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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536081/an-experimental-medicine-study-of-the-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-roflumilast-on-working-memory-related-brain-activity-and-episodic-memory-in-schizophrenia-patients
#1
James Gilleen, Yakub Farah, Cate Davison, Sarah Kerins, Lorena Valdearenas, Tolga Uz, Gez Lahu, Max Tsai, Frank Ogrinc, Avi Reichenberg, Steve C Williams, Mitul A Mehta, Sukhi S Shergill
RATIONALE: Schizophrenia is associated with impairments in cognitive functioning yet there are no approved drugs to treat these deficits. OBJECTIVES: Based on animal models, we investigated the potential for roflumilast, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), to improve cognition, which may act by increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate in brain regions underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. METHODS: This study consisted of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design involving 15 schizophrenia patients...
December 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500402/functional-connectivity-of-pag-with-core-limbic-system-and-laryngeal-cortico-motor-structures-during-human-phonation
#2
Jessica Galgano, Spiro Pantazatos, Kachina Allen, Ted Yanagihara, Joy Hirsch
Previous studies in animals and humans suggest the periaqueductal grey region (PAG) is a final integration station between the brain and laryngeal musculature during phonation. To date, a limited number of functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have examined the functional connectivity of the PAG during volitional human phonation. An event-related, stimulus-induced, volitional movement paradigm was used to examine neural activity during sustained vocalization in neurologically healthy adults and was compared to controlled exhalation through the nose...
November 27, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30482786/tau-accumulation-in-clinically-normal-older-adults-is-associated-with-hippocampal-hyperactivity
#3
Willem Huijbers, Aaron P Schultz, Kathryn V Papp, Molly R LaPoint, Bernard Hanseeuw, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Trey Hedden, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Animal studies demonstrate that hyperactive neurons facilitate early accumulation and spread of tau and amyloid-β proteins in the pathological cascade of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Human neuroimaging studies have linked hippocampal hyperactivity to amyloid-β accumulation, apolipoprotein ε4 (APOE4) and clinical progression from prodromal AD to clinical dementia. The relationship between hippocampal hyperactivity and early AD molecular pathology (amyloid-β and tau accumulation) prior to clinical symptoms remains to be elucidated...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30481593/can-we-study-3d-grid-codes-non-invasively-in-the-human-brain-methodological-considerations-and-fmri-findings
#4
Misun Kim, Eleanor A Maguire
Recent human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and animal electrophysiology studies suggest that grid cells in entorhinal cortex are an efficient neural mechanism for encoding knowledge about the world, not only for spatial location but also for more abstract cognitive information. The world, be it physical or abstract, is often high-dimensional, but grid cells have been mainly studied on a simple two-dimensional (2D) plane. Recent theoretical studies have proposed how grid cells encode three-dimensional (3D) physical space, but it is unknown whether grid codes can be examined non-invasively in humans...
November 24, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473198/neuroimaging-applications-in-tourette-s-syndrome
#5
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Yulia Worbe
Tics are neurodevelopmental hyperkinetic symptoms typically associated with unpleasant sensory experiences called premonitory urges. Tourette syndrome (TS) is the primary chronic tic disorder for which medical surveillance is most frequently required, and is associated with a complex phenotypical spectrum encompassing different types of abnormal behaviors. Animal models of tics support their link to phasic activity changes throughout the sensorimotor loop of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical network...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30471149/financial-gain-and-loss-related-bold-signals-in-the-human-ventral-tegmental-area-and-substantia-nigra-pars-compacta
#6
Eve H Limbrick-Oldfield, Robert Leech, Richard J S Wise, Mark A Ungless
Neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) play central roles in reward-related behaviours. Non-human animal studies suggest that these neurons also process aversive events. However, our understanding of how the human VTA and SNC responds to such events is limited and has been hindered by the technical challenge of using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to investigate a small structure where the signal is particularly vulnerable to physiological noise. Here we show, using methods optimised specifically for the midbrain (including high resolution imaging, a novel registration protocol, and physiological noise modelling), a BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) signal to both financial gain and loss in the VTA and SNC, along with a response to nil outcomes that are better or worse than expected in the VTA...
November 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30459391/resolving-laminar-activation-in-human-v1-using-ultra-high-spatial-resolution-fmri-at-7t
#7
Sriranga Kashyap, Dimo Ivanov, Martin Havlicek, Shubharthi Sengupta, Benedikt A Poser, Kâmil Uludağ
The mesoscopic organization of the human neocortex is of great interest for cognitive neuroscience. However, fMRI in humans typically maps the functional units of cognitive processing on a macroscopic level. With the advent of ultra-high field MRI (≥7T), it has become possible to acquire fMRI data with sub-millimetre resolution, enabling probing the laminar and columnar circuitry in humans. Currently, laminar BOLD responses are not directly observed but inferred via data analysis, due to coarse spatial resolution of fMRI (e...
