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Food rules

Anitha Swamy, Ratnakar Gogineni, Animesh Ray, Milind Jha, Smita Manchanda, Sudheer Arava, Rakesh Kumar, Kiran Kumar Dvs, Harsh Sahu, Piyush Ranjan, Ranveer S Jadon, Naval K Vikram, Rita Sood
A 56 year old lady, presented to our institute with six months history of low grade fever, generalized weakness, decreased food intake and fluctuating sensorium. Initial investigations revealed hypercalcemia, renal dysfunction and anemia. Initial working diagnosis of likely underlying hematological malignancy such as lymphoma or multiple myeloma (MM) was kept after hyperparathyroidism was ruled out. Her skeletal survey revealed lytic lesions in the skull, bone marrow aspirate showed 12% plasma cells and beta-two microglobulin level was markedly elevated...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Midori Ohta, Takayuki Ueda, Kaoru Sakurai
The deterioration in masticatory function often seen in older adults rules out the consumption of hard foods, while a common decline in autonomic nervous response often observed in older adults may result in maladjustment to environmental stresses. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether autonomic nervous activity in older adults increased during the mastication of soft foods compared to at rest. The participants comprised 9 volunteer nursing home residents aged 78 to 100 years. All consumed soft rice as a grain dish and coarsely chopped food as side dishes...
October 18, 2018: Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College
Jennifer Cantrell, Jidong Huang, Marisa Greenberg, Jeffrey Willett, Elizabeth Hair, Donna Vallone
Introduction: The US market for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) has grown rapidly in the last decade. There is limited published evidence examining changes in the ENDS marketplace prior to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) deeming rule in 2016. This study describes US ENDS retail market trends from 2010 to 2016. Methods : ational data were obtained from Nielsen retail scanners for five product types: (1) disposables, (2) rechargeables, (3) cartridge replacements, (4) e-liquid bottle refills, and (5) specialty vapor products...
October 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Edmund Kenneth Kerut, William F Campbell, Michael E Hall, Michael R McMullan
A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is implicated in several pathologic processes, including that of cryptogenic stroke (cCVA). Recent trials identify "high-risk" PFOs in patients with cCVA as likely to benefit from percutaneous closure. The younger the patient (<60 years old) the more likely a PFO may be attributable to the cCVA. The RoPE Score index helps determine the likelihood that an existing PFO is related to a cCVA. This may help guide the clinician and patient when contemplating percutaneous PFO closure...
October 10, 2018: Echocardiography
Elizabeth A Hussa
Defining appropriate student learning outcomes for general education science courses is a daunting task. We must ask ourselves how to best prepare our students to understand the role of science in their lives and in society at large. In the era of social media and armchair experts, life-changing scientific advancements such as vaccination are being dismissed or actively resisted, emphasizing the critical need to teach science literacy skills. One active classroom method known as problem-based learning promotes self-motivated learning and synthesis skills that, when applied in a science-literacy context