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Veronica Chu, Michael D'Zmura
Feature-based attention (FBA) helps one detect objects with a particular color, motion, or orientation. FBA works globally; the attended feature is enhanced at all positions in the visual field. This global property of FBA lets one use stimuli presented in the peripheral visual field to track attention in a task presented centrally. The present study explores the use of SSVEPs, generated by flicker presented peripherally, to track attention in a visual search task presented centrally. We evaluate whether this use of EEG to track FBA is robust enough to track attention when performing visual search within a dynamic 3D environment presented with a head-mounted display (HMD)...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Danilo Avola, Luigi Cinque, Gian Luca Foresti, Marco Raoul Marini
Strokes, surgeries, or degenerative diseases can impair motor abilities and balance. Long-term rehabilitation is often the only way to recover, as completely as possible, these lost skills. To be effective, this type of rehabilitation should follow three main rules. First, rehabilitation exercises should be able to keep patient's motivation high. Second, each exercise should be customizable depending on patient's needs. Third, patient's performance should be evaluated objectively, i.e., by measuring patient's movements with respect to an optimal reference model...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Taichi Ishiguro, Yoshikazu Okada, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Koji Yamaguchi, Akitsugu Kawashima, Takakazu Kawamata
The effects of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) double bypass on recurrent hemorrhage in the operated hemisphere in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease (HMD) have not been clearly demonstrated. This study evaluated the effectiveness of STA-MCA double bypass in the prevention of further hemorrhagic or ischemic events in the operated hemispheric sides in comparison to the conservatively treated non-operated sides. We retrospectively analyzed 52 hemispheres of 36 patients with adult-onset HMD treated with STA-MCA double bypass...
December 3, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
S Moosburner, C Remde, P Tang, M Queisner, N Haep, J Pratschke, I M Sauer
BACKGROUND: Recent developments in the field of augmented reality (AR) have enabled new use cases in surgery. Initial set-up of an appropriate infrastructure for maintaining an AR surgical workflow requires investment in appropriate hardware. METHODS: We compared the usability of the Microsoft HoloLens and Meta 2 head mounted displays (HMDs). Fifteen medicine students tested each device and were questioned with a variant of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Two surgeons independently tested the devices in an intraoperative setting...
November 28, 2018: Artificial Organs
Ehsan Azimi, Alexander Winkler, Emerson Tucker, Long Qian, Jayfus Doswell, Nassir Navab, Peter Kazanzides
One cause of preventable death is a lack of proper skills for providing critical care. The conventional course taught to non-medical individuals involves instructions of advanced emergency procedures routinely limited to a verbal block of instructions in a standardized presentation (for example, an instructional video).In the present study, we evaluate the benefits of using an OST-HMD for training of caregivers in an emergency medical environment. A rich user interface was implemented that provides 3D visual aids including images, text and tracked 3D overlays corresponding to each task that needs to be performed...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Stephan M Gerber, Rene M Muri, Urs P Mosimann, Tobias Nef, Prabitha Urwyler
After severe injury or neurodegenerative disorders patients often experience long-term functional deficits, resulting in a reduction o performance in activities of daily living (ADL). Given their direct relevance to everyday functioning and quality of life, neurorehabilitative programs using simulated ADL's have seen increased interest recently. One of the core elements in simulated ADL's is the interface between the user and the virtual environment, which has a high impact on the therapeutic outcome. The aim of this study was to nalyze the feasibility of a simple virtual ADL (tea preparation task) using two different input devices...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Cheng Qiu, Kassandra R Lee, Jae-Hyun Jung, Robert Goldstein, Eli Peli
Purpose: Efficacy of current visual prostheses in object recognition is limited. Among various limitations to be addressed, such as low resolution and low dynamic range, here we focus on reducing the impact of background clutter on object recognition. We have proposed the use of motion parallax via head-mounted camera lateral scanning and computationally stabilizing the object of interest (OI) to support neural background decluttering. Simulations in head-mounted displays (HMD), mimicking the proposed effect, were used to test object recognition in normally sighted subjects...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
James M Bullock, Dries Bonte, Gesine Pufal, Carolina da Silva Carvalho, Daniel S Chapman, Cristina García, Daniel García, Erik Matthysen, Maria Mar Delgado
Humans fundamentally affect dispersal, directly by transporting individuals and indirectly by altering landscapes and natural vectors. This human-mediated dispersal (HMD) modifies long-distance dispersal, changes dispersal paths, and overall benefits certain species or genotypes while disadvantaging others. HMD is leading to radical changes in the structure and functioning of spatial networks, which are likely to intensify as human activities increase in scope and extent. Here, we provide an overview to guide research into HMD and the resulting rewiring of spatial networks, making predictions about the ecological and evolutionary consequences and how these vary according to spatial scale and the traits of species...
