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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318350/hexadirectional-modulation-of-theta-power-in-human-entorhinal-cortex-during-spatial-navigation
#1
Dong Chen, Lukas Kunz, Wenjing Wang, Hui Zhang, Wen-Xu Wang, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Peter C Reinacher, Wenjing Zhou, Shuli Liang, Nikolai Axmacher, Liang Wang
Grid cells and theta oscillations are fundamental components of the brain's navigation system. Grid cells provide animals [1, 2] and humans [3, 4] with a spatial map of the environment by exhibiting multiple firing fields arranged in a regular grid of equilateral triangles. This unique firing pattern presumably constitutes the neural basis for path integration [5-8] and may also enable navigation in visual and conceptual spaces [9-12]. Theta frequency oscillations are a prominent mesoscopic network phenomenon during navigation in both rodents and humans [13, 14] and encode movement speed [15-17], distance traveled [18], and proximity to spatial boundaries [19]...
September 14, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311315/the-corticotopic-organization-of-the-human-basal-forebrain-as-revealed-by-regionally-selective-functional-connectivity-profiles
#2
Hans-Christian J Fritz, Nicola Ray, Martin Dyrba, Christian Sorg, Stefan Teipel, Michel J Grothe
The cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF), comprising different groups of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons, plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and has been implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. A distinct corticotopic organization of CBF projections has been revealed in animal studies, but little is known about their organization in the human brain. We explored regional differences in functional connectivity (FC) profiles within the human CBF by applying a clustering approach to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of healthy adult individuals (N = 85; 19-85 years)...
October 11, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308378/effect-of-ghb-use-and-ghb-induced-comas-on-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-functioning-in-humans
#3
Filipa Raposo Pereira, Minni T B McMaster, Nikki Polderman, Yvon D A T de Vries, Wim van den Brink, Guido A van Wingen
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a recreational drug associated with increasing numbers of GHB-dependent patients and emergency attendances often related to GHB-induced comas. Working memory (WM) deficits have been reported in association with GHB use, and animal studies have shown that GHB induces oxidative stress in vulnerable WM-related brain areas such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, the effects of chronic GHB use and multiple GHB-induced comas on WM-related brain function in humans remains unknown...
September 26, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285103/color-statistics-of-objects-and-color-tuning-of-object-cortex-in-macaque-monkey
#4
Isabelle Rosenthal, Sivalogeswaran Ratnasingam, Theodros Haile, Serena Eastman, Josh Fuller-Deets, Bevil R Conway
We hypothesized that the parts of scenes identified by human observers as "objects" show distinct color properties from backgrounds, and that the brain uses this information towards object recognition. To test this hypothesis, we examined the color statistics of naturally and artificially colored objects and backgrounds in a database of over 20,000 images annotated with object labels. Objects tended to be warmer colored (L-cone response > M-cone response) and more saturated compared to backgrounds...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277629/shifted-balance-of-dorsal-versus-ventral-striatal-communication-with-frontal-reward-and-regulatory-regions-in-cannabis-dependent-males
#5
Feng Zhou, Kaeli Zimmermann, Fei Xin, Dirk Scheele, Wolfgang Dau, Markus Banger, Bernd Weber, René Hurlemann, Keith M Kendrick, Benjamin Becker
The transition from voluntary to addictive behavior is characterized by a loss of regulatory control in favor of reward driven behavior. Animal models indicate that this process is neurally underpinned by a shift in ventral-dorsal striatal control of behavior; however, this shift has not been directly examined in humans. The present resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study employed a two-step approach to: (a) precisely map striatal alterations using a novel, data-driven network classification strategy combining intrinsic connectivity contrast with multivoxel pattern analysis and, (b) to determine whether a ventral to dorsal striatal shift in connectivity with reward and regulatory control regions can be observed in abstinent (28 days) male cannabis-dependent individuals (n = 24) relative to matched controls (n = 28)...
September 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266264/oxytocin-differentially-modulates-specific-dorsal-and-ventral-striatal-functional-connections-with-frontal-and-cerebellar-regions
#6
Zhiying Zhao, Xiaole Ma, Yayuan Geng, Weihua Zhao, Feng Zhou, Jiaojian Wang, Sebastian Markett, Bharat B Biswal, Yina Ma, Keith M Kendrick, Benjamin Becker
Interactions between oxytocin and the basal ganglia are central in current overarching conceptualizations of its broad modulatory effects on behavior. Whereas evidence from animal models emphasizes the critical role of the ventral striatum in the behavioral effects of oxytocin, region-specific contributions of the basal ganglia have not been systematically explored in humans. The present study combined the randomized placebo-controlled administration of oxytocin versus placebo in healthy men (n = 144) with fMRI-based resting-state functional connectivity to determine the modulatory role of oxytocin on the major basal ganglia pathways...
