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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164143/valence-of-facial-cues-influences-sheep-learning-in-a-visual-discrimination-task
#1
Lucille G A Bellegarde, Hans W Erhard, Alexander Weiss, Alain Boissy, Marie J Haskell
Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emotional states of neutral (ruminating in the home pen) or negative valence (social isolation or aggressive interaction)...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162562/metabolic-effects-of-bariatric-surgery
#2
REVIEW
Piriyah Sinclair, Neil Docherty, Carel W le Roux
BACKGROUND: Obesity can be defined as a chronic subcortical brain disease, as there is an important neurophysiological component to its etiology based on changes in the functioning of those areas of the brain controlling food intake and reward. Extensive metabolic changes accompany bariatric surgery-based treatment of obesity. Consequently, the term "metabolic" surgery is being increasingly adopted in relation to the beneficial effects these procedures have on chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158027/a-conditioned-reinforcer-did-not-help-to-maintain-an-operant-conditioning-in-the-absence-of-a-primary-reinforcer-in-horses
#3
Léa Lansade, Ludovic Calandreau
The use of conditioned reinforcers is increasingly promoted in animal training. Surprisingly, the efficiency of their use remains to be demonstrated in horses. This study aimed to determine whether an auditory signal which had previously been associated with a food reward 288 times could be used as a conditioned reinforcer to replace the primary reinforcer in an unrelated operant conditioning procedure. Fourteen horses were divided into two groups of 7: No Reinforcement (NR) and Conditioned Reinforcement (CR)...
November 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155278/mecp2-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-risky-decision-making
#4
Jay V Deng, Caitlin A Orsini, Kristy G Shimp, Barry Setlow
Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal decision making involving risk of punishment, but the underlying molecular basis remains poorly understood. Methyl CpG-binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic factor that regulates transcription by directly binding to methylated DNA. Here, we evaluated MeCP2 expression in the context of risk-taking behaviors using the Risky Decision-making Task (RDT), in which rats make discrete choices between a small "safe" food reward and a large "risky" food reward accompanied by varying probabilities of punishment...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152731/decision-making-under-risk-of-gain-in-young-children-and-mangabey-monkeys
#5
James Rivière, Mathilde Stomp, Elisa Augustin, Alban Lemasson, Catherine Blois-Heulin
In contrast to human adults, risk proneness in the gain domain is usually observed in both young children and non-human primates. It is currently unclear what mechanism might be underlying such economic preferences. We investigated decision-making under risk of gain in toddlers and monkeys. The choices of 2.5-year-old children and red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) were examined in a gambling task for food reward in which participants have to choose between two options, a secure option and a risky option...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150978/mice-lacking-a-functional-nmda-receptor-exhibit-social-subordination-in-a-group-housed-environment
#6
Waka Ujita, Ayako Kohyama-Koganeya, Nozomi Endo, Toki Saito, Hiroshi Oyama
Social dominance, in which an individual asserts control over others or benefits most after social conflict, has an influence on social behaviour. However, the mechanisms mediating social dominance remain unclear. Social dominance within social groups determines the distribution of rewards such as food and access to mating partners, which can act as reinforcers. In this study, we used the water competition test to determine whether mice were dominant or subordinate. We have previously reported that mice heterozygous for a missense mutation in Grin1 (Grin1(Rgsc174) ) showed altered social behaviour, with increased locomotor activity, novelty-seeking and anxiety...