November 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458304/brain-reading-and-behavioral-methods-provide-complementary-perspectives-on-the-representation-of-concepts
#8
Andrew James Bauer, Marcel Adam Just
The advent of brain reading techniques has enabled new approaches to the study of concept representation, based on the analysis of multivoxel activation patterns evoked by the contemplation of individual concepts such as animal concepts. The present fMRI study characterized the representation of 30 animal concepts. Dimensionality reduction of the multivoxel activation patterns underlying the individual animal concepts indicated that the semantic building blocks of the brain's representations of the animals corresponded to intrinsic animal properties (e...
November 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455623/identifying-respiration-related-aliasing-artifacts-in-the-rodent-resting-state-fmri
#9
Patricia Pais-Roldán, Bharat Biswal, Klaus Scheffler, Xin Yu
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) combined with optogenetics and electrophysiological/calcium recordings in animal models is becoming a popular platform to investigate brain dynamics under specific neurological states. Physiological noise originating from the cardiac and respiration signal is the dominant interference in human rs-fMRI and extensive efforts have been made to reduce these artifacts from the human data. In animal fMRI studies, physiological noise sources including the respiratory and cardiorespiratory artifacts to the rs-fMRI signal fluctuation have typically been less investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30451875/human-chemosignals-of-disgust-facilitate-food-judgment
#10
Yan Zheng, Yuqi You, Ana R Farias, Jessica Simon, Gün R Semin, Monique A Smeets, Wen Li
Choosing food is not a trivial decision that people need to make daily, which is often subject to social influences. Here, we studied a human homolog of social transmission of food preference (STFP) as observed in rodents and other animals via chemosignals of body secretions. Human social chemosignals (sweat) produced during a disgust or neutral state among a group of donors were presented to participants undergoing a 2-alternative-forced-choice food healthiness judgment task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
November 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450389/mapping-stress-networks-using-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-awake-animals
#11
REVIEW
David Dopfel, Nanyin Zhang
The neurobiology of stress is studied through behavioral neuroscience, endocrinology, neuronal morphology and neurophysiology. There is a shift in focus toward progressive changes throughout stress paradigms and individual susceptibility to stress that requires methods that allow for longitudinal study design and study of individual differences in stress response. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with the advantages of noninvasiveness and a large field of view, can be used for functionally mapping brain-wide regions and circuits critical to the stress response, making it suitable for longitudinal studies and understanding individual variability of short-term and long-term consequences of stress exposure...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416440/existence-of-initial-dip-for-bci-an-illusion-or-reality
#12
REVIEW
Keum-Shik Hong, Amad Zafar
A tight coupling between the neuronal activity and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) is the motivation of many hemodynamic response (HR)-based neuroimaging modalities. The increase in neuronal activity causes the increase in CBF that is indirectly measured by HR modalities. Upon functional stimulation, the HR is mainly categorized in three durations: (i) initial dip, (ii) conventional HR (i.e., positive increase in HR caused by an increase in the CBF), and (iii) undershoot. The initial dip is a change in oxygenation prior to any subsequent increase in CBF and spatially more specific to the site of neuronal activity...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30369431/adaptive-and-wireless-recordings-of-electrophysiological-signals-during-concurrent-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Ranajay Mandal, Nishant Babaria, Jiayue Cao, Zhongming Liu
Strong electromagnetic fields that occur during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) presents a challenging environment for concurrent electrophysiological recordings. Here, we present a miniaturized, wireless platform - "MR-Link" (Multimodal Recording Link) that provides a hardware solution for simultaneous electrophysiological and fMRI signal acquisition. The device detects the changes in the electromagnetic field during fMRI to synchronize amplification and sampling of electrophysiological signals with minimal artifacts...
