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Food rules

Hari Krishna Ananthula, Scott Parker, Erin Touchette, R Mark Buller, Gopi Patel, Daniel Kalman, Johanna S Salzer, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Victoria Olson, Inger K Damon, Tessa Moir-Savitz, Larry Sallans, Milton H Werner, Catherine M Sherwin, Pankaj B Desai
BACKGROUND: Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) developed as anti-cancer drugs, also have anti-viral activity due to their ability to disrupt productive replication and dissemination in infected cells. Consequently, such drugs are attractive candidates for "repurposing" as anti-viral agents. However, clinical evaluation of therapeutics against infectious agents associated with high mortality, but low or infrequent incidence, is often unfeasible. The United States Food and Drug Administration formulated the "Animal Rule" to facilitate use of validated animal models for conducting anti-viral efficacy studies...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Sarah B Perl, Thomas G Merrill, Wilfredo Lopez, Mary T Bassett
We explore how a 1987 New York State court decision-Boreali v. Axelrod-affected public health rule-making nationally and, with considerable impact, locally in New York City (NYC). We discuss the history of the origin of the NYC Board of Health (BOH), and establish that legislatures can be challenging venues in which to enact public health-related laws. We describe how, as the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene began to tackle modern public health problems (e.g., chronic diseases caused by food and tobacco), the regulatory power of its BOH was challenged...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Nicole Martin, Charlene Bridges, Julii S Brainard, Xia Wang, Tracey J Brown, Sarah Hanson, Oluseyi F Jimoh, Sarah M Ajabnoor, Katherine Ho Deane, Fujian Song, Lee Hooper
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the health effects of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is equivocal. Fish oils are rich in omega-3 PUFA and plant oils in omega-6 PUFA. Evidence suggests that increasing PUFA-rich foods, supplements or supplemented foods can reduce serum cholesterol, but may increase body weight, so overall cardiovascular effects are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing total PUFA intake on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, lipids and adiposity in adults...
November 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tanja Legenbauer, Anne Kathrin Radix, Nick Augustat, Sabine Schütt-Strömel
Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by marked cognitive distortions and maladaptive schemas. Cognitive models of EDs highlight the direct impact of cognitive dysfunctions on eating-related disturbances, insofar as specific cognitive contents such as thoughts about diet rules and food or loss of control may trigger disturbed eating behavior. Moreover, early maladaptive schemas that reflect perfectionist standards and relate to achievement and performance seem to be associated with disturbed eating, e.g...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Razieh Azari, Marziyeh Khalilizadeh Ganjalikhani, Anahita Amirshoja'i
Background: Patient information leaflet (PIL) which accompanies medicinal products and informs patients about dosage, side effects, etc., is known as a tool which empowers patients to be more involved in making decisions related to their medications and health. In recent years, policy makers have paid much attention to PIL and its lay-friendliness i.e. being clear,explicit, and easy to read and understand. In various countries, PIL is known as a legal genre and must be prepared in understandable language. The present study aimed to situate PIL within its institutional context and investigate the importance is given to the lay-friendliness of PIL in Iran...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Viktoriya Lipovaya, Francisco Duarte, Pascal Béguin
BACKGROUND: Work activity integrates the tasks to be performed, the means of work available, the instructions, the rules to be observed, the particular factors related to the individuals (skills, inner state), and the effects both on the task and on the operator. By analyzing the activity, the different logics and conflicts in the design of production systems are revealed. OBJECTIVE: To show how the work activity can support the transformation of the working conditions, when revealed by an ergonomic intervention, by integrating the different design standpoints, which are always present in the project's work situations...
November 23, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Deodatta S Gajbhiye, Lidita Khandeparker
Understanding the variability in organism's immunological response is crucial for predicting changes at population or community level. The present study investigated the immunoecology of a commercially valuable clam Paphia malabarica in a tropical monsoon-influenced estuary. Clams were collected monthly during a year cycle, which coincided with pre-monsoon (February-May), monsoon (June-September) and post-monsoon seasons (October-January). For assessment of immune functioning, selected hemocyte parameters (total hemocyte concentration, hemocyte mortality, lysosomal content, esterase activity, reactive oxygen species production, and phagocytic activity) were analyzed using flow cytometry...
