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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938472/dopamine-neuron-restricted-leptin-receptor-lepr-signaling-reduces-some-aspects-of-food-reward-but-exacerbates-the-obesity-of-lepr-deficient-male-mice
#1
Maggie C Evans, Greg M Anderson
The contribution of leptin-induced modulation of dopamine neurons to feeding behavior and energy homeostasis remains unclear. Midbrain dopamine neurons regulate the reward value of food, and direct leptin administration to the midbrain reduces food intake. However, selective deletion of leptin receptors (Lepr) from dopamine neurons has no effect on body weight, food intake or hedonic responses, either suggesting leptin acts indirectly or demonstrating sufficient compensation occurs to mask any direct leptin-dopamine effects...
August 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935479/progressive-ratio-pr-schedules-and-the-sipometer-do-they-measure-wanting-liking-and-or-reward-a-tribute-to-anthony-sclafani-and-karen-ackroff
#2
H R Kissileff, M Herzog
This paper honors the contributions made by Anthony (Tony) Sclafani and Karen Ackroff to both the Columbia University Seminar on Appetitive Behavior and to the field of ingestive behavior in general. We review their use of the progressive ratio (PR) licking paradigm, to determine whether the taste of sucrose, independent of its post-ingestive effects, is always positively reinforcing in animals. They demonstrated a monotonic increase in licking as concentration increased, and obtained results identical to those obtained with a lever-pressing paradigm, but licking was easier and more natural than lever pressing...
September 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933060/the-role-of-brain-in-energy-balance
#3
Paulo Matafome, Raquel Seiça
Energy homeostasis is regulated by homeostatic and nonhomeostatic reward circuits which are closely integrated and interrelated. Before, during, and after meals, peripheral nutritional signals, through hormonal and neuronal pathways, are conveyed to selective brain areas, namely the hypothalamic nuclei and the brainstem, the main brain areas for energy balance regulation. These orexigenic and anorexigenic centers are held responsible for the integration of those signals and for an adequate output to peripheral organs involved in metabolism and energy homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930574/food-addiction-a-common-neurobiological-mechanism-with-drug-abuse
#4
Elsa Lindgren, Kyle Gray, Gregg Miller, Ryan Tyler, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Drugs and food both exert a rewarding effect through the firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, resulting in the release of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens and effects on the mesolimbic pathway. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature to consider the validity of food addiction and the common neurobiological mechanisms that overlap in food and drug addiction. This review paper focuses on findings from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and structural imaging studies, as well as evidence from neuroimaging studies of bariatric surgery and pharmacological interventions on obese individuals...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930284/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-signal-in-food-motivation-and-cognitive-control-pathways-in-overweight-and-obese-men
#5
Franziska Plessow, Dean A Marengi, Sylvia K Perry, Julia M Felicione, Rachel Franklin, Tara M Holmes, Laura M Holsen, Nikolaos Makris, Thilo Deckersbach, Elizabeth A Lawson
Recent research indicates that the hypothalamic neuropeptide hormone oxytocin is a key central nervous system factor in the regulation of food intake and weight. However, the mechanisms underlying the anorexigenic effects of oxytocin in humans are unknown and critical to study in order to consider oxytocin as a neurohormonal weight loss treatment. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with single-dose intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in ten overweight or obese, otherwise healthy men...
September 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929362/brain-reactivity-to-visual-food-stimuli-after-moderate-intensity-exercise-in-children
#6
Travis D Masterson, C Brock Kirwan, Lance E Davidson, Michael J Larson, Kathleen L Keller, S Nicole Fearnbach, Alyssa Evans, James D LeCheminant
Exercise may play a role in moderating eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of exercise on neural responses to visual food stimuli in children ages 8-11 years. We hypothesized that acute exercise would result in reduced activity in reward areas of the brain. Using a randomized cross-over design, 26 healthy weight children completed two separate laboratory conditions (exercise; sedentary). During the exercise condition, each participant completed a 30-min bout of exercise at moderate-intensity (~ 67% HR maximum) on a motor-driven treadmill...
