jean-François Knebel, Kevin Seyssel, Nathalie Stefanoni, Philippe Schneiter, Micah M Murray, Luc Tappy, Ulrike Toepel
Whether non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) consumption impacts food intake behavior in humans is still unclear. Discrepant sensory and metabolic signals are proposed to mislead brain regulatory centers, in turn promoting maladaptive food choices favoring weight gain. We aimed to assess whether ingestion of sucrose- and NNS-sweetened drinks would differently alter brain responses to food viewing and food intake. Eighteen normal-weight men were studied in a fasted condition and after consumption of a standardized meal accompanied by either a NNS-sweetened (NNS), or a sucrose-sweetened (SUC) drink, or water (WAT)...
May 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761610/pathways-and-mechanisms-linking-dietary-components-to-cardiometabolic-disease-thinking-beyond-calories
#9
REVIEW
K L Stanhope, M I Goran, A Bosy-Westphal, J C King, L A Schmidt, J-M Schwarz, E Stice, A C Sylvetsky, P J Turnbaugh, G A Bray, C D Gardner, P J Havel, V Malik, A E Mason, E Ravussin, M Rosenbaum, J A Welsh, C Allister-Price, D M Sigala, M R C Greenwood, A Astrup, R M Krauss
Calories from any food have the potential to increase risk for obesity and cardiometabolic disease because all calories can directly contribute to positive energy balance and fat gain. However, various dietary components or patterns may promote obesity and cardiometabolic disease by additional mechanisms that are not mediated solely by caloric content. Researchers explored this topic at the 2017 CrossFit Foundation Academic Conference 'Diet and Cardiometabolic Health - Beyond Calories', and this paper summarizes the presentations and follow-up discussions...
May 14, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761057/the-performance-of-cleaner-wrasse-labroides-dimidiatus-in-a-reversal-learning-task-varies-across-experimental-paradigms
#10
Simon Gingins, Fanny Marcadier, Sharon Wismer, Océane Krattinger, Fausto Quattrini, Redouan Bshary, Sandra A Binning
Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaners")...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760410/motivational-changes-that-develop-in-a-mouse-model-of-inflammation-induced-depression-are-independent-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase
#11
Elisabeth G Vichaya, Geoffroy Laumet, Diana L Christian, Aaron J Grossberg, Darlene J Estrada, Cobi J Heijnen, Annemieke Kavelaars, Robert Dantzer
Despite years of research, our understanding of the mechanisms by which inflammation induces depression is still limited. As clinical data points to a strong association between depression and motivational alterations, we sought to (1) characterize the motivational changes that are associated with inflammation in mice, and (2) determine if they depend on inflammation-induced activation of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated or spared nerve injured (SNI) wild type (WT) and Ido1 -/- mice underwent behavioral tests of antidepressant activity (e...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758247/individual-behavioural-predictors-of-amphetamine-induced-emission-of-50-khz-vocalization-in-rats
#12
Kevin G Mulvihill, Stefan M Brudzynski
Measurement of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) produced by adult rats represents a highly useful index of emotional arousal. The associations found between 50 kHz USV production and a variety of behavioural and pharmacological protocols increasingly suggests they serve as a marker of positive motivational states. This study used a powerful within-subjects design to investigate the relationships among individual differences in approach to a sweet-food reward, predisposition to emit 50 kHz USVs spontaneously, and 50 kHz USVs emission following acute systemic administration of amphetamine...