September 25, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30249790/representation-of-real-world-event-schemas-during-narrative-perception
#7
Christopher Baldassano, Uri Hasson, Kenneth A Norman
Understanding movies and stories requires maintaining a high-level situation model that abstracts away from perceptual details to describe the location, characters, actions, and causal relationships of the currently unfolding event. These models are built not only from information present in the current narrative, but also from prior knowledge about schematic event scripts, which describe typical event sequences encountered throughout a lifetime. We analyzed fMRI data from 44 human subjects (male and female) presented with sixteen three-minute stories, consisting of four schematic events drawn from two different scripts (eating at a restaurant or going through the airport)...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240308/subgoal-and-goal-related-reward-prediction-errors-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#8
José J F Ribas-Fernandes, Danesh Shahnazian, Clay B Holroyd, Matthew M Botvinick
A longstanding view of the organization of human and animal behavior holds that behavior is hierarchically organized, in other words, directed toward achieving superordinate goals through the achievement of subordinate goals or subgoals. However, most research in neuroscience has focused on tasks without hierarchical structure. In past work, we have shown that negative reward prediction error (RPE) signals in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) can be linked not only to superordinate goals but also to subgoals...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30235321/thought-experiment-decoding-cognitive-processes-from-the-fmri-data-of-one-individual
#9
Martin Wegrzyn, Joana Aust, Larissa Barnstorf, Magdalena Gippert, Mareike Harms, Antonia Hautum, Shanna Heidel, Friederike Herold, Sarah M Hommel, Anna-Katharina Knigge, Dominik Neu, Diana Peters, Marius Schaefer, Julia Schneider, Ria Vormbrock, Sabrina M Zimmer, Friedrich G Woermann, Kirsten Labudda
Cognitive processes, such as the generation of language, can be mapped onto the brain using fMRI. These maps can in turn be used for decoding the respective processes from the brain activation patterns. Given individual variations in brain anatomy and organization, analyzes on the level of the single person are important to improve our understanding of how cognitive processes correspond to patterns of brain activity. They also allow to advance clinical applications of fMRI, because in the clinical setting making diagnoses for single cases is imperative...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232039/improved-methods-for-mri-compatible-implants-in-nonhuman-primates
#10
Michael Ortiz-Rios, Marcus Haag, Fabien Balezeau, Stephen Frey, Alex Thiele, Kathy Murphy, Michael Christoph Schmid
BACKGROUND: Neuroscientists commonly use permanently implanted headposts to stabilize the head of nonhuman primates (NHPs) during electrophysiology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Here, we present improved methodology for MRI-compatible implants without the use of acrylic for head stabilization in NHPs. NEW METHOD: MRI is used to obtain a 3D-reconstruction of NHP skulls, which are used to create customized implants by modeling intersections with the bone...
September 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218841/functional-reorganisation-and-recovery-following-cortical-lesions-a-preliminary-study-in-macaque-monkeys
#11
Matthew Ainsworth, Helen Browncross, Daniel J Mitchell, Anna S Mitchell, Richard E Passingham, Mark J Buckley, John Duncan, Andrew H Bell
Damage following traumatic brain injury or stroke can often extend beyond the boundaries of the initial insult and can lead to maladaptive cortical reorganisation. On the other hand, beneficial cortical reorganisation leading to recovery of function can also occur. We used resting state FMRI to investigate how cortical networks in the macaque brain change across time in response to lesions to the prefrontal cortex, and how this reorganisation correlated with changes in behavioural performance in cognitive tasks...
October 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217543/shared-understanding-of-narratives-is-correlated-with-shared-neural-responses
#12
Mai Nguyen, Tamara Vanderwal, Uri Hasson
Humans have a striking ability to infer meaning from even the sparsest and most abstract forms of narratives. At the same time, flexibility in the form of a narrative is matched by inherent ambiguity in its interpretation. How does the brain represent subtle, idiosyncratic differences in the interpretation of abstract and ambiguous narratives? In this fMRI study, subjects were scanned either watching a novel 7-min animation depicting a complex narrative through the movement of geometric shapes, or listening to a narration of the animation's social story...
