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James M Bullock, Dries Bonte, Gesine Pufal, Carolina da Silva Carvalho, Daniel S Chapman, Cristina García, Daniel García, Erik Matthysen, Maria Mar Delgado
Humans fundamentally affect dispersal, directly by transporting individuals and indirectly by altering landscapes and natural vectors. This human-mediated dispersal (HMD) modifies long-distance dispersal, changes dispersal paths, and overall benefits certain species or genotypes while disadvantaging others. HMD is leading to radical changes in the structure and functioning of spatial networks, which are likely to intensify as human activities increase in scope and extent. Here, we provide an overview to guide research into HMD and the resulting rewiring of spatial networks, making predictions about the ecological and evolutionary consequences and how these vary according to spatial scale and the traits of species...
October 9, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Hyunjeong Kim, Jin Young Park, Kwanguk Kenny Kim
OBJECTIVE: A radial arm maze (RAM) is an essential tool for assessing spatial learning and memory. Although this tool is widely used to study deficits in spatial memory in animal models, it has several restrictions that prevent its adaptation to human research and training. Therefore, we developed a head-mounted-display RAM (HMD-RAM) program for humans and verified its validity by comparing it to the results obtained by previous RAM studies. We also compared the HMD and a flat monitor as experimental devices...
October 11, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Hakim Si-Mohammed, Jimmy Petit, Camille Jeunet, Ferran Argelaguet, Fabien Spindler, Andeol Evain, Nicolas Roussel, Gery Casiez, Anatole Lecuyer
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) enable users to interact with computers without any dedicated movement, bringing new hands-free interaction paradigms. In this paper we study the combination of BCI and Augmented Reality (AR). We first tested the feasibility of using BCI in AR settings based on Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays (OST-HMDs). Experimental results showed that a BCI and an OST-HMD equipment (EEG headset and Hololens in our case) are well compatible and that small movements of the head can be tolerated when using the BCI...
October 4, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Michael H Malloy, John P McGovern
Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) offers an illustration of a disease discovered during the lifetime of William Osler and effectively treated in the twentieth century-the perspective that suggests that there was a straightforward progressive identification of the disease process, a discovery of the underlying biochemical agent responsible for the pathophysiology, and the pharmacological refinement of that agent to be used to treat the disease is illusory. By reviewing the timeline from the earliest pathological description of what was to be later termed HMD to the discovery of surfactant and its impact on infant mortality, this narrative will demonstrate how various random historical events served to affect the progress of developing a treatment for HMD; how the marked reduction in deaths due to HMD may have set the stage for unrealistic expectations; and how the humanities have warned us of the potential for excessive optimism in our understanding of nature...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Caleb Liang, Yen-Tung Lee, Wen-Yeo Chen, Hsu-Chia Huang
In a recent study (Chen et al., 2018), we conducted a series of experiments that induced the "four-hand illusion": using a head-mounted display (HMD), the participant adopted the experimenter's first-person perspective (1PP) as if it was his/her own 1PP. The participant saw four hands via the HMD: the experimenter's two hands from the adopted 1PP and the subject's own two hands from the adopted third-person perspective (3PP). In the active four-hand condition, the participant tapped his/her index fingers, imitated by the experimenter...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
José Luis Mosso Vázquez, Dejanira Mosso Lara, José Luis Mosso Lara, Ian Miller, Mark D Wiederhold, Brenda K Wiederhold
Virtual reality (VR) pain distraction has been applied across medical, surgical, and behavioral healthcare domains, marking a shift in pain attenuation practices. However, there is little research that has been performed to compare the efficacy of traditional head-mounted displays (HMDs) versus portable VR devices. The present study evaluated 44 outpatients in need of lipoma resection. Randomized into two groups-HMD versus mobile phone VR-participants navigated pain distraction virtual environments while undergoing surgery...