October 23, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355629/functional-mri-in-macaque-monkeys-during-task-switching
#14
Elsie Premereur, Peter Janssen, Wim Vanduffel
Non-human primates have proven to be a valuable animal model for exploring neuronal mechanisms of cognitive control. One important aspect of executive control is the ability to switch from one task to another, and task-switching paradigms have often been used in human volunteers to uncover the underlying neuronal processes. To date however, no study has investigated task-switching paradigms in non-human primates during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We trained two rhesus macaques to switch between arm movement, eye movement and passive fixation tasks during fMRI...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30347281/neural-correlates-of-effort-based-valuation-with-prospective-choices
#15
Nadav Aridan, Nicholas J Malecek, Russell A Poldrack, Tom Schonberg
How is effort integrated in value-based decision-making? Animal models and human neuroimaging studies primarily linked the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and ventral striatum (VS) to the integration of effort in valuation. Other studies demonstrated the role of these regions in invigoration to effort demands, thus it is hard to separate the neural activity linked to anticipation and subjective valuation from actual performance. Here, we studied the neural basis of effort valuation separated from performance...
October 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318350/hexadirectional-modulation-of-theta-power-in-human-entorhinal-cortex-during-spatial-navigation
#16
Dong Chen, Lukas Kunz, Wenjing Wang, Hui Zhang, Wen-Xu Wang, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Peter C Reinacher, Wenjing Zhou, Shuli Liang, Nikolai Axmacher, Liang Wang
Grid cells and theta oscillations are fundamental components of the brain's navigation system. Grid cells provide animals [1, 2] and humans [3, 4] with a spatial map of the environment by exhibiting multiple firing fields arranged in a regular grid of equilateral triangles. This unique firing pattern presumably constitutes the neural basis for path integration [5-8] and may also enable navigation in visual and conceptual spaces [9-12]. Theta frequency oscillations are a prominent mesoscopic network phenomenon during navigation in both rodents and humans [13, 14] and encode movement speed [15-17], distance traveled [18], and proximity to spatial boundaries [19]...
October 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311315/the-corticotopic-organization-of-the-human-basal-forebrain-as-revealed-by-regionally-selective-functional-connectivity-profiles
#17
Hans-Christian J Fritz, Nicola Ray, Martin Dyrba, Christian Sorg, Stefan Teipel, Michel J Grothe
The cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF), comprising different groups of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons, plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and has been implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. A distinct corticotopic organization of CBF projections has been revealed in animal studies, but little is known about their organization in the human brain. We explored regional differences in functional connectivity (FC) profiles within the human CBF by applying a clustering approach to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of healthy adult individuals (N = 85; 19-85 years)...
October 11, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308378/effect-of-ghb-use-and-ghb-induced-comas-on-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-functioning-in-humans
#18
Filipa Raposo Pereira, Minni T B McMaster, Nikki Polderman, Yvon D A T de Vries, Wim van den Brink, Guido A van Wingen
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a recreational drug associated with increasing numbers of GHB-dependent patients and emergency attendances often related to GHB-induced comas. Working memory (WM) deficits have been reported in association with GHB use, and animal studies have shown that GHB induces oxidative stress in vulnerable WM-related brain areas such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, the effects of chronic GHB use and multiple GHB-induced comas on WM-related brain function in humans remains unknown...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285103/color-statistics-of-objects-and-color-tuning-of-object-cortex-in-macaque-monkey
#19
Isabelle Rosenthal, Sivalogeswaran Ratnasingam, Theodros Haile, Serena Eastman, Josh Fuller-Deets, Bevil R Conway
We hypothesized that the parts of scenes identified by human observers as "objects" show distinct color properties from backgrounds, and that the brain uses this information towards object recognition. To test this hypothesis, we examined the color statistics of naturally and artificially colored objects and backgrounds in a database of over 20,000 images annotated with object labels. Objects tended to be warmer colored (L-cone response > M-cone response) and more saturated compared to backgrounds...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277629/shifted-balance-of-dorsal-versus-ventral-striatal-communication-with-frontal-reward-and-regulatory-regions-in-cannabis-dependent-males
#20
Feng Zhou, Kaeli Zimmermann, Fei Xin, Dirk Scheele, Wolfgang Dau, Markus Banger, Bernd Weber, René Hurlemann, Keith M Kendrick, Benjamin Becker
The transition from voluntary to addictive behavior is characterized by a loss of regulatory control in favor of reward driven behavior. Animal models indicate that this process is neurally underpinned by a shift in ventral-dorsal striatal control of behavior; however, this shift has not been directly examined in humans. The present resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study employed a two-step approach to: (a) precisely map striatal alterations using a novel, data-driven network classification strategy combining intrinsic connectivity contrast with multivoxel pattern analysis and, (b) to determine whether a ventral to dorsal striatal shift in connectivity with reward and regulatory control regions can be observed in abstinent (28 days) male cannabis-dependent individuals (n = 24) relative to matched controls (n = 28)...
December 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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