September 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919371/perinatal-deficiency-in-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-potentiates-sucrose-reward-and-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#7
Stéphanie Auguste, Sandeep Sharma, Alexandre Fisette, Caroline Daneault, Christine Des Rosiers, Stephanie Fulton
Insufficient dietary intake of essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3), especially during critical stages of development, is well-associated with negative neurological and metabolic consequences. The increased availability and intake of foods rich in saturated fat coincides with reduced N-3 consumption, yet how N-3 dietary deficiency during perinatal development modulates motivation for palatable food and interacts with a high-fat diet to affect body weight and emotional states is not clear. Pregnant C57Bl6 mice and pups were subjected to diets either deficient or adequate (control) in N-3 until postnatal day 21...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918253/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-elevates-striatal-dopamine-concentration-without-affecting-spontaneous-or-reward-induced-phasic-release
#8
Marianne Klanker, Matthijs Feenstra, Ingo Willuhn, Damiaan Denys
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) induces rapid improvement of depressive symptoms in patients suffering from treatment-refractory major depressive disorder. It has been hypothesized that activation of the dopamine (DA) system contributes to this effect. To investigate whether DBS in the MFB affects DA release in the striatum, we combined DBS with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in freely moving rats. Animals were implanted with a stimulating electrode at the border of the MFB and the ventral tegmental area, and a FSCV microelectrode in the ventromedial striatum to monitor extracellular DA during the acute onset of DBS and subsequent continued stimulation...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915964/decreased-use-of-spatial-pattern-separation-in-contemporary-lifestyles-may-contribute-to-hippocampal-atrophy-and-diminish-mental-health
#9
Lindy Birkel
The spatial pattern separation process has not yet been proposed as a pivotal neural activity affecting hippocampal volume, a metric of mental health. The dentate gyrus/CA3 region is increasingly implicated in hippocampal atrophy, its putative role in spatial pattern separation appears to be impaired in mental health disorders, and performance on a task indicative of pattern separation correlates with dentate gyrus/CA3 volume. Spatial pattern separation is thought to utilize the heightened neural plasticity of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus to distinguish highly similar aspects of scene so that these remain distinct in memory rather than lost...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911135/is-it-me-or-my-hormones-neuroendocrine-activation-profiles-to-visual-food-stimuli-across-the-menstrual-cycle
#10
Yardena Arnoni-Bauer, Atira Bick, Noa Raz, Tal Imbar, Shoshana Amos, Orly Agmon, Limor Marko, Netta Levin, Ram Weiss
Context: Homeostatic energy balance is controlled via the hypothalamus, whereas regions controlling reward and cognitive decision-making are critical for hedonic eating. Eating varies across the menstrual cycle peaking at the midluteal phase. Objective: To test responses of females with regular cycles during midfollicular and midluteal phase and of users of monophasic oral contraception pills (OCPs) to visual food cues. Design: Participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging while exposed to visual food cues in four time points: fasting and fed conditions in midfollicular and midluteal phases...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900415/perinatal-western-diet-consumption-leads-to-profound-plasticity-and-gabaergic-phenotype-changes-within-hypothalamus-and-reward-pathway-from-birth-to-sexual-maturity-in-rat
#11
Julie Paradis, Pierre Boureau, Thomas Moyon, Sophie Nicklaus, Patricia Parnet, Vincent Paillé
Perinatal maternal consumption of energy dense food increases the risk of obesity in children. This is associated with an overconsumption of palatable food that is consumed for its hedonic property. The underlying mechanism that links perinatal maternal diet and offspring preference for fat is still poorly understood. In this study, we aim at studying the influence of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding [western diet (WD)] during gestation and lactation on the reward pathways controlling feeding in the rat offspring from birth to sexual maturity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899646/early-life-adversity-potentiates-expression-of-addiction-related-traits
#12
Tristan J Hynes, Catherine S Thomas, Alicia S Zumbusch, Anna Samson, Ioana Petriman, Una Mrdja, Angelique Orr, Emilie Cutts, Bruce G Ruzindana, Alimohamed Hazari, Margaret Zjadewicz, Vedran Lovic
Many individuals sporadically and circumstantially sample addictive drugs, yet few become addicted. The individual vulnerabilities underlying the development of addiction are not well understood. Correlational findings show that early life adversity is associated with a greater propensity to develop drug addiction. However, the mechanisms by which early life adversity increases addiction vulnerability are unknown. Separate lines of research have found that several traits are associated with addiction. Here, we examined the effects of early life adversity on addiction-related traits in adulthood...
