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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533660/genes-emotions-and-gut-microbiota-the-next-frontier-for-the-gastroenterologist
#1
REVIEW
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman
Most medical specialties including the field of gastroenterology are mainly aimed at treating diseases rather than preventing them. Genomic medicine studies the health/disease process based on the interaction of the human genes with the environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is an ideal model to analyze the interaction between our genes, emotions and the gut microbiota. Based on the current knowledge, this mini-review aims to provide an integrated synopsis of this interaction to achieve a better understanding of the GI disorders related to bad eating habits and stress-related disease...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530679/polymorphisms-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-and-overeating-the-intermediary-role-of-endophenotypic-risk-factors
#2
C Davis, K Patte, C Zai, J L Kennedy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxytocin (OXT) is an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide with strong links to affiliative and prosocial behaviors, and the management of stress. Increases in OXT also tend to decrease food intake, especially of sweet carbohydrates. The social correlates of low OXT levels mesh with the social deficits and stress proneness identified in interpersonal models of overeating, as well as the increased appetite for highly palatable foods typically seen in chronic overeaters...
May 22, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528402/impact-of-brown-rice-specific-%C3%AE-oryzanol-on-epigenetic-modulation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-brain-striatum-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#3
Chisayo Kozuka, Tadashi Kaname, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Chitoshi Takayama, Masato Tsutsui, Masayuki Matsushita, Keiko Abe, Hiroaki Masuzaki
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Overeating of dietary fats causes obesity in humans and rodents. Recent studies in humans and rodents have demonstrated that addiction to fats shares a common mechanism with addiction to alcohol, nicotine and narcotics in terms of a dysfunction of brain reward systems. It has been highlighted that a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) signalling in the striatum, a pivotal regulator of the brain reward system, resulting in hedonic overeating. We previously reported that the brown rice-specific bioactive constituent γ-oryzanol attenuated the preference for an HFD via hypothalamic control...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505470/pilot-test-of-a-novel-food-response-and-attention-training-treatment-for-obesity-brain-imaging-data-suggest-actions-shape-valuation
#4
Eric Stice, Sonja Yokum, Harm Veling, Eva Kemps, Natalia S Lawrence
Elevated brain reward and attention region response, and weaker inhibitory region response to high-calorie food images have been found to predict future weight gain. These findings suggest that an intervention that reduces reward and attention region response and increases inhibitory control region response to such foods might reduce overeating. We conducted a randomized pilot experiment that tested the hypothesis that a multi-faceted food response and attention training with personalized high- and low-calorie food images would produce changes in behavioral and neural responses to food images and body fat compared to a control training with non-food images among community-recruited overweight/obese adults...
April 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497110/accumbal-cholinergic-interneurons-differentially-influence-motivation-related-to-satiety-signaling
#5
Teemu Aitta-Aho, Benjamin U Phillips, Elpiniki Pappa, Y Audrey Hay, Fiona Harnischfeger, Christopher J Heath, Lisa M Saksida, Tim J Bussey, John Apergis-Schoute
Satiety, rather than all or none, can instead be viewed as a cumulative decrease in the drive to eat that develops over the course of a meal. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to play a critical role in this type of value reappraisal, but the underlying circuits that influence such processes are unclear. Although NAc cholinergic interneurons (CINs) comprise only a small proportion of NAc neurons, their local impact on reward-based processes provides a candidate cell population for investigating the neural underpinnings of satiety...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494345/weight-gain-after-stn-dbs-the-role-of-reward-sensitivity-and-impulsivity
#6
Marilena Aiello, Roberto Eleopra, Francesco Foroni, Sara Rinaldo, Raffaella I Rumiati
Weight gain has been reported after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS), a widely used treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). This nucleus has been repeatedly found to be linked both to reward and to inhibitory control, two key aspects in the control of food intake. In this study, we assessed whether weight gain experienced by patients with PD after STN-DBS, might be due to an alteration of reward and inhibitory functions. Eighteen patients with PD were compared to eighteen healthy controls and tested three times: before surgery, in ON medication and after surgery, respectively five days after the implantation in ON medication/OFF stimulation and at least three months after surgery in ON medication/ON stimulation...
April 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488213/multiple-resource-supplements-synergistically-enhance-predatory-mite-populations
#7
Apostolos Pekas, Felix L Wäckers
Many plants offer food rewards such as extrafloral nectar and food bodies, which have been shown to attract and retain entomophagous arthropods. In addition to food rewards, plants may possess structures that serve as shelter and/or oviposition sites for beneficial arthropods, so-called domatia. Acarodomatia are commonly used by beneficial mites for oviposition and protection from intraguild predators and adverse climatic conditions (drought). While in nature these food and shelter traits often occur in combination, they have been largely studied in isolation and we know little about how these traits interact, i...