November 18, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147473/bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-versus-metallic-stent-in-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-results-of-the-aida-trial
#7
Syed Raza Shah, Mazia Fatima, Amin Muhammad Dharani, Waqas Shahnawaz, Syed Arbab Shah
Drug-eluting stents have significantly improved the long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by decreasing the excessive growth of neointima. However, conventional stents have some limitations. PCI with a bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) has emerged as an alternative since the presence of the prosthesis in the coronary artery is transient. A US Food and Drug Administration advisory panel of experts recommended approval of BVS based on the analysis of its risks and rewards in July 2016...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146502/protracted-motivational-dopamine-related-deficits-following-adolescence-sugar-overconsumption
#9
Fabien Naneix, Florence Darlot, Véronique De Smedt-Peyrusse, Jean-Rémi Pape, Etienne Coutureau, Martine Cador
Adolescence represents a critical period characterized by major neurobiological changes. Chronic stimulation of the reward system during adolescence might constitute an important factor of vulnerability to pathological development. Increasing evidences suggest that adolescent overconsumption of sweet palatable foods impact reward-based processes. However, the neurobiological bases of these deficits remain poorly understood. Previous studies have demonstrated motivational deficits for palatable foods after sweet diet exposure during adolescence that might involve the dopamine (DA) system, a central actor in incentive processes...
November 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145485/adolescents-perception-of-parental-feeding-practices-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-comprehensive-feeding-practices-questionnaire-for-brazilian-adolescents-the-cfpq-teen
#10
Ângela Bein Piccoli, Lucas Neiva-Silva, Clarisse Pereira Mosmann, Dara Musher-Eizenman, Lucia C Pellanda
BACKGROUND: Parental feeding practices may play a key role in dietary habits and nutritional status of adolescents, but research from adolescents' point of view on this topic is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To adapt and validate an instrument of parental feeding practices as perceived by adolescents in a Brazilian setting. METHODS: The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was translated into Portuguese and adapted to be answered by adolescents (ages 12 to 18)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143330/short-term-high-fat-diet-primes-excitatory-synapses-for-long-term-depression-in-orexin-neurons
#11
Victoria Linehan, Lisa Fang, Michiru Hirasawa
Overconsumption of high-fat diets is one of the strongest contributing factors to the rise of obesity rates. Orexin neurons are known to be activated by palatable high-fat diet and mediate the activation of the mesolimbic reward pathway, resulting in further food intake. While short-term exposure to high-fat diet is known to induce synaptic plasticity within the mesolimbic pathway, it is unknown if such changes occur in orexin neurons. To investigate this, 3-week old male rats were fed a palatable high-fat western diet (WD) or control chow for 1 week and then in vitro patch clamp recording was performed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136100/ghrelin-is-related-to-personality-differences-in-reward-sensitivity-and-impulsivity
#12
Elizabeth Ralevski, Marya Shanabrough, Jenelle Newcomb, Erin Gandelman, Ryan Hayden, Tamas L Horvath, Ismene Petrakis
Aims: Ghrelin, a feeding-related peptide mainly produced in the stomach, has been linked to reward mechanisms for food and drugs of abuse in addition to traits of impulsivity. This study is a secondary analysis of an existing data set designed to examine the direct relationships between fasting ghrelin levels and reward sensitivity/impulsivity in healthy social drinkers. Methods: Participants (n = 20) were recruited from an original study examining the subjective effects of alcohol among social drinkers...
November 9, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134544/a-broader-phenotype-of-persistence-emerges-from-individual-differences-in-response-to-extinction
#13
Bruno Sauce, Christopher Wass, Michael Lewis, Louis D Matzel
The typical practice of averaging group performance during extinction gives the impression that responding declines gradually and homogeneously. However, previous studies of extinction in human infants have shown that some individuals persist in responding, whereas others abruptly cease responding. As predicted by theories of control, the infants who quickly resign typically display signs of sadness and despair when the expected reward is omitted. Using genetically diverse mice, here we observed a similar pattern of individual differences and the associated phenotypes...
