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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102436/renal-functional-mri-and-its-application
#1
Jia-Ying Zhou, Yuan-Cheng Wang, Chu-Hui Zeng, Sheng-Hong Ju
Renal function varies according to the nature and stage of diseases. Renal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a technique considered superior to the most common method used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate, allows for noninvasive, accurate measurements of renal structures and functions in both animals and humans. It has become increasingly prevalent in research and clinical applications. In recent years, renal fMRI has developed rapidly with progress in MRI hardware and emerging postprocessing algorithms...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099030/neural-correlates-of-liraglutide-effects-in-persons-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Kathleen T Watson, Tonita E Wroolie, Gabby Tong, Lara C Foland-Ross, Sophia Frangou, Manpreet Singh, Roger McIntyre, Siena Roat-Shumway, Alison Myoraku, Allan L Reiss, Natalie L Rasgon
Insulin resistance (IR) is a metabolic state preceding development of type 2 diabetes (DM2), cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP) agonist, is an insulin-sensitizing agent with neuroprotective properties, as shown in animal studies. The purpose of this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was to examine the neural effects of administration of liraglutide in cognitively normal late middle-aged individuals with subjective cognitive complaints (half of subjects had family history of AD)...
August 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094161/hippocampal-functional-connectivity-is-related-to-self-reported-cognitive-concerns-in-breast-cancer-patients-undergoing-adjuvant-therapy
#3
Alexandra C Apple, Matthew P Schroeder, Anthony J Ryals, Lynne I Wagner, David Cella, Pei-An Shih, James Reilly, Frank J Penedo, Joel L Voss, Lei Wang
Nearly three out of four survivors experience Cancer-Related Cognitive Impairment (CRCI) for months or years following treatment. Both clinical and animal studies point to the hippocampus as a likely brain region affected in CRCI, however no previous study has investigated the functional connectivity of the hippocampus in CRCI. We compared hippocampal connectivity in cancer survivors and healthy controls and tested the relationship between functional connectivity differences and measures of objective and subjective cognition...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072875/the-connectivity-fingerprint-of-the-human-frontal-cortex-subthalamic-nucleus-and-striatum
#4
Bethany R Isaacs, Birte U Forstmann, Yasin Temel, Max C Keuken
Within the cortico basal ganglia (BG)-thalamic network, the direct and indirect pathways comprise of projections from the cortex to the striatum (STR), whereas the hyperdirect pathway(s) consist of cortical projections toward the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Each pathway possesses a functionally distinct role for action selection. The current study quantified and compared the structural connectivity between 17 distinct cortical areas with the STN and STR using 7 Tesla diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) in healthy young subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040200/resting-state-fmri-in-rodents
#5
Wen-Ju Pan, Jacob Billings, Maysam Nezafati, Anzar Abbas, Shella Keilholz
Resting state functional MRI (fMRI) and functional connectivity are widely applied in humans to examine the role of brain networks in normal function and dysfunction. A similar approach can be taken in rodents, either to obtain translational measures in models of brain disorders or to more carefully examine the neurophysiological underpinnings of the networks. A protocol for resting state functional connectivity in the anesthetized rat, from animal setup to data acquisition to possible pipelines for data analysis, is described...
April 2018: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032360/reduced-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-basolateral-amygdala-to-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-preweaning-rats-exposed-to-chronic-early-life-stress
#6
Angela Guadagno, Min Su Kang, Gabriel A Devenyi, Axel P Mathieu, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Mallar Chakravarty, Claire-Dominique Walker
Early-life stress (ELS) exposure has long-term consequences for both brain structure and function and impacts cognitive and emotional behavior. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays an important role in anxiety and fear conditioning through its extensive anatomical and functional connections, in particular to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, how ELS affects amygdala function and connectivity in developing rats is unknown. We used the naturalistic limited bedding/nesting (LB) paradigm to induce chronic stress in the pups between postnatal day (PND) 1-10...
July 21, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030399/face-repetition-probability-does-not-affect-repetition-suppression-in-macaque-inferotemporal-cortex
#7
Kasper Vinken, Hans Op de Beeck, Rufin Vogels
Repetition suppression, which refers to reduced neural activity for repeated stimuli, is typically explained by bottom-up or local adaptation mechanisms. However, recent theories have emphasized the role of top-down processes, suggesting that this response reduction reflects the fulfillment of perceptual expectations. To support this, an influential human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study showed that the magnitude of suppression is modulated by the probability of a repetition. No such repetition probability effect was found in macaque inferior temporal (IT) cortex for spiking activity, despite the presence of repetition suppression...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987025/enhanced-brain-activity-associated-with-memory-access-in-highly-superior-autobiographical-memory
#8
Valerio Santangelo, Clarissa Cavallina, Paola Colucci, Alessia Santori, Simone Macrì, James L McGaugh, Patrizia Campolongo
Brain systems underlying human memory function have been classically investigated studying patients with selective memory impairments. The discovery of rare individuals who have highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) provides, instead, an opportunity to investigate the brain systems underlying enhanced memory. Here, we carried out an fMRI investigation of a group of subjects identified as having HSAM. During fMRI scanning, eight subjects with HSAM and 21 control subjects were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories (AMs) as well as non-AMs (e...
