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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634675/wild-capuchin-monkeys-anticipate-the-amount-of-ripe-fruit-in-natural-trees
#1
María Paula Tujague, Charles H Janson
Tropical forests have a high diversity of tree species which have very low densities and vary across time in their seasons of peak fruiting and maturation rates. As evidence of the ability of primates to track or anticipate changes in fruit production at individual trees, researchers have used the increased speed of primate groups toward more rewarding food patches. We analyzed the speed of approach to natural trees of wild capuchin monkeys under the effect of scramble competition, after excluding any plausible visual, olfactory and auditory cues...
June 20, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630319/chimpanzees-return-favors-at-a-personal-cost
#2
Martin Schmelz, Sebastian Grueneisen, Alihan Kabalak, Jürgen Jost, Michael Tomasello
Humans regularly provide others with resources at a personal cost to themselves. Chimpanzees engage in some cooperative behaviors in the wild as well, but their motivational underpinnings are unclear. In three experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) always chose between an option delivering food both to themselves and a partner and one delivering food only to themselves. In one condition, a conspecific partner had just previously taken a personal risk to make this choice available. In another condition, no assistance from the partner preceded the subject's decision...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629779/are-dopaminergic-genotypes-risk-factors-for-eating-behavior-and-obesity-in-adults
#3
Orcun Avsar, Aysegul Kuskucu, Seda Sancak, Ece Genc
Dopamine (DA) is the main modulator of the brain reward system and significantly regulates food intake. The idea that obesity is a neurobiological disease rather than a metabolic disorder, is the basis of the study. Changes in dopamine neurotransmission affect the brain reward system in a direct way. Furthermore, changes in the reward system influence the eating behavior in human. The enzymes monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) terminate the DA function by metabolizing it. In our study, the control group which included 214 individuals and 234 subjects with obesity were investigated for MAOA-u VNTR and COMT (rs4680) polymorphisms...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628945/precise-spike-timing-dynamics-of-hippocampal-place-cell-activity-sensitive-to-cholinergic-disruption
#4
Ehren L Newman, Sarah Jo C Venditto, Jason R Climer, Elijah A Petter, Shea N Gillet, Sam Levy
New memory formation depends upon both the hippocampus and modulatory effects of acetylcholine. The mechanism by which acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus enable new encoding remains poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cholinergic modulation supports memory formation by leading to structured spike timing in the hippocampus. Specifically, we tested if phase precession in dorsal CA1 was reduced under the influence of a systemic cholinergic antagonist. Unit and field potential was recorded from the dorsal CA1 of rats as they completed laps on a circular track for food rewards before and during the influence of the systemically administered acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine...
June 19, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624821/on-the-social-life-and-motivational-changes-of-aging-monkeys
#5
Julia Fischer
Although nonhuman primates have been used in biomedical research to develop a better understanding of physiological aging processes, their value as models for studying age-related differences in motivation, cognition, and decision-making has only recently been appreciated. This paper reviews the state of the art, with a focus on a recent study on Barbary macaques. A number of studies reported that with increasing age, Old World monkeys spend more time resting, have fewer social partners, and/or spend less time in social interactions, though other studies found no such effects...
June 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624258/incentivizing-healthy-eating-in-children-an-investigation-of-the-ripple-and-temporal-effects-of-a-reward-based-intervention
#6
Saied Toossi
Although previous studies have established the effectiveness of using small reward-based incentives in inducing the choice and consumption of healthier foods among children, little is known about their impact outside of experimental settings or their effectiveness over time when administered daily. This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted to provide insight on these matters. The study employs a removed treatment within-subject design and was conducted at a summer program catering to low-income children between the ages of 5 and 12...
June 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614704/electrodermal-responses-during-appetitive-conditioning-are-sensitive-to-contingency-instruction-ambiguity
#7
Karolien van den Akker, Chantal Nederkoorn, Anita Jansen
Studies on human appetitive conditioning using food rewards can benefit from including psychophysiological outcome measures. The present study tested whether the skin conductance response can function as a measure of differential responding in an appetitive conditioning paradigm including an acquisition and extinction phase, and examined which time window during a trial is most sensitive to conditioning effects. As a secondary aim, the effects of ambiguous vs. non-ambiguous contingency instructions on conditioned responses (skin conductance responses, US expectancies, chocolate desires, and CS evaluations) were assessed...