May 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487246/academic-stress-and-personality-interact-to-increase-the-neural-response-to-high-calorie-food-cues
#8
Selin Neseliler, Beth Tannenbaum, Maria Zacchia, Kevin Larcher, Kirsty Coulter, Marie Lamarche, Errol B Marliss, Jens Pruessner, Alain Dagher
Psychosocial stress is associated with an increased intake of palatable foods and weight gain in stress-reactive individuals. Personality traits have been shown to predict stress-reactivity. However, it is not known if personality traits influence brain activity in regions implicated in appetite control during psychosocial stress. The current study assessed whether Gray's Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) scale, a measure of stress-reactivity, was related to the activity of brain regions implicated in appetite control during a stressful period...
May 6, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487223/obesogenic-diet-intake-during-pregnancy-programs-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-and-addiction-like-behavior-to-a-palatable-food-in-offspring
#9
Alberto Camacho, Larisa Montalvo-Martinez, Robbi E Cardenas-Perez, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Lourdes Garza-Ocañas
Contextual food conditioned behaviors require plasticity of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the reward system, involving changes in the expression of including a-amino-3-hydroxy-5- methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate 2,3 (mGlur 2,3). However, the role of changes in glutamatergic synaptic markers on energy-dense palatable food preference during development has not been described. Here, we determine the effect of nutritional programing during gestation on fat food choices using a conditioned place preference (CPP) test and an operant training response and its effect on glutamatergic markers in the nucleus accumbens (Nac) shell and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487202/thalamic-mast-cell-activity-is-associated-with-sign-tracking-behavior-in-rats
#10
Christopher J Fitzpatrick, Jonathan D Morrow
Mast cells are resident immune cells in the thalamus that can degranulate and release hundreds of signaling molecules (i.e., monoamines, growth factors, and cytokines) both basally and in response to environmental stimuli. Interestingly, mast cell numbers in the brain show immense individual variation in both rodents and humans. We used a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure to examine whether mast cells are associated with individual variation in the attribution of incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues...
May 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486716/pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-of-nicotine-and-food-cues-in-deprived-cigarette-smokers
#11
Heena R Manglani, Andrea H Lewis, Stephen J Wilson, Mauricio R Delgado
Introduction: Smoking-related cues can promote drug-seeking behavior and curtail attempts to quit. One way to understand the potential impact of such cues is to compare cue-elicited behaviors for smoking and other reinforcers (eg, food) using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer paradigm, which measures how much control cues can exert over reward-seeking responses. Methods: We tested the influence of appetitive cues on smokers' behavior following 12 hours of abstinence from smoking and eating...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484375/mechanistic-resolution-required-to-mediate-operant-learned-behaviors-insights-from-neuronal-ensemble-specific-inactivation
#12
Brandon L Warren, Nobuyoshi Suto, Bruce T Hope
Many learned behaviors are directed by complex sets of highly specific stimuli or cues. The neural mechanisms mediating learned associations in these behaviors must be capable of storing complex cue information and distinguishing among different learned associations-we call this general concept "mechanistic resolution". For many years, our understanding of the circuitry of these learned behaviors has been based primarily on inactivation of specific cell types or whole brain areas regardless of which neurons were activated during the cue-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481975/the-leu72met-polymorphism-of-the-prepro-ghrelin-gene-is-associated-with-alcohol-consumption-and-subjective-responses-to-alcohol-preliminary-findings
#13
Petra Suchankova, Jia Yan, Melanie L Schwandt, Bethany L Stangl, Elisabet Jerlhag, Jörgen A Engel, Colin A Hodgkinson, Vijay A Ramchandani, Lorenzo Leggio
Aims: The orexigenic peptide ghrelin may enhance the incentive value of food-, drug- and alcohol-related rewards. Consistent with preclinical findings, human studies indicate a role of ghrelin in alcohol use disorders (AUD). In the present study an a priori hypothesis-driven analysis was conducted to investigate whether a Leu72Met missense polymorphism (rs696217) in the prepro-ghrelin gene (GHRL), is associated with AUD, alcohol consumption and subjective responses to alcohol. Method: Association analysis was performed using the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) clinical sample, comprising AUD individuals and controls (N = 1127)...
