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Cancer pathways

Zhi Liu, Yang Zhong, Yu Jian Chen, Hui Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer with high mortality. Identifying key molecules involved in the regulation of HCC development is of great clinical significance. SOX11 is a transcription factor belonging to group C of Sry-related HMG box family whose abnormal expression is frequently seen in many kinds of human cancers. Here, we reported that the expression of SOX11 was decreased in human HCC tumors than that in matched normal tissues. Overexpression of SOX11 promoted growth inhibition and apoptosis in HCC cell line HuH-7...
December 5, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Dongyang Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Zengjun Li, Jianjun Han, Yongsheng Gao, Ming Chen, Yanqing Li
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) promotes tumor growth in various types of cancer, but its function has not been investigated in the context of colorectal adenoma. Here, we report that FGF19 expression was greater in colorectal adenoma than in normal tissues, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry. FGF19 expression was also elevated in a subset of human colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4), the cognate receptor for FGF19, was upregulated in colorectal adenoma tissues...
December 5, 2018: Digestive Diseases
Wenyi Gu, Surong Sun, Andrew Kahn, Dalton Dacus, Sebastian O Wendel, Nigel McMillan, Nicholas A Wallace
High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the causative agent in virtually every cervical cancer as well as a host of other anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies. These viruses must activate DNA repair pathways to facilitate their replication, while avoiding the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis that can accompany DNA damage. HPV oncoproteins facilitate each of these goals, but also reduce genome stability. Our data dissect the cytotoxic and cytoprotective characteristics of HPV oncogenes in cervical cancer cells...
December 2, 2018: Gene
Lijun Zhao, Jianzhong Cao, Kexin Hu, Penghui Wang, Guodong Li, Xiaodong He, Tanjun Tong, Limin Han
Although several studies indicate that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) contribute to key steps in a variety of physiological processes and cancer, the detailed biological functions and mechanisms remain to be determined. By performing bioinformatics analysis using well-established hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) datasets, we identified a set of HCC progression-associated RBPs (HPARBPs) and found that the global expression of HPARBPs was significantly correlated with patient prognosis. Among the 42 HPARBPs, human ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3) was one of the most abundant genes whose role remains uncharacterized in HCC...
December 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Sae Hwang Han, Kyungmin Kim, Jeffrey A Burr
Background and Study Objectives: Intimate partners and close friends represent two major sources of social support that are central to one's health and health behaviors in later life. The aim of this study was to examine dyadic linkages between perceived social support (from spouses and friends) and preventive healthcare behaviors among coupled-individuals. Design and Methods: Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study (2010, 2012) were used to analyze a sample of coupled-individuals (dyad N = 1,902)...
December 5, 2018: Gerontologist
Shahid Hussain, Sonal Saxena, Sameer Shrivastava, Ashok Kumar Mohanty, Sudarshan Kumar, Rajkumar James Singh, Abhinav Kumar, Sajad Ahmad Wani, Ravi Kumar Gandham, Naveen Kumar, Anil Kumar Sharma, Ashok Kumar Tiwari, Raj Kumar Singh
Spontaneously occurring canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms of unspayed female dogs leading to thrice higher mortality rates than human breast cancer. These are also attractive models for human breast cancer studies owing to clinical and molecular similarities. Thus, they are important candidates for biomarker studies and understanding cancer pathobiology. The study was designed to explore underlying molecular networks and pathways in CMTs for deciphering new prognostic factors and therapeutic targets...
2018: PloS One
Midori Maeda, Taisuke Kojima, Yang Song, Shuichi Takayama
Man-made DNA materials hold the potential to modulate specific immune pathways toward immunoactivating or immunosuppressive cascades. DNA-based biomaterials introduce DNA into the extracellular environment during implantation or delivery, and subsequently intracellularly upon phagocytosis or degradation of the material. Therefore, the immunogenic functionality of biological and synthetic extracellular DNA should be considered to achieve desired immune responses. In vivo, extracellular DNA from both endogenous and exogenous sources holds immunoactivating functions which can be traced back to the molecular features of DNA, such as sequence and length...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Bornita Das, Dona Sinha
Globally, non-small cell lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality and about 40% of these cancers are detected in the metastatic stage. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role during malignant transformation, and the extracellular matrix component, fibronectin (FN), is a known inducer of invasion and metastasis. Diallyl disulphide (DADS), a bioactive component of garlic, exhibits a wide spectrum of biological activities including the inhibition of cancer cell migration and invasion...