June 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614590/chronic-ethanol-during-adolescence-impacts-corticolimbic-dendritic-spines-and-behavior
#8
Nicholas J Jury, Gabrielle A Pollack, Meredith J Ward, Jessica L Bezek, Alexandra J Ng, Courtney R Pinard, Hadley C Bergstrom, Andrew Holmes
BACKGROUND: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in adulthood is linked to alcohol drinking during adolescence, but understanding of the neural and behavioral consequences of alcohol exposure during adolescence remains incomplete. Here, we examined the neurobehavioral impact of adolescent chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J-background Thy1-EGFP mice were CIE-exposed during adolescence or adulthood and examined, as adults, for alterations in the density and morphology of dendritic spines in infralimbic (IL) cortex, prelimbic (PL) cortex, and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
June 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611698/improving-assessment-of-the-spectrum-of-reward-related-eating-the-red-13
#9
Ashley E Mason, Uku Vainik, Michael Acree, A Janet Tomiyama, Alain Dagher, Elissa S Epel, Frederick M Hecht
A diversity of scales capture facets of reward-related eating (RRE). These scales assess food cravings, uncontrolled eating, addictive behavior, restrained eating, binge eating, and other eating behaviors. However, these scales differ in terms of the severity of RRE they capture. We sought to incorporate the items from existing scales to broaden the 9-item Reward-based Eating Drive scale (RED-9; Epel et al., 2014), which assesses three dimensions of RRE (lack of satiety, preoccupation with food, and lack of control over eating), in order to more comprehensively assess the entire spectrum of RRE...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611691/morphine-reward-promotes-cue-sensitive-learning-implication-of-dorsal-striatal-creb-activity
#10
Mathieu Baudonnat, Jean-Louis Guillou, Marianne Husson, Veronique D Bohbot, Lars Schwabe, Vincent David
Different parallel neural circuits interact and may even compete to process and store information: whereas stimulus-response (S-R) learning critically depends on the dorsal striatum (DS), spatial memory relies on the hippocampus (HPC). Strikingly, despite its potential importance for our understanding of addictive behaviors, the impact of drug rewards on memory systems dynamics has not been extensively studied. Here, we assessed long-term effects of drug- vs food reinforcement on the subsequent use of S-R vs spatial learning strategies and their neural substrates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607840/stress-profile-influences-learning-approach-in-a-marine-fish
#11
Vincent Raoult, Larissa Trompf, Jane E Williamson, Culum Brown
The spatial learning skills of high and low stress juvenile mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) were tested in a dichotomous choice apparatus. Groups of fish were formed based on background blood cortisol levels and required to learn the location of a food reward hidden in one of two compartments. Low stress fish characterised by low background levels of the stress hormone cortisol had higher activity levels and entered both rewarded and unrewarded rooms frequently. Within the first week of exposure, however, their preference for the rewarded room increased, indicative of learning...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606563/participants-with-pharmacologically-impaired-taste-function-seek-out-more-intense-higher-calorie-stimuli
#12
Corinna A Noel, Meaghan Sugrue, Robin Dando
OBJECTIVE: Research suggests a weaker sense of taste in people with obesity, with the assumption that this debilitated taste response increases the desire for more intensely tasting stimuli to compensate for decreased taste input. However, empirical testing of this supposition remains largely absent. METHOD: In a randomized, repeated measure design, 51 healthy subjects were treated with varying concentrations of a tea containing Gymnema sylvestre (GS), to temporarily and selectively diminish sweet taste perception, or a control tea...
June 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604810/fathers-perspectives-on-the-diets-and-physical-activity-behaviours-of-their-young-children
#13
Adam D Walsh, Kylie D Hesketh, Paige van der Pligt, Adrian J Cameron, David Crawford, Karen J Campbell
BACKGROUND: Children's learning about food and physical activity is considerable during their formative years, with parental influence pivotal. Research has focused predominantly on maternal influences with little known about the relationships between fathers' and young children's dietary and physical activity behaviours. A greater understanding of paternal beliefs regarding young children's dietary and physical activity behaviours is important to inform the design and delivery of child-focussed health promotion interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597337/brain-reward-responses-to-food-stimuli-among-female-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-bmi
#14
Stieneke Doornweerd, Eco J De Geus, Frederik Barkhof, Liselotte Van Bloemendaal, Dorret I Boomsma, Jenny Van Dongen, Madeleine L Drent, Gonneke Willemsen, Dick J Veltman, Richard G IJzerman
Obese individuals are characterized by altered brain reward responses to food. Despite the latest discovery of obesity-associated genes, the contribution of environmental and genetic factors to brain reward responsiveness to food remains largely unclear. Sixteen female monozygotic twin pairs with a mean BMI discordance of 3.96 ± 2.1 kg/m(2) were selected from the Netherlands Twin Register to undergo functional MRI scanning while watching high- and low-calorie food and non-food pictures and during the anticipation and receipt of chocolate milk...