September 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185539/evaluating-the-columnar-stability-of-acoustic-processing-in-the-human-auditory-cortex
#13
Michelle Moerel, Federico De Martino, Kâmil Uğurbil, Elia Formisano, Essa Yacoub
Using ultra-high field fMRI, we explored the cortical depth-dependent stability of acoustic feature preference in human auditory cortex. We collected responses from human auditory cortex (subjects from either sex) to a large number of natural sounds at submillimeter spatial resolution, and observed that these responses were well explained by a model that assumes neuronal population tuning to frequency-specific spectrotemporal modulations. We observed a relatively stable (columnar) tuning to frequency and temporal modulations...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177870/awake-rat-brain-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-using-standard-radio-frequency-coils-and-a-3d-printed-restraint-kit
#14
Petteri Stenroos, Jaakko Paasonen, Raimo A Salo, Kimmo Jokivarsi, Artem Shatillo, Heikki Tanila, Olli Gröhn
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful noninvasive tool for studying spontaneous resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in laboratory animals. Brain function can be significantly affected by generally used anesthetics, however, rendering the need for awake imaging. Only a few different awake animal habituation protocols have been presented, and there is a critical need for practical and improved low-stress techniques. Here we demonstrate a novel restraint approach for awake rat RSFC studies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170151/creatures-great-and-small-real-world-size-of-animals-predicts-visual-cortex-representations-beyond-taxonomic-category
#15
Marc N Coutanche, Griffin E Koch
Human occipitotemporal cortex contains neural representations for a variety of perceptual and conceptual features. We report a study examining neural representations of real-world size along the visual ventral stream, while carefully accounting for taxonomic categories that typically co-vary with size. We recorded brain activity during a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan from eighteen participants as they were presented with images of twelve animal species. The animals were selected to vary on a number of dimensions, including taxonomic group, real-world size and prior familiarity...
August 29, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169751/large-scale-organization-of-the-hand-action-observation-network-in-individuals-born-without-hands
#16
Gilles Vannuscorps, Moritz F Wurm, Ella Striem-Amit, Alfonso Caramazza
The human high-level visual cortex comprises regions specialized for the processing of distinct types of stimuli, such as objects, animals, and human actions. How does this specialization emerge? Here, we investigated the role of effector-specific visuomotor coupling experience in shaping the organization of the action observation network (AON) as a window on this question. Observed body movements are frequently coupled with corresponding motor codes, e.g., during monitoring one's own movements and imitation, resulting in bidirectionally connected circuits between areas involved in body movements observation (e...
August 28, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149140/local-temporal-variability-reflects-functional-integration-in-the-human-brain
#17
Douglas D Garrett, Samira M Epp, Alistair Perry, Ulman Lindenberger
Local moment-to-moment variability exists at every level of neural organization, but its driving forces remain opaque. Inspired by animal work demonstrating that local temporal variability may reflect synaptic input rather than locally-generated "noise," we used publicly-available high-temporal-resolution fMRI data (N = 100 adults; 33 males) to test in humans whether greater BOLD signal variability in local brain regions was associated with functional integration (estimated via spatiotemporal PCA dimensionality)...
August 24, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148747/neural-correlates-of-giving-social-support-differences-between-giving-targeted-versus-untargeted-support
#18
Tristen K Inagaki, Lauren P Ross
OBJECTIVE: Giving support contributes to the link between social ties and health; however, the neural mechanisms are not known. Giving support in humans may rely on neural regions implicated in parental care in animals. The current studies, therefore, assess the contribution of parental care-related neural regions to giving support in humans and, as a further theoretical test, examine whether the benefits of giving targeted support to single, identifiable individuals in need extend to giving untargeted support to larger societal causes...
October 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30140206/fmri-based-brain-responses-to-quinine-and-sucrose-gustatory-stimulation-for-nutrition-research-in-the-minipig-model-a-proof-of-concept-study
#19
Nicolas Coquery, Paul Meurice, Régis Janvier, Eric Bobillier, Stéphane Quellec, Minghai Fu, Eugeni Roura, Hervé Saint-Jalmes, David Val-Laillet
The minipig model is of high interest for brain research in nutrition and associated pathologies considering the similarities to human nutritional physiology, brain structures, and functions. In the context of a gustatory stimulation paradigm, fMRI can provide crucial information about the sensory, cognitive, and hedonic integration of exteroceptive stimuli in healthy and pathological nutritional conditions. Our aims were (i) to validate the experimental setup, i.e., fMRI acquisition and SPM-based statistical analysis, with a visual stimulation; (ii) to implement the fMRI procedure in order to map the brain responses to different gustatory stimulations, i...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128276/aberrant-patterns-of-neural-activity-when-perceiving-emotion-from-biological-motion-in-schizophrenia
#20
Amy M Jimenez, Junghee Lee, Eric A Reavis, Jonathan K Wynn, Michael F Green
Social perceptual deficits in schizophrenia are well established. Recent work suggests that the ability to extract social information from bodily cues is reduced in patients. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this deficit. In the current study, 20 schizophrenia patients and 16 controls completed two tasks using point-light animations during fMRI: a basic biological motion task and an emotion in biological motion task. The basic biological motion task was used to localize activity in posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a critical region for biological motion perception...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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