July 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967577/cortical-plasticity-after-surgical-tendon-transfer-in-tetraplegics
#9
Knut Wester, Leiv M Hove, Roger Barndon, Alexander R Craven, Kenneth Hugdahl
Background: Developmental cortical plasticity with reorganization of cerebral cortex, has been known to occur in young and adult animals after permanent, restricted elimination of afferent (visual or somatosensory) input. In animals, cortical representation of unaffected muscles or sensory areas has been shown to invade the neighboring cortex when this is deprived of its normal sensory input or motor functions. Some studies indicate that similar cortical plasticity may take place in adult humans. Methods : In patients with a high cervical spinal cord injury leaving the patient without any movements of the fingers, we performed fMRI studies of the cortical representation of an elbow flexor muscle before and after a surgical procedure that changed its function to a thumb flexor, thus providing the patient with a useful grip...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966850/adverse-effects-of-ghb-induced-coma-on-long-term-memory-and-related-brain-function
#10
Filipa Raposo Pereira, Minni T B McMaster, Nikki Polderman, Yvon D A T de Vries, Wim van den Brink, Guido A van Wingen
BACKGROUND: Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a drug of abuse associated with increasing numbers of GHB-dependent patients and emergency attendances often related to GHB-induced coma. Animal studies suggest that GHB induces oxidative stress in the hippocampus, resulting in memory impairments. However, the consequences of chronic GHB use and GHB-induced coma on human brain function and cognition are unknown. METHODS: We recruited 27 GHB users with ≥4 GHB-induced comas (GHB-Coma), 27 GHB users without a coma (GHB-NoComa), and 27 polydrug users who never used GHB (No-GHB)...
June 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966815/hearing-and-orally-mimicking-different-acoustic-semantic-categories-of-natural-sound-engage-distinct-left-hemisphere-cortical-regions
#11
James W Lewis, Magenta J Silberman, Jeremy J Donai, Chris A Frum, Julie A Brefczynski-Lewis
Oral mimicry is thought to represent an essential process for the neurodevelopment of spoken language systems in infants, the evolution of language in hominins, and a process that could possibly aid recovery in stroke patients. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we previously reported a divergence of auditory cortical pathways mediating perception of specific categories of natural sounds. However, it remained unclear if or how this fundamental sensory organization by the brain might relate to motor output, such as sound mimicry...
August 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959970/oxytocinergic-modulation-of-brain-activation-to-cues-related-to-reproduction-and-attachment-differences-and-commonalities-during-the-perception-of-erotic-and-fearful-social-scenes
#12
Carina Sauer, Christian Montag, Martin Reuter, Peter Kirsch
In animal research, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been known for its role in reproduction and attachment for a longer time. There is strong evidence for an involvement of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system for these effects of OT. In contrast, human research rather concentrated on more human concepts of social cognition and behavior (e.g. trust or processing of fearful faces) and mainly focused on the amygdala as the main neurobiological substrate. To extend this view, we wanted to gain more insight into the neurobiological effects of OT in the context of reproduction and attachment in humans and compare these effects to its well-known effects on fear processing...
June 28, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959234/neural-computations-underlying-causal-structure-learning
#13
Momchil S Tomov, Hayley M Dorfman, Samuel J Gershman
Behavioral evidence suggests that beliefs about causal structure constrain associative learning, determining which stimuli can enter into association, as well as the functional form of that association. Bayesian learning theory provides one mechanism by which structural beliefs can be acquired from experience, but the neural basis of this mechanism is poorly understood. We studied this question with a combination of behavioral, computational and neuroimaging techniques. Male and female human subjects learned to predict an outcome based on cue and context stimuli, while being scanned using functional MRI...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947037/animacy-and-real-world-size-shape-object-representations-in-the-human-medial-temporal-lobes
#14
Anna Blumenthal, Bobby Stojanoski, Chris B Martin, Rhodri Cusack, Stefan Köhler
Identifying what an object is, and whether an object has been encountered before, is a crucial aspect of human behavior. Despite this importance, we do not yet have a complete understanding of the neural basis of these abilities. Investigations into the neural organization of human object representations have revealed category specific organization in the ventral visual stream in perceptual tasks. Interestingly, these categories fall within broader domains of organization, with reported distinctions between animate, inanimate large, and inanimate small objects...