December 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Hyunjeong Kim, Jin Young Park, Kwanguk Kenny Kim
OBJECTIVE: A radial arm maze (RAM) is an essential tool for assessing spatial learning and memory. Although this tool is widely used to study deficits in spatial memory in animal models, it has several restrictions that prevent its adaptation to human research and training. Therefore, we developed a head-mounted-display RAM (HMD-RAM) program for humans and verified its validity by comparing it to the results obtained by previous RAM studies. We also compared the HMD and a flat monitor as experimental devices...
October 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Hakim Si-Mohammed, Jimmy Petit, Camille Jeunet, Ferran Argelaguet, Fabien Spindler, Andeol Evain, Nicolas Roussel, Gery Casiez, Anatole Lecuyer
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) enable users to interact with computers without any dedicated movement, bringing new hands-free interaction paradigms. In this paper we study the combination of BCI and Augmented Reality (AR). We first tested the feasibility of using BCI in AR settings based on Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays (OST-HMDs). Experimental results showed that a BCI and an OST-HMD equipment (EEG headset and Hololens in our case) are well compatible and that small movements of the head can be tolerated when using the BCI...
October 4, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Michael H Malloy, John P McGovern
Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) offers an illustration of a disease discovered during the lifetime of William Osler and effectively treated in the twentieth century-the perspective that suggests that there was a straightforward progressive identification of the disease process, a discovery of the underlying biochemical agent responsible for the pathophysiology, and the pharmacological refinement of that agent to be used to treat the disease is illusory. By reviewing the timeline from the earliest pathological description of what was to be later termed HMD to the discovery of surfactant and its impact on infant mortality, this narrative will demonstrate how various random historical events served to affect the progress of developing a treatment for HMD; how the marked reduction in deaths due to HMD may have set the stage for unrealistic expectations; and how the humanities have warned us of the potential for excessive optimism in our understanding of nature...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Caleb Liang, Yen-Tung Lee, Wen-Yeo Chen, Hsu-Chia Huang
In a recent study (Chen et al., 2018), we conducted a series of experiments that induced the "four-hand illusion": using a head-mounted display (HMD), the participant adopted the experimenter's first-person perspective (1PP) as if it was his/her own 1PP. The participant saw four hands via the HMD: the experimenter's two hands from the adopted 1PP and the subject's own two hands from the adopted third-person perspective (3PP). In the active four-hand condition, the participant tapped his/her index fingers, imitated by the experimenter...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
José Luis Mosso Vázquez, Dejanira Mosso Lara, José Luis Mosso Lara, Ian Miller, Mark D Wiederhold, Brenda K Wiederhold
Virtual reality (VR) pain distraction has been applied across medical, surgical, and behavioral healthcare domains, marking a shift in pain attenuation practices. However, there is little research that has been performed to compare the efficacy of traditional head-mounted displays (HMDs) versus portable VR devices. The present study evaluated 44 outpatients in need of lipoma resection. Randomized into two groups-HMD versus mobile phone VR-participants navigated pain distraction virtual environments while undergoing surgery...