November 12, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Delfino Vubil, Sozinho Acácio, Llorenç Quintò, Clara Ballesté-Delpierre, Tacilta Nhampossa, Karen Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Pedro Alonso, James P Nataro, Tamer H Farag, Jordi Vila, Inacio Mandomando
Objectives: During the period from December 2007 to November 2012, the epidemiology of diarrhea caused by Shigella was studied among children <5 years of age residing in Manhiça District, Southern Mozambique. Materials and methods: Children from 0 to 5 years with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and less severe diarrhea (LSD) were enrolled along with matched controls (by age, gender, and neighborhood). Age-stratified logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify clinical features and risk factors associated with Shigella positivity in cases of diarrhea...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Venu Menon, A Michael Lincoff, Stephen J Nicholls, Susan Jasper, Kathy Wolski, Darren K McGuire, Cyrus R Mehta, Julio Rosenstock, Claudia Lopez, John Marcinak, Charlie Cao, Steven E Nissen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiovascular (CV) safety of fasiglifam, a first-in-man G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) agonist, in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A phase 3 multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled two-arm trial was intended to randomize 5,000 participants with type 2 diabetes at high CV risk to fasiglifam or placebo. The primary objective of the trial was to rule out an upper noninferiority bound >1...
December 2018: Diabetes Care
Brian K Chen, Y Tony Yang, Charles L Bennett
Biologics and biosimilars are medicines made from living cells that treat common and serious diseases such as cancer, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases. They are highly targeted, efficacious, and represent an increasingly important part of physicians' armamentaria in the combat against these medical conditions. Yet they are extremely expensive, costing on average $10,000-$30,000 per year and exceed $500,000 for the most expensive biologics. The advent of biosimilar drugs, or high similar copies of biologics, was supposed to help reduce costs, but thus far the cost of treatment with biologics or biosimilars has not fallen sharply in the USA...
November 16, 2018: Drugs
Sanjeewa R Karunathilaka, Samantha Farris, Magdi M Mossoba
The ruling that partially hydrogenated oils (PHO) are no longer "generally recognized as safe (GRAS)," has accelerated the replacement of PHO ingredients with fat alternatives having increasingly lower or no trans fat content. In the present study, we developed a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic procedure in conjunction with multivariate partial least squares regression (PLSR) and found it suitable for the accurate prediction of low (0.5%) total trans fat content, as percentage of total fat, measured as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), in the lipids extracted from 24 representative fast foods...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Jessica S Jewell, Vania D Duncan, Arriyam Fesshaye, Abigail Tondin, Evangeline Macadat, Richard A Britten
On future missions into deep space, astronauts will be required to work more autonomously than on previous missions, and thus their ability to perform executive functions could be critical to mission success. In this study, we determined the effect that ≤15 cGy of 600 MeV/n 56 Fe particles has on attentional set-shifting (ATSET) performance of ∼10 month-old-rats (at the time of irradiation) male Wistar rats that had been prescreened for their ability to perform the task. Exposure to 1-15 cGy of 56 Fe particles leads to a significant impairment in compound discrimination (CD) performance...
November 8, 2018: Radiation Research
Marco Springmann, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Sherman Robinson, Keith Wiebe, H Charles J Godfray, Mike Rayner, Peter Scarborough
BACKGROUND: The consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with increased mortality from chronic diseases, and as a result, it has been classified by the World Health Organization as carcinogenic (processed meat) and probably carcinogenic (red meat) to humans. One policy response is to regulate red and processed meat consumption similar to other carcinogens and foods of public health concerns. Here we describe a market-based approach of taxing red and processed meat according to its health impacts...
2018: PloS One
Xiaosheng Zhang, Wenxing Niu, Yingjing Dai, Hong Xu, Jinxiang Dong
Lubricating technologies are essential for saving energy and identifying effective, environmentally friendly layered materials that meet the demands of solid lubricants is an important direction. Herein, we probed the relationships between load-carrying capacity and crystal structure. The results showed that increasing the sliding resistance of interlayers using corrugated layers increased the load-carrying capacity of layered solid lubricants. This finding expands on the traditional lubrication mechanism of layered materials...