June 26, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940339/dissociating-frequency-and-animacy-effects-in-visual-word-processing-an-fmri-study
#15
Melissa M Rundle, Donna Coch, Andrew C Connolly, Richard H Granger
In an fMRI investigation of the neural representation of word frequency and animacy, participants read high- and low-frequency words within living and nonliving semantic categories. Both temporal (left fusiform gyrus) and parietal (left supramarginal gyrus) activation patterns differentiated between animal and tool words after controlling for frequency. Activation patterns in a smaller ventral temporal region, a subset of the voxels identified in the animacy contrast, differentiated between high- and low-frequency words after controlling for animacy...
August 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913745/review-of-neuroimaging-studies-related-to-pain-modulation
#16
Lone Knudsen, Gitte Laue Petersen, Kathrine Næsted Nørskov, Lene Vase, Nanna Finnerup, Troels Staehelin Jensen, Peter Svensson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A noxious stimulus does not necessarily cause pain. Nociceptive signals arising from a noxious stimulus are subject to modulation via endogenous inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms as they travel from the periphery to the dorsal horn or brainstem and on to higher brain sites. Research on the neural structures underlying endogenous pain modulation has largely been restricted to animal research due to the invasiveness of such studies (e.g., spinal cord transection, brain lesioning, brain site stimulation)...
July 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912298/cocaine-decreases-spontaneous-neuronal-activity-and-increases-low-frequency-neuronal-and-hemodynamic-cortical-oscillations
#17
Wei Chen, Nora D Volkow, James Li, Yingtian Pan, Congwu Du
Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in hemodynamics assessed by fMRI reflect synchronized neuronal activities and are the basis for mapping brain function and its disruption by drugs and disease. Here we assess if cocaine disrupts coupling between neuronal and vascular LFOs by simultaneously measuring cortical field potentials (FP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) regarding their LFOs (0-1 Hz) spectral bandwidths in the somatosensory cortex of naïve and chronic cocaine-exposed rats at baseline and during cocaine intoxication...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903532/muscleless-motor-synergies-and-actions-without-movements-from-motor-neuroscience-to-cognitive-robotics
#18
REVIEW
Vishwanathan Mohan, Ajaz Bhat, Pietro Morasso
Emerging trends in neurosciences are providing converging evidence that cortical networks in predominantly motor areas are activated in several contexts related to 'action' that do not cause any overt movement. Indeed for any complex body, human or embodied robot inhabiting unstructured environments, the dual processes of shaping motor output during action execution and providing the self with information related to feasibility, consequence and understanding of potential actions (of oneself/others) must seamlessly alternate during goal-oriented behaviors, social interactions...
April 27, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902585/elucidating-relations-between-fmri-ecog-and-eeg-through-a-common-natural-stimulus
#19
Stefan Haufe, Paul DeGuzman, Simon Henin, Michael Arcaro, Christopher J Honey, Uri Hasson, Lucas C Parra
Human brain mapping relies heavily on fMRI, ECoG and EEG, which capture different physiological signals. Relationships between these signals have been established in the context of specific tasks or during resting state, often using spatially confined concurrent recordings in animals. But it is not certain whether these correlations generalize to other contexts relevant for human cognitive neuroscience. Here, we address the case of complex naturalistic stimuli and ask two basic questions. First, how reliable are the responses evoked by a naturalistic audio-visual stimulus in each of these imaging methods, and second, how similar are stimulus-related responses across methods? To this end, we investigated a wide range of brain regions and frequency bands...
October 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901747/fast-compensatory-functional-network-changes-caused-by-reversible-inactivation-of-monkey-parietal-cortex
#20
Puiu F Balan, Annelies Gerits, Qi Zhu, Hauke Kolster, Guy A Orban, Claire Wardak, Wim Vanduffel
The brain has a remarkable capacity to recover after lesions. However, little is known about compensatory neural adaptations at the systems level. We addressed this question by investigating behavioral and (correlated) functional changes throughout the cortex that are induced by focal, reversible inactivations. Specifically, monkeys performed a demanding covert spatial attention task while the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) was inactivated with muscimol and whole-brain fMRI activity was recorded. The inactivation caused LIP-specific decreases in task-related fMRI activity...
June 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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