November 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133954/exogenous-ghrelin-administration-increases-alcohol-self-administration-and-modulates-brain-functional-activity-in-heavy-drinking-alcohol-dependent-individuals
#14
M Farokhnia, E N Grodin, M R Lee, E N Oot, A N Blackburn, B L Stangl, M L Schwandt, L A Farinelli, R Momenan, V A Ramchandani, L Leggio
Preclinical evidence suggests that ghrelin, a peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the stomach and a key component of the gut-brain axis, is involved in alcohol seeking as it modulates both central reward and stress pathways. However, whether and how ghrelin administration may impact alcohol intake in humans is not clear. For, we believe, the first time, this was investigated in the present randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study. Participants were non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent heavy-drinking individuals...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132237/neural-circuits-of-eating-behaviour-opportunities-for-therapeutic-development
#15
Peter G Clifton
Understanding of the neural and physiological substrates of hunger and satiety has increased rapidly over the last three decades, and pharmacological targets have already been identified for the treatment of obesity that has moved from pre-clinical screening to therapies approved by regulatory authorities. Initially, this review describes the way in which physiological signals of energy availability interact with hedonic and rewarding properties of food to modulate the neural circuitry that supports eating behaviour...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129597/cocaine-and-desipramine-elicit-distinct-striatal-noradrenergic-and-behavioral-responses-in-selectively-bred-obesity-resistant-and-obesity-prone-rats
#16
Peter J Vollbrecht, Kathryn M Nesbitt, Omar S Mabrouk, Aaron M Chadderdon, Emily M Jutkiewicz, Robert T Kennedy, Carrie R Ferrario
Previous studies have demonstrated a role for norepinephrine (NE) in energy regulation and feeding, and basal differences have been observed in hypothalamic NE systems in obesity-prone vs. obesity-resistant rats. Differences in the function of brain reward circuits, including in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), have been shown in obesity-prone vs. obesity-resistant populations, leading many researchers to explore the role of striatal dopamine in obesity. However, alterations in NE transmission also affect NAc mediated behaviors...
November 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128392/adrenergic-manipulation-inhibits-pavlovian-conditioned-approach-behaviors
#17
Kyle Z Pasquariello, Marina Han, Cagla Unal, Paul J Meyer
Environmental rewards and Pavlovian reward cues can acquire incentive salience, thereby eliciting incentive motivational states and instigate reward-seeking. In rats, the incentive salience of food cues can be measured during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm, in which rats engage in cue-directed approach ("sign-tracking") or approach the food delivery location ("goal-tracking"). While it has been shown that dopamine signaling is necessary for sign-tracking, some studies have suggested that norepinephrine is involved in learning to sign-track as well...
November 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121639/a-subset-of-sweet-sensing-neurons-identified-by-ir56d-are-necessary-and-sufficient-for-fatty-acid-taste
#18
John M Tauber, Elizabeth B Brown, Yuanyuan Li, Maria E Yurgel, Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116427/cart-neurons-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-communicate-with-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-via-glutamatergic-neurons-in-paraventricular-thalamic-nucleus-to-modulate-reward-behavior
#19
Amit G Choudhary, Amita R Somalwar, Sneha Sagarkar, Abhishek Rale, Amul Sakharkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) serves as a transit node processing food and drug-associated reward information, but its afferents and efferents have not been fully defined. We test the hypothesis that the CART neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) project to the PVT neurons, which in turn communicate via the glutamatergic fibers with the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), the canonical site for reward. Rats conditioned to self-stimulate via an electrode in the right LH-medial forebrain bundle were used...
November 7, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110520/parental-concerns-and-attributions-of-food-pickiness-and-its-consequences-for-the-parent-child-relationship-a-qualitative-analysis
#20
Bérengère Rubio, Natalie Rigal
A qualitative study was conducted to identify how parents describe and attribute their toddler's food pickiness, a common pediatric problem during childhood. Parental strategies to respond to picky behaviors were also explored in this study. Focus groups were used with 38 parents of children aged 18-38 months. Results highlighted several consequences of child pickiness such as parental concerns about child's growth and health, conflicts at mealtime, and feelings of guilt. Parents attributed food pickiness mainly as a manifestation of opposition and assertiveness by their child...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
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