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Food rules

Stephanie Posten, Tonya Adamiak, Melissa Jensen
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated esophageal inflammatory disease that is becoming more widely recognized as a cause of feeding difficulties in infants and young children, as well as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-like symptoms, dysphagia, and food impaction in children and adolescents. The diagnosis of EoE is clinicopathologic, based on endoscopic, histologic, and clinical findings. Patients with suspected eosinophilic esophagitis require an endoscopy with biopsies. The diagnosis requires the presence of 15 or more intraepithelial eosinophils/HPF in at least one endoscopic esophageal mucosal biopsy...
August 2018: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Xueli Wang, Moqin Zhou, Jinzhu Jia, Zhi Geng, Gexin Xiao
Foodborne diseases have a big impact on public health and are often underreported. This is because a lot of patients delay treatment when they suffer from foodborne diseases. In Hunan Province (China), a total of 21,226 confirmed foodborne disease cases were reported from 1 March 2015 to 28 February 2016 by the Foodborne Surveillance Database (FSD) of the China National Centre for Food Safety Risk Assessment (CFSA). The purpose of this study was to make use of the daily number of visiting patients to forecast the daily true number of patients...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jeffrey I Weitz, Karen M Earl, Kori Leblanc, William Semchuk, Fakhreddin Jamali
Dabigatran is widely used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran is no longer patent-protected in Canada and 2 generic formulations were recently approved by Health Canada. Branded dabigatran uses a complex formulation to maintain the acidic microenvironment required for maximal absorption. Consequently, food does not influence its bioavailability and the efficacy and safety of dabigatran are similar with or without concomitant intake of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Unfortunately, current bioequivalence criteria do not mandate testing of the generic formulations with food or with concomitant intake of PPIs; thus, the only data available for the approved generic products are in fasted, healthy volunteers...
June 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
P M Kasi
Telotristat ethyl (Xermelo), developed by Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, is an oral tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor blocking peripheral conversion of tryptophan to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]). It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in February 2017 and by the European Commission in September 2017 for patients with carcinoid syndrome in whom diarrhea is not adequately controlled by somatostatin analogues (SSAs). Diarrhea, secondary to the release of serotonin, is the predominant gastrointestinal symptom in patients with carcinoid syndrome and has a significant impact on patients' quality of life...
July 2018: Drugs of Today
Albrecht P A Vorster, Jan Born
Sleep enhances memory consolidation which has been shown in mammals as well as in invertebrates, like bees and Drosophila. The current study is part of a series of experiments examining whether this memory function of sleep is preserved in Aplysia with an even simpler nervous system. Previous work showed that Aplysia sleep and that sleep after training supports memory on an inhibitory conditioning task ('learning that food is inedible', LFI). Here, we tested whether sleep in Aplysia would also support memory for an extinction learning on the LFI task...
August 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Vibha Ahuja
In India, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the products thereof are regulated under the "Rules for the manufacture, use, import, export & storage of hazardous microorganisms, genetically engineered organisms or cells, 1989" (referred to as Rules, 1989) notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. These Rules are implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Department of Biotechnology and State Governments though six competent authorities. The Rules, 1989 are supported by series of guidelines on contained research, biologics, confined field trials, food safety assessment, environmental risk assessment etc...
2018: BMC Proceedings
Véronique Sirot, Thiema Traore, Thierry Guerin, Laurent Noël, Morgane Bachelot, Jean-Pierre Cravedi, André Mazur, Philippe Glorennec, Paule Vasseur, Julien Jean, Géraldine Carne, Sébastien Gorecki, Gilles Riviere, Marion Hulin
A total diet study (TDS) was conducted between 2010 and 2016 to assess the risk associated with chemicals in food of non-breast-fed children under three living in France. 291 composite food samples were prepared "as consumed" and analyzed for 16 trace elements: aluminium (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), tellurium (Te), tin (Sn), vanadium (V). Dietary exposure was assessed for 705 representative children using food consumptions recorded through a 3-consecutive-days record...
August 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sana Chams, Skye El Sayegh, Mulham Hamdon, Sarwan Kumar, Vesna Tegeltija
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas that varies in severity from mild to life threatening usually requiring hospitalization. The true incidence of drug-induced pancreatitis (DIP) is indeterminate due to the inadequate documentation of case reports of DIP. Here we present the case of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pancreatitis in a previously healthy male after excluding all other causes of pancreatitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old Caucasian man presenting for acute sharp abdominal pain with associated nausea and heaves...
August 2, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Taren Swindle, Josh Phelps
BACKGROUND: Early childhood educators have the potential to influence children's dietary outcomes through daily interactions. However, existing research suggests that educator practices are often suboptimal. Previous research has often focused on individual characteristics that affect practices. There is less study of contextual influences of practices of early childhood educators. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to understand and describe contextual factors evident in narratives of early childhood educators influencing mealtime and nutrition promotion practices...
July 28, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Sundararaj Vijayan, Burt P Kotler, Lotan Tamar Tov-Elem, William A Mitchell, Zvika Abramsky
Food resources can occur heterogeneously in space or time and differ in their abundances. A forager should be able to determine the value of a patch and choose optimally how to exploit it. However, patch choice and exploitation may be influenced by predation risk. Using the Giving up Densities (GUDs) technique, we evaluated goldfish patch assessment and choice in a binary patch choice experiment. We offered a pair of unequal food patches containing high and low food quantity. We quantified goldfish foraging behavior in the presence and absence of a predator...