September 25, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Xianzeng Tong, Kunyang Bao, Peng Hu, Tao Hong, Meng Li, Peng Zhang, Hongqi Zhang
BACKGROUND: No data exist regarding retrieval of displaced or stretched coil extending to the right atrium after endovascular embolization of cerebrovascular diseases. We describe a snare technique for retrieval of a displaced coil extending to the right atrium after embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). METHODS: A 35-year-old female with a DAVF underwent transjugular coil embolization that failed with displaced coil extending to the right atrium at an outside hospital...
September 24, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Haeng-Jin Lee, Seong-Joon Kim
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effectiveness of binocularity-stimulating treatment in children with residual amblyopia following occlusion therapy for more than 6 months. METHODS: Of patients with amblyopia caused by anisometropia and/or strabismus, patients with residual amblyopia following more than 6 months of occlusion therapy were included. Subjects underwent one of the following types of binocularity-stimulating therapy: Bangerter foil (BF), head-mounted display (HMD) game, or BF/HMD combination (BF + HMD)...
September 20, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Daniel M Shafer, Corey P Carbonara, Michael F Korpi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated psychological responses to playing videogames using a virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display (HMD). We also investigated how cybersickness impacts the sense of presence one feels in the virtual environment, as well as how cybersickness affects enjoyment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants played randomly assigned VR games that varied in the level of sensory conflict they provided: "Lucky's Tale," "Elite: Dangerous," and "Minecraft...
September 8, 2018: Games for Health
Felix Bork, Christian Schnelzer, Ulrich Eck, Nassir Navab
Understanding, navigating, and performing goal-oriented actions in Mixed Reality (MR) environments is a challenging task and requires adequate information conveyance about the location of all virtual objects in a scene. Current Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) have a limited field-of-view where augmented objects may be displayed. Furthermore, complex MR environments may be comprised of a large number of objects which can be distributed in the extended surrounding space of the user. This paper presents two novel techniques for visually guiding the attention of users towards out-of-view objects in HMD-based MR: the 3D Radar and the Mirror Ball...
September 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Long Qian, Alexander Plopski, Nassir Navab, Peter Kazanzides
Recent technical advancements support the application of Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays (OST-HMDs) in critical situations like navigation and manufacturing. However, while the form-factor of an OST-HMD occupies less of the user's visual field than in the past, it can still result in critical oversights, e.g., missing a pedestrian while driving a car. In this paper, we design and compare two methods to compensate for the loss of awareness due to the occlusion caused by OST-HMDs. Instead of presenting the occluded content to the user, we detect motion that is not visible to the user and highlight its direction either on the edge of the HMD screen, or by activating LEDs placed in the user's peripheral vision...
September 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Wen-Kai Lin, Osamu Matoba, Bor-Shyh Lin, Wei-Chia Su
In this study, a head-mounted display (HMD) system based on a wedge-shaped holographic waveguide that can present holographic virtual images with tunable distance is achieved. The compact computer-generated-hologram system using a spatial light modulator was employed to offer the dynamic image, where the probe beam for the hologram reconstruction is a convergent wave, and the DC term of the diffraction wave can be blocked by a barrier. The wedge-shaped holographic waveguide element was used as the combiner of the HMD system to generate a compact structure...
September 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Nutkridta Pongsakul, Pasinee Kanaprach, Wararat Chiangjong, Sarayut Supapannachart, Pracha Nuntnarumit, Somchai Chutipongtanate
BACKGROUND: Infant formulas are produced to resemble human milk (HM) and to provide adequate energy and appropriate nutritional components for suitability of infant growth and development, some of which are customized for specific medical conditions. However, it has remained unclear whether formulas contain any biofunctionality equivalent to HM, particularly fetal intestinal cell growth promotion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biofunctionality in HM and various formulas by using an in vitro fetal intestinal cell growth assay...