May 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756654/effect-of-reward-type-on-object-discrimination-learning-in-socially-monogamous-coppery-titi-monkeys-callicebus-cupreus
#13
Sara M Freeman, Nancy Rebout, Karen L Bales
Highly valued food items are often used as rewards to reinforce an animal's behavior. For social species, social interaction is rewarding and can drive an individual's behavior as well. In the currently study, we wanted to compare the efficacy of a food reward and a social reward on object discrimination learning in socially monogamous titi monkeys. We hypothesized that titi monkeys would perform more accurately for a social reward (their pair mate) than for a food reward (a highly desired food item). Eleven adult titi monkeys were tested with a two-object visual discrimination task for both types of reward...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756383/a-novel-affective-motivational-based-overground-system-for-detecting-spinal-cord-injury-associated-thermal-and-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-rats
#14
Elizabeth A Dugan, Jacqueline Sagen
BACKGROUND: Preclinical research for neuropathic pain has depended primarily on the use of behavioral nociceptive testing that is sensory-discriminatory based and reflexive in nature. This can be particularly problematic in spinal cord injury (SCI) associated neuropathic pain research where hyperreflexia may develop thus confounding interpretation of reflexive responses as pain symptoms. To address this, we have designed an affective-motivational based Overground System that has interchangeable floors to allow examination of nociceptive behaviors in response to mechanical and cold stimuli prior to and following spinal cord injury...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755391/odor-learning-and-its-experience-dependent-modulation-in-the-south-american-native-bumblebee-bombus-atratus-hymenoptera-apidae
#15
Florencia Palottini, María C Estravis Barcala, Walter M Farina
Learning about olfactory stimuli is essential in bumblebees' life since it is involved in orientation, recognition of nest sites, foraging efficiency and food yield for the colony as a whole. To evaluate associative learning abilities in bees under controlled environmental conditions, the proboscis extension response (PER) assay is a well-established method used in honey bees, stingless bees and successfully adapted to bumblebees of the genus Bombus . However, studies on the learning capacity of Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), one of the most abundant native species in South America, are non-existent...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748660/the-association-of-problematic-eating-behaviours-with-food-quality-and-body-mass-index-at-7-years-of-age
#16
Sara Costa, Andreia Pinto, Ana Cristina Santos, Andreia Oliveira
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is scarce evidence of how certain eating behaviours compromise the compliance with dietary guidelines and weight status in school-aged children. This study aims to evaluate the association of children's problematic eating behaviours with food quality and body mass index at 7 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were children aged 7 years old from a population-based cohort study from Porto, Portugal-Generation XXI. Children's quantity and speed of ingestion, food refusal at the table and food rewards requesting were evaluated by caregiver's perception...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744556/alcohol-use-disorder-symptoms-are-associated-with-greater-relative-value-ascribed-to-alcohol-but-not-greater-discounting-of-costs-imposed-on-alcohol
#17
Lee Hogarth, Lorna Hardy
RATIONALE: Alcohol dependence is characterised by persistent drinking despite health, social and economic costs. Behavioural economics has proposed two explanations for the persistence of alcohol use despite costs. Dependent individuals may (a) ascribe excessively high value to alcohol, such that costs associated with alcohol are exceeded, and/or (b) they may discount (neglect) the costs associated with alcohol. METHODS: To test these predictions, the current study recruited 127 student drinkers who reported varied alcohol use disorder symptom severity in the Alcohol Use Disorders Inventory Test (AUDIT; mean = 11...
May 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740595/dynamic-encoding-of-incentive-salience-in-the-ventral-pallidum-dependence-on-the-form-of-the-reward-cue
#18
Allison M Ahrens, Lindsay M Ferguson, Terry E Robinson, J Wayne Aldridge
Some rats are especially prone to attribute incentive salience to a cue (conditioned stimulus, CS) paired with food reward (sign-trackers, STs), but the extent they do so varies as a function of the form of the CS. Other rats respond primarily to the predictive value of a cue (goal-trackers, GTs), regardless of its form. Sign-tracking is associated with greater cue-induced activation of mesolimbic structures than goal-tracking; however, it is unclear how the form of the CS itself influences activity in neural systems involved in incentive salience attribution...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740277/hedonic-eating-and-the-delicious-circle-from-lipid-derived-mediators-to-brain-dopamine-and-back
#19
REVIEW
Roberto Coccurello, Mauro Maccarrone
Palatable food can be seductive and hedonic eating can become irresistible beyond hunger and negative consequences. This is witnessed by the subtle equilibrium between eating to provide energy intake for homeostatic functions, and reward-induced overeating. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to study neural circuits, and to identify potential factors responsible for the derangement of homeostatic eating toward hedonic eating and addiction-like feeding behavior. Here, we examined recent literature on "old" and "new" players accountable for reward-induced overeating and possible liability to eating addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735157/neural-correlates-of-drug-biased-choice-in-currently-using-and-abstinent-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorder
#20
Scott J Moeller, Anna Zilverstand, Anna B Konova, Prantik Kundu, Muhammad A Parvaz, Rebecca Preston-Campbell, Keren Bachi, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
BACKGROUND: The choice for drugs over alternative reinforcers is a translational hallmark feature of drug addiction. The neural basis of such drug-biased choice is not well understood, particularly in individuals with protracted drug abstinence who cannot ethically participate in studies that offer drug-using opportunities. METHODS: We developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging drug-choice task to examine the choice for viewing drug-related images, rather than for actually consuming a drug...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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