June 8, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596931/a-systematic-review-of-methods-for-increasing-vegetable-consumption-in-early-childhood
#15
REVIEW
Clare E Holley, Claire Farrow, Emma Haycraft
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to synthesise the body of research investigating methods for increasing vegetable consumption in 2- to 5-year-old children, while offering advice for practitioners. RECENT FINDINGS: Repeated exposure is a well-supported method for increasing vegetable consumption in early childhood and may be enhanced with the inclusion of non-food rewards to incentivise tasting. Peer models appear particularly effective for increasing 2-5-year-olds' vegetable consumption...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594147/casein-kinase-1-epsilon-deletion-increases-mu-opioid-receptor-dependent-behaviors-and-binge-eating
#16
Lisa R Goldberg, Stacey L Kirkpatrick, Neema Yazdani, Kimberly P Luttik, Olga A Lacki, R Keith Babbs, David F Jenkins, W Evan Johnson, Camron D Bryant
Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that casein kinase-1 epsilon (Csnk1e) contributes to psychostimulant, opioid, and ethanol motivated behaviors. We previously used pharmacological inhibition to demonstrate that Csnk1e negatively regulates the locomotor stimulant properties of opioids and psychostimulants. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Csnk1e negatively regulates opioid and psychostimulant reward using genetic inhibition and the conditioned place preference assay in Csnk1e knockout mice. Similar to pharmacological inhibition, Csnk1e knockout mice showed enhanced opioid-induced locomotor activity with the mu opioid receptor agonist fentanyl (0...
June 8, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590323/oxytocin-and-potential-benefits-for-obesity-treatment
#17
Pawel K Olszewski, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Laboratory animal experiments have consistently shown that oxytocin causes early termination of food intake, thereby promoting a decrease in body weight in a long term. Recent studies have also assessed some of oxytocin's effects on appetite and energy balance in humans. The present study examines the findings of the key basic research and of the few clinical studies published thus far in the context of potential benefits and challenges stemming from the use of oxytocin in obese patients...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587895/a-novel-operant-task-to-assess-social-reward-and-motivation-in-rodents
#18
Johnathan M Borland, Kyle J Frantz, Lauren M Aiani, Kymberly N Grantham, Zhimin Song, H Elliott Albers
BACKGROUND: Social reward plays a critical role in the development of beneficial social relationships, and disorders of the mechanisms controlling social reward are involved in the etiology of many psychiatric diseases. NEW METHOD: We present a novel operant social preference task to quantify social reward in rodents using an apparatus with three chambers separated by one-way vertical-swing doors. The experimental animal is placed in the larger chamber while the two smaller chambers either remain empty or contain a stimulus animal or other potential reward stimulus...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580417/impact-of-early-consumption-of-high-fat-diet-on-the-mesolimbic-dopaminergic-system
#19
F Naneix, F Tantot, C Glangetas, J Kaufling, Y Janthakhin, C Boitard, V De Smedt-Peyrusse, J R Pape, S Vancassel, P Trifilieff, F Georges, E Coutureau, G Ferreira
Increasing evidence suggest that consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) can impact the maturation of brain circuits, such as during adolescence, which could account for behavioral alterations associated with obesity. In the present study, we used behavioral sensitization to amphetamine to investigate the effect of periadolescent HFD exposure (pHFD) in rats on the functionality of the dopamine (DA) system, a central actor in food reward processing. pHFD does not affect responding to an acute injection, however, a single exposure to amphetamine is sufficient to induce locomotor sensitization in pHFD rats...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580231/hormones-and-neuropeptide-receptor-heteromers-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-targets-for-the-treatment-of-loss-of-control-of-food-intake-and-substance-use-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Sergi Ferré
Hormones and neuropeptides represent biological correlates of internal homeostatic signals detected and integrated in the hypothalamus, which establishes a robust functional connection with the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The hypothalamus-VTA connection determines the ability of these signals to influence central dopaminergic neurotransmission and, therefore, their ability to increase responsiveness to their reward-associated stimuli and to establish appropriate associative learning. The hypothalamus also provides the main source of the multiple neuropeptides that are released in the VTA...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
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