November 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rachel L Denlinger-Apte, Jennifer W Tidey, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Tracy T Smith, Lauren R Pacek, F Joseph McClernon, Eric C Donny
BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration recently issued an advanced notice of proposed rule-making for reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes to a minimally addictive level. Very little is known about whether use of very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes affects support for a nicotine reduction policy. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of using VLNC versus usual brand (UB) cigarettes on support for a nicotine reduction policy and determined whether participant characteristics and responses to VLNC cigarettes were associated with policy support...
November 1, 2018: Tobacco Control
J Noetel, V L S Freitas, E E N Macau, L Schimansky-Geier
We extend a recently introduced prototypical stochastic model describing uniformly the search and return of objects looking for new food sources around a given home. The model describes the kinematic motion of the object with constant speed in two dimensions. The angular dynamics is driven by noise and describes a "pursuit" and "escape" behavior of the heading and the position vectors. Pursuit behavior ensures the return to the home and the escaping between the two vectors realizes exploration of space in the vicinity of the given home...
October 2018: Chaos
Lucie Zinger, Pierre Taberlet, Heidy Schimann, Aurélie Bonin, Frédéric Boyer, Marta De Barba, Philippe Gaucher, Ludovic Gielly, Charline Giguet-Covex, Amaia Iribar, Maxime Réjou-Méchain, Gilles Rayé, Delphine Rioux, Vincent Schilling, Blaise Tymen, Jérôme Viers, Cyril Zouiten, Wilfried Thuiller, Eric Coissac, Jérôme Chave
Tropical forests shelter an unparalleled biological diversity. The relative influence of environmental selection (i.e., abiotic conditions, biotic interactions) and stochastic-distance-dependent neutral processes (i.e., demography, dispersal) in shaping communities has been extensively studied for various organisms, but has rarely been explored across a large range of body sizes, in particular in soil environments. We built a detailed census of the whole soil biota in a 12-ha tropical forest plot using soil DNA metabarcoding...
October 29, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Sophie Nicklaus, Amandine Divaret-Chauveau, Marie-Laure Chardon, Caroline Roduit, Vincent Kaulek, Eléa Ksiazek, Marie-Laure Dalphin, Anne M Karvonen, Pirkka Kirjavainen, Juha Pekkanen, Roger Lauener, Elisabeth Schmausser-Hechfellner, Harald Renz, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Josef Riedler, Dominique A Vuitton, Erika Von Mutius, Jean-Charles Dalphin
BACKGROUND: The effect of exposure to micro-organisms on allergic diseases has been well studied. The protective effect of early food diversity against allergic diseases was previously shown in the PASTURE cohort study. The consumption of cheese, a food potentially rich in microbial diversity, deserves further examination. We aimed to evaluate whether cheese consumption is associated with allergic diseases. METHODS: In the PASTURE study (birth cohort in 5 European countries), data on feeding practices, environmental factors and allergic diseases were collected by questionnaires from birth to 6 years (N=931)...
October 28, 2018: Allergy
Brenda Marrero-Rosado, Marcio de Araujo Furtado, Caroline R Schultz, Michael Stone, Erica Kundrick, Katie Walker, Sean O'Brien, Fu Du, Lucille A Lumley
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs), such as soman (GD), can induce status epilepticus (SE) that becomes refractory to benzodiazepines when treatment is delayed, leading to increased risk of epileptogenesis, severe neuropathology, and long-term behavioral and cognitive deficits. Rodent models, widely used to evaluate novel medical countermeasures (MCMs) against CWNA exposure, normally express plasma carboxylesterase, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of certain organophosphorus compounds...
October 25, 2018: Epilepsia
Mathias Lillig
Conduct disorder is a psychiatric syndrome that most commonly occurs in childhood and adolescence. It is characterized by symptoms of aggression toward people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. Risk factors include male sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, poverty in childhood, exposure to physical or sexual abuse or domestic violence, and parental substance use disorders or criminal behavior. At least three symptoms should have been present in the past 12 months, with at least one present in the past six months to diagnose conduct disorder...
November 15, 2018: American Family Physician
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