September 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895569/the-effects-of-the-monoamine-stabilizer-osu6162-on-binge-like-eating-and-cue-controlled-food-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#13
K Feltmann, C Giuliano, B J Everitt, P Steensland, J Alsiö
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurring episodes of excessive consumption of palatable food and an increased sensitivity to food cues. Patients with BED display an addiction-like symptomatology and the dopamine system might be a potential treatment target. The clinically safe monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 (OSU6162) restores dopaminergic dysfunction in long-term alcohol drinking rats and shows promise as a novel treatment for alcohol use disorder. Here, the effects of OSU6162 on consummatory (binge-like eating) and appetitive (cue-controlled seeking) behavior motivated by chocolate-flavored sucrose pellets were evaluated in non-food-restricted male Lister Hooded rats...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894566/methyl-jasmonate-induction-of-cotton-a-field-test-of-the-attract-and-reward-strategy-of-conservation-biological-control
#14
Livy Williams, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Sandra C Castle Del Conte
Natural or synthetic elicitors can affect plant physiology by stimulating direct and indirect defence responses to herbivores. For example, increased production of plant secondary metabolites, a direct response, can negatively affect herbivore survival, development and fecundity. Indirect responses include increased emission of plant volatiles that influence herbivore and natural enemy behaviour, and production of extrafloral nectar that serves as a food source for natural enemies after their arrival on induced plants...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894301/lateral-hypothalamic-glp-1-receptors-are-critical-for-the-control-of-food-reinforcement-ingestive-behavior-and-body-weight
#15
L López-Ferreras, J E Richard, E E Noble, K Eerola, R H Anderberg, K Olandersson, L Taing, S E Kanoski, M R Hayes, K P Skibicka
Increased motivation for highly rewarding food is a major contributing factor to obesity. Most of the literature focuses on the mesolimbic nuclei as the core of reward behavior regulation. However, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is also a key reward-control locus in the brain. Here we hypothesize that manipulating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activity selectively in the LH can profoundly affect food reward behavior, ultimately leading to obesity. Progressive ratio operant responding for sucrose was examined in male and female rats, following GLP-1R activation and pharmacological or genetic GLP-1R blockade in the LH...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894291/neural-predictors-of-12-month-weight-loss-outcomes-following-bariatric-surgery
#16
L M Holsen, P Davidson, H Cerit, T Hye, P Moondra, F Haimovici, S Sogg, S Shikora, J M Goldstein, A E Evins, L E Stoeckel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite the effectiveness of bariatric surgery, there is still substantial variability in long-term weight outcomes and few factors with predictive power to explain this variability. Neuroimaging may provide a novel biomarker with utility beyond other commonly used variables in bariatric surgery trials to improve prediction of long-term weight-loss outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on reward and cognitive control circuitry postsurgery and determine the extent to which baseline brain activity predicts weight loss at 12-month postsurgery...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894248/chronic-treatment-with-tempol-during-acquisition-or-withdrawal-from-cpp-abolishes-the-expression-of-cocaine-reward-and-diminishes-oxidative-damage
#17
Tehila Beiser, Ran Numa, Ron Kohen, Rami Yaka
In previous studies, we reported that pretreatment with the antioxidant Tempol attenuated the development and expression of cocaine-induced psychomotor sensitization in rats and diminished cocaine-induced oxidative stress (OS) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), suggesting a potential role for Tempol in interfering with cocaine-related psychomotor sensitization. The aim of the current study was to examine the role of Tempol in reward and reinforcement using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893663/reward-related-decision-making-and-long-term-weight-loss-maintenance
#18
Timo Brockmeyer, Joe J Simon, Alexandra Becker, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: Heightened sensitivity towards reward and insensitivity towards disadvantageous consequences may constitute a driving factor underlying unrestricted food intake and consequent weight gain in people with overweight and obesity. Therefore, the present study applied a behavioral economics approach to investigate the potential contribution of poor reward-related decision making to unsuccessful long-term weight loss maintenance (i.e. weight cycling). Based on previous research, it was expected that successful long-term weight loss maintainers would show a better performance in a gambling task than their less successful counterparts...
September 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893283/perceived-fussy-eating-in-australian-children-at-14%C3%A2-months-of-age-and-subsequent-use-of-maternal-feeding-practices-at-2%C3%A2-years
#19
Rebecca Byrne, Elena Jansen, Lynne Daniels
BACKGROUND: Concerns about fussy eating are common amongst parents of young children. However, studies of the long-term impact of fussy eating show mixed results with regard to adequacy of dietary intake and child growth. This may be in part because there is no accepted definition of fussy eating and studies measure the construct in different ways, commonly relying on parent perception. This longitudinal analysis explores maternal and child characteristics associated with maternal perception of her toddler as a fussy eater in early toddlerhood and subsequent use of feeding practices at 2 years...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888030/increased-sign-tracking-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#20
Nicole E DeAngeli, Sarah B Miller, Heidi C Meyer, David J Bucci
An autoshaping procedure was used to test the notion that conditioned stimuli (CSs) gain greater incentive salience during adolescence than young adulthood under conditions of social isolation rearing and food restriction. Rats were single-housed and placed on food restriction during 10 daily training sessions in which a lever (CS(+) ) was presented then followed immediately by a food unconditioned stimulus (US). A second lever (CS(-) ) was presented on intermixed trials and was not reinforced. Despite the fact that food delivery was not contingent on the rats' behavior, all rats exhibited behaviors directed towards the lever (i...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
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