May 8, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479142/role-of-addiction-and-stress-neurobiology-on-food-intake-and-obesity
#14
Rajita Sinha
The US remains at the forefront of a global obesity epidemic with a significant negative impact on public health. While it is well known that a balance between energy intake and expenditure is homeostatically regulated to control weight, growing evidence points to multifactorial social, neurobehavioral and metabolic determinants of food intake that influence obesity risk. This review presents factors such as the ubiquitous presence of rewarding foods in the environment and increased salience of such foods that stimulate brain reward motivation and stress circuits to influence eating behaviors...
May 4, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475260/a-focus-on-reward-in-anorexia-nervosa-through-the-lens-of-the-activity-based-anorexia-aba-rodent-model
#15
REVIEW
Claire J Foldi, Laura K Milton, Brian J Oldfield
Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic, unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and tend to avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) model recapitulates many of the pathophysiological and behavioural hallmarks of the human condition, including a reduction in food intake, excessive exercise, dramatic weight loss, loss of reproductive cycles, hypothermia and anhedonia, and therefore allows investigation of the underlying neurobiology of AN...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472677/an-automated-system-for-positive-reinforcement-training-of-group-housed-macaque-monkeys-at-breeding-and-research-facilities
#16
Jennifer Tulip, Jonas B Zimmermann, David Farningham, Andrew Jackson
BACKGROUND: Behavioural training through positive reinforcement techniques is a well-recognised refinement to laboratory animal welfare. Behavioural neuroscience research requires subjects to be trained to perform repetitions of specific behaviours for food/fluid reward. Some animals fail to perform at a sufficient level, limiting the amount of data that can be collected and increasing the number of animals required for each study. NEW METHOD: We have implemented automated positive reinforcement training systems (comprising a button press task with variable levels of difficulty using LED cues and a fluid reward) at the breeding facility and research facility, to compare performance across these different settings, to pre-screen animals for selection and refine training protocols...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469002/neuropeptide-y-alters-vta-dopamine-neuron-activity-through-both-pre-and-post-synaptic-mechanisms
#17
Katherine Stuhrman West, Aaron G Roseberry
The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the brain's reward system, regulates many different behaviors including food intake, food reward, and feeding related behaviors, and there is increasing evidence that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides alter dopamine neuron activity to affect feeding. For example, neuropeptide-Y (NPY), a strong orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, increases motivation for food when injected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). How NPY affects the activity of VTA dopamine neurons to regulate feeding behavior is unknown, however...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466068/brain-stimulation-reward-supports-more-consistent-and-accurate-rodent-decision-making-than-food-reward
#18
Matthew S McMurray, Sineadh M Conway, Jamie D Roitman
Animal models of decision-making rely on an animal's motivation to decide and its ability to detect differences among various alternatives. Food reinforcement, although commonly used, is associated with problematic confounds, especially satiety. Here, we examined the use of brain stimulation reward (BSR) as an alternative reinforcer in rodent models of decision-making and compared it with the effectiveness of sugar pellets. The discriminability of various BSR frequencies was compared to differing numbers of sugar pellets in separate free-choice tasks...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464964/bactrocera-oleae-induced-olive-vocs-routing-mate-searching-in-psyttalia-concolor-males-impact-of-associative-learning
#19
G Giunti, G Benelli, V Palmeri, A Canale
Olfaction is a key sense routing foraging behaviour in parasitoids. Preferences for food, mate and host stimuli can be innate in parasitic wasps. Alternatively, learning-mediated mechanisms play a crucial role. Females of the braconid parasitoid Psyttalia concolor exploit olfactory cues arising from tephritid hosts and related microhabitats. However, little is known on the olfactory stimuli routing males searching for mates. In this study, we focused on the attractiveness of Bactrocera oleae-induced olive volatiles towards P...
May 3, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458022/impaired-prefrontal-cognitive-control-over-interference-by-food-images-in-binge-eating-disorder-and-bulimia-nervosa
#20
Jung Eun Lee, Kee Namkoong, Young-Chul Jung
Binge-eating disorder (BED)characterized by recurrent episodes of binge-eating without inappropriate compensatory behaviors is classified as an official diagnosis in DSM-5. However, the neural bases that differentiate BED from other eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa (BN), are still under debate. Thirty-nine participants (HC, n=14; BN, n=13; BED, n=12) underwent functional MRI while performing a Stroop-Match-to-Sample task. This pilot study investigated how food images interfered with the behavioral performances and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent neuronal activity...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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