September 25, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Xianzeng Tong, Kunyang Bao, Peng Hu, Tao Hong, Meng Li, Peng Zhang, Hongqi Zhang
BACKGROUND: No data exist regarding retrieval of displaced or stretched coil extending to the right atrium after endovascular embolization of cerebrovascular diseases. We describe a snare technique for retrieval of a displaced coil extending to the right atrium after embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). METHODS: A 35-year-old female with a DAVF underwent transjugular coil embolization that failed with displaced coil extending to the right atrium at an outside hospital...
November 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Haeng-Jin Lee, Seong-Joon Kim
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effectiveness of binocularity-stimulating treatment in children with residual amblyopia following occlusion therapy for more than 6 months. METHODS: Of patients with amblyopia caused by anisometropia and/or strabismus, patients with residual amblyopia following more than 6 months of occlusion therapy were included. Subjects underwent one of the following types of binocularity-stimulating therapy: Bangerter foil (BF), head-mounted display (HMD) game, or BF/HMD combination (BF + HMD)...
September 20, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Daniel M Shafer, Corey P Carbonara, Michael F Korpi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated psychological responses to playing videogames using a virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display (HMD). We also investigated how cybersickness impacts the sense of presence one feels in the virtual environment, as well as how cybersickness affects enjoyment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants played randomly assigned VR games that varied in the level of sensory conflict they provided: "Lucky's Tale," "Elite: Dangerous," and "Minecraft...
September 8, 2018: Games for Health
Felix Bork, Christian Schnelzer, Ulrich Eck, Nassir Navab
Understanding, navigating, and performing goal-oriented actions in Mixed Reality (MR) environments is a challenging task and requires adequate information conveyance about the location of all virtual objects in a scene. Current Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) have a limited field-of-view where augmented objects may be displayed. Furthermore, complex MR environments may be comprised of a large number of objects which can be distributed in the extended surrounding space of the user. This paper presents two novel techniques for visually guiding the attention of users towards out-of-view objects in HMD-based MR: the 3D Radar and the Mirror Ball...
November 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Long Qian, Alexander Plopski, Nassir Navab, Peter Kazanzides
Recent technical advancements support the application of Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays (OST-HMDs) in critical situations like navigation and manufacturing. However, while the form-factor of an OST-HMD occupies less of the user's visual field than in the past, it can still result in critical oversights, e.g., missing a pedestrian while driving a car. In this paper, we design and compare two methods to compensate for the loss of awareness due to the occlusion caused by OST-HMDs. Instead of presenting the occluded content to the user, we detect motion that is not visible to the user and highlight its direction either on the edge of the HMD screen, or by activating LEDs placed in the user's peripheral vision...
November 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Wen-Kai Lin, Osamu Matoba, Bor-Shyh Lin, Wei-Chia Su
In this study, a head-mounted display (HMD) system based on a wedge-shaped holographic waveguide that can present holographic virtual images with tunable distance is achieved. The compact computer-generated-hologram system using a spatial light modulator was employed to offer the dynamic image, where the probe beam for the hologram reconstruction is a convergent wave, and the DC term of the diffraction wave can be blocked by a barrier. The wedge-shaped holographic waveguide element was used as the combiner of the HMD system to generate a compact structure...
September 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Nutkridta Pongsakul, Pasinee Kanaprach, Wararat Chiangjong, Sarayut Supapannachart, Pracha Nuntnarumit, Somchai Chutipongtanate
BACKGROUND: Infant formulas are produced to resemble human milk (HM) and to provide adequate energy and appropriate nutritional components for suitability of infant growth and development, some of which are customized for specific medical conditions. However, it has remained unclear whether formulas contain any biofunctionality equivalent to HM, particularly fetal intestinal cell growth promotion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biofunctionality in HM and various formulas by using an in vitro fetal intestinal cell growth assay...
September 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
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