September 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Rachel Proffitt, Jessica Warren, Belinda Lange, Chien-Yen Chang
This study explored the feasibility and safety of pairing the Microsoft Kinect® sensor with the Oculus Rift® Head Mounted Display (HMD) as a telerehabilitation technology platform for persons post-stroke. To test initial safety, fourteen participants without disabilities (age 30 ± 8.8 years) engaged in a game-based task using the Microsoft Kinect® with a first-person view using the Oculus Rift®. These tasks were repeated for five participants post-stroke (age 56 ± 3.0 years). No significant adverse events occurred in either study population...
2018: International Journal of Telerehabilitation
Mingkai Huang, Qiu Shen, Zhan Ma, Alan C Bovik, Praful Gupta, Rongbing Zhou, Xun Cao
We develop a model that expresses the joint impact of spatial resolution s and JPEG compression quality factor qf on immersive image quality. The model is expressed as the product of optimized exponential functions of these factors. The model is tested on a subjective database of immersive image contents rendered on a head mounted display (HMD). High Pearson correlation and Spearman correlation (> 0.95) and small relative root mean squared error (< 5.6%) are achieved between the model predictions and the subjective quality judgements...
August 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Cecilia W Huo, Prue Hill, Grace Chew, Paul J Neeson, Heloise Halse, Elizabeth D Williams, Michael A Henderson, Erik W Thompson, Kara L Britt
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that increased mammographic density (MD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. We previously observed an elevated number of vimentin+ /CD45+ leukocytes in high MD (HMD) epithelium. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the subtypes of immune cell infiltrates in HMD and low MD (LMD) breast tissue. METHODS: Fifty-four women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre or St...
August 9, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Ming-Long Wu, Jong-Chih Chien, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Jiann-Der Lee
In many surgery assistance systems, cumbersome equipment or complicated algorithms are often introduced to build the whole system. To build a system without cumbersome equipment or complicated algorithms, and to provide physicians the ability to observe the location of the lesion in the course of surgery, an augmented reality approach using an improved alignment method to image-guided surgery (IGS) is proposed. The system uses RGB-Depth sensor in conjunction with the Point Cloud Library (PCL) to build and establish the patient's head surface information, and, through the use of the improved alignment algorithm proposed in this study, the preoperative medical imaging information obtained can be placed in the same world-coordinates system as the patient's head surface information...
August 1, 2018: Sensors
Johanna Roettl, Ralf Terlutter
Video game technology is changing from 2D to 3D and virtual reality (VR) graphics. In this research, we analyze how an identical video game that is either played in a 2D, stereoscopic 3D or Head-Mounted-Display (HMD) VR version is experienced by the players, and how brands that are placed in the video game are affected. The game related variables, which are analyzed, are presence, attitude towards the video game and arousal while playing the video game. Brand placement related variables are attitude towards the placed brands and memory (recall and recognition) for the placed brands...
2018: PloS One
Hui Lin, Tingjuan Ni, Jie Zhang, Liping Meng, Feidan Gao, Sunlei Pan, Hangqi Luo, Fukang Xu, Guomei Ru, Jufang Chi, Hangyuan Guo
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a key role in atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate whether Homocysteine-responsive endoplasmic reticulum protein (Herp) was involved in VSMC phenotypic switching and affected atheroprogression. METHODS: To assess the role of Herp in homocysteine (Hcy)-associated atherosclerosis, Herp-/- and LDLR-/- double knockout mice were generated and fed with a high methionine diet (HMD) to induce Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Ying Xu, Lian Yun Chen, Hai Bo Zhang, Xin Zhao, Yin Sheng Tian, Li Ding
With the development of high-performance fighters, the function of pilot helmets is also constantly upgrading, and helmet-mounted display (HMD) has become a future development trend. To solve the inter-restriction between the eye position control and the pressure comfort under high overloads of pilot helmets, this paper optimizes the helmet design by building a head-helmet finite element model: (1) Under a 10 G overload, the deformation of helmet soft liner should not exceed 2 mm; and (2) The combination of liner materials used in various areas should satisfy the requirements of most comfortable head pressure distribution (Pfront : Ptop : Pside : Pback  = 2:2:1:3)...
May 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
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