July 26, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Sanjeewa R Karunathilaka, Samantha Farris, Magdi M Mossoba
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ruled that partially hydrogenated oils (PHO), the major dietary source of industrially produced trans fat (TF), were no longer "generally recognized as safe (GRAS)" for any use in human food. Consequently, the objective of this study was to develop a rapid screening procedure using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with partial least squares regression (PLSR) for the quantitative and accurate prediction of low concentrations of trans fatty acid (TFAs) (<1% of total fatty acids (FAs))...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Nolwenn Fresneau, Arne Iserbyt, Carsten Lucass, Wendt Müller
It is commonly observed in many bird species that dependent offspring vigorously solicit for food transfers provided by their parents. However, the likelihood of receiving food does not only depend on the parental response, but also on the degree of sibling competition, at least in species where parents raise several offspring simultaneously. To date, little is known about whether and how individual offspring adjusts its begging strategy according to the entwined effects of need, state and competitive ability of itself and its siblings...
2018: PeerJ
Drew C Schreiner, Christina M Gremel
Animals face the dilemma between exploiting known opportunities and exploring new ones, a decision-making process supported by cortical circuits. While different types of learning may bias exploration, the circumstances and the degree to which bias occurs is unclear. We used an instrumental lever press task in mice to examine whether learned rules generalize to exploratory situations and the cortical circuits involved. We first trained mice to press one lever for food and subsequently assessed how that learning influenced pressing of a second novel lever...
July 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alán Alpár, Tibor Harkany
The mammalian hypothalamus contains an astounding heterogeneity of neurons to achieve its role in coordinating central responses to virtually any environmental stressor over the life-span of an individual. Therefore, while core features of intrahypothalamic neuronal modalities and wiring patterns are stable during vertebrate evolution, integration of the hypothalamus into hierarchical brain-wide networks evolved to coordinate its output with emotionality, cognition and conscious decision-making. The advent of single-cell technologies represents a recent milestone in the study of hypothalamic organization by allowing the dissection of cellular heterogeneity and establishing causality between opto- and chemogenetic activity modulation of molecularly-resolved neuronal contingents and specific behaviors...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, Agency, or we) is issuing a final rule to classify blood establishment computer software (BECS) and BECS accessories (regulated under product code MMH) into class II (special controls). FDA has identified special controls for BECS and BECS accessories that are necessary to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness. FDA is also giving notice that the Agency does not intend to exempt BECS and BECS accessories from premarket notification requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act)...
May 18, 2018: Federal Register
Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Nicole Martin, Charlene Bridges, Julii S Brainard, Xia Wang, Tracey J Brown, Sarah Hanson, Oluseyi F Jimoh, Sarah M Ajabnoor, Katherine Ho Deane, Fujian Song, Lee Hooper
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the health effects of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is equivocal. Fish oils are rich in omega-3 PUFA and plant oils in omega-6 PUFA. Evidence suggests that increasing PUFA-rich foods, supplements or supplemented foods can reduce serum cholesterol, but may increase body weight, so overall cardiovascular effects are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing total PUFA intake on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, lipids and adiposity in adults...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Zoë A Ginsburg, Alexander D Bryan, Ellen B Rubinstein, Hilary J Frankel, Andrew R Maroko, Clyde B Schechter, Kristen Cooksey Stowers, Sean C Lucan
For individuals who are food insecure, food pantries can be a vital resource to improve access to adequate food. Access to adequate food may be conceptualized within five dimensions: availability (item variety), accessibility (e.g., hours of operation), accommodation (e.g., cultural sensitivity), affordability (costs, monetary or otherwise), and acceptability (e.g., as related to quality). This study examined the five dimensions of access in a convenience sample of 50 food pantries in the Bronx, NY. The design was cross-sectional...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Vivienne X Guan, Yasmine C Probst, Elizabeth P Neale, Marijka J Batterham, Linda C Tapsell
Understanding food choices made for meals in overweight and obese individuals may aid strategies for weight loss tailored to their eating habits. However, limited studies have explored food choices at meal occasions. The aim of this study was to identify the usual food choices for meals of overweight and obese volunteers for a weight-loss trial. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using screening diet history data from a 12-month weight-loss trial (the HealthTrack study). A descriptive data mining tool, the Apriori algorithm of association rules, was applied to identify food choices at meal occasions using a nested hierarchical food group classification system...
August 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Cristina R Fernández, Maiko Yomogida, Yumiko Aratani, Diana Hernández
OBJECTIVE: To examine dual food and energy hardship and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in 9 year-old children. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a prospective national urban birth cohort, when the children were 9 years-old. Maternal reported "food hardship" (ever hungry and/or ever received free food) and "energy hardship" (ever unable to pay utility bill and/or utility shut-off) within the past year, and child behavior using the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18 years were assessed...
July 11, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Santiago Ugidos-Rodríguez, María Cruz Matallana-González, María Cortes Sánchez-Mata
Food lactose and lactose intolerance are today hot topics in the field of food and nutrition. About 70% of the adult world population is lactose-intolerant, due to low levels of intestinal lactase, also called lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), a β-d-galactosidase found in the apical surface of the intestinal microvilli. This may be due to the loss of intestinal lactase in adulthood, a condition transmitted by an autosomal recessive gene, which differs in humans according to race. According to the cultural-historical hypothesis, the mutation that allows the metabolization of lactose appeared about 10 000 years ago in the inhabitants of Northern Europe where mammalian milk continued in the diet after weaning, and lactase-persistent populations were genetically selected in some areas...
July 12, 2018: Food & Function
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