December 5, 2018: Food & Function
Zhongyu Wang, Qian Song, Zuyi Yang, Jianing Chen, Jun Shang, Wen Ju
The kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP) is a relatively rare type of kidney cancer. There has been no investigation to find a robust signature to predict the survival outcome of KIRP patients in the aspect of tumor immunology. In this study, 285 KIRP samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were randomly divided into training and testing set. A total of 1534 immune-related genes from The Immunology Database and Analysis Portal (ImmPort) were used as candidates to construct the signature. Using univariate Cox analysis, we evaluated the relationship between overall survival and immune-related genes expression and found 272 immune-related genes with predicting prognostic ability...
December 5, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Mengyuan Cen, Yinan Yao, Luyun Cui, Guangdie Yang, Guohua Lu, Liangjie Fang, Zhang Bao, Jianying Zhou
Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for a considerable proportion of lung cancer cases, but there is still a lack of effective therapies. FGFR1 amplification is generally considered a promising therapeutic target. Honokiol is a chemical compound that has been proven to be effective against various malignancies and whose analog has been reported to target the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, members of a downstream signaling pathway of FGFR1. This was an explorative study to determine the mechanism of honokiol in lung SCC...
December 5, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Biao Geng, Manman Liang, Lilong Qin, Wenying Zhao, Hanli Wang, Lijing Wang, Xianhui Pan, Xingwu Chen
Lung cancer (LC) is a devastating malignancy with no effective treatments, due to its complex genomic profile. Using bioinformatics analysis and immunohistochemical of lung carcinoma tissues, we show that TRIM59 as a critical oncoprotein relating to LC proliferation and metastasis. In this study, high TRIM59 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and tumour stage. Furthermore, up-regulation of TRIM59 expression correlated with poorer outcomes in LC patients. Mechanistically, TRIM59 play a key role in promoting LC growth and metastasis through regulation of extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK) signalling pathway and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-markers, as validated by loss-of-function studies...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Ping Zhang, Yang Zhang, Kuikui Liu, Bin Liu, Wenping Xu, Jufang Gao, Lei Ding, Liming Tao
OBJECTIVES: The aim of study was to investigate the anticancer activities of Ivermectin (IVM) and the possible mechanisms in cells level via cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis and migration inhibition in model cancer cell HeLa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MTT assay was used to study the inhibitory effect of IVM on the proliferation of Hela cells, and the cell cycle was analysed by flow cytometry. The neutral comet assay was used to study the DNA damage. The presence of apoptosis was confirmed by DAPI nuclear staining and flow cytometry...
December 4, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Jianan Yang, Bin Wang, Han Chen, Xuhong Chen, Jing Li, Yanfei Chen, Daozhang Yuan, Shunsheng Zheng
OBJECTIVES: Thyrotroph embryonic factor (TEF) plays an important role in several different processes in normal human cells; however, its function in malignant cells has not been fully elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA levels of TEF in 408 bladder cancer (BC) samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were analysed in depth. Next, the expression of TEF in 7 BC cell lines was compared to that in normal bladder epithelial cells. The cell count, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth assays as well as a nude mouse xenograft model were utilized to examine the effects of TEF on proliferation and tumorigenesis...
December 4, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Sahar S Bhat, Roshia Ali, Firdous A Khanday
Syntrophins are a family of 59 kDa peripheral membrane-associated adapter proteins, containing multiple protein-protein and protein-lipid interaction domains. The syntrophin family consists of five isoforms that exhibit specific tissue distribution, distinct sub-cellular localization and unique expression patterns implying their diverse functional roles. These syntrophin isoforms form multiple functional protein complexes and ensure proper localization of signalling proteins and their binding partners to specific membrane domains and provide appropriate spatiotemporal regulation of signalling pathways...
December 4, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Palaniraja Subramamiam, Chandrasekaran Ramasubbu, Selvaraj Athiramu, Sivakumar Arumugam, Manikandan Alagumuthu
Amide substituted (Z)-β-enaminones were synthesized by green chemistry and stereo-specific synthetic pathway as novel phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and breast cancer drugs. PI3K inhibition was measured by competitive ELISA. A panel of cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (breast cancer), G-361 (skin cancer), and HCT 116 (colon cancer) were used to assess the anticancer potentials. In the PI3K assay, 2c and 2f were indolent for the proposed inhibitory action, which was recognized from the obtained IC50 (>1...
December 5, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
Reyhaneh Moradi-Marjaneh, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Mehraneh Mehramiz, Majid Rezayi, Gordon A Ferns, Majid Khazaei, Amir Avan
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by mitochondria during metabolism. In physiological states, the production of ROS and their elimination by antioxidants are kept in balance. However, in pathological states, elevated levels of ROS interact with susceptible cellular target compounds including lipids, proteins, and DNA and deregulate oncogenic signaling pathways that are involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis. Although antioxidant compounds have been successfully used in the treatment of CRC as prevention approaches, they have also been shown in some cases to promote disease progression...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Qiushuang Ji, Shuai Guo, Xuzhao Wang, Chunli Pang, Yong Zhan, Yafei Chen, Hailong An
TMEM16A (also known as anoctamin 1, ANO1) is the molecular basis of the calcium-activated chloride channels, with ten transmembrane segments. Recently, atomic structures of the transmembrane domains of mouse TMEM16A (mTMEM16A) were determined by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. This gives us a solid ground to discuss the electrophysiological properties and functions of TMEM16A. TMEM16A is reported to be dually regulated by Ca2+ and voltage. In addition, the dysfunction of TMEM16A has been found to be involved in many diseases including cystic fibrosis, various cancers, hypertension, and gastrointestinal motility disorders...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ali Mahdi, Behrad Darvishi, Keivan Majidzadeh-A, Malihe Salehi, Leila Farahmand
It is now fully recognized that along with multiple physiological functions, angiogenesis is also involved in the fundamental process and pathobiology of several disorders including cancer. Recent studies have fully established the role of angiogenesis in cancer progression as well as invasion and metastasis. Consequently, many therapeutic agents such as monoclonal antibodies targeting angiogenesis pathway have been introduced in clinic with the hope for improving the outcomes of cancer therapy. Bevacizumab (Avastin®) was the first anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) targeting monoclonal antibody developed with this purpose and soon received its accelerated US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer in 2008...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Pouria Samadi, Saeid Afshar, Razieh Amini, Rezvan Najafi, Ali Mahdavinezhad, Abdolazim Sedighi Pashaki, Mohammad Hadi Gholami, Massoud Saidijam
Abnormal expression of various microRNAs (miRNAs), as regulators of biological signaling pathways, has a strong association with cancer resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The let-7 family of miRNAs as tumor suppressors have shown to be downregulated in different types of human malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the biological function of let-7 members in the processes of resistance to radiation in CRC has not yet been completely elucidated. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway is amplified in CRC and leads to its progression, development, and also radiation resistance...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Moran Amit, Shorook Na'ara, Eran Friedman, Euvgeni Vladovski, Tanya Wasserman, Neta Milman, Ziv Gil
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains a deadly disease, affecting about 40,000 individuals in the United States annually. We aimed to characterize the role of RET as a co-driver of pancreas tumorigenesis. To assess the role of RET as a co-driver of PDA; we generated a novel triple mutant transgenic mouse based on the cre-activated p53-R172H gene and a constitutively active RETM919T mutant (PRC). Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Study of human PDA specimens and Pdx-1-Cre/KrasG12D /p53R172H (KPC) mice revealed that RET is upregulated during pancreas tumorigenesis, from inception through precursor lesions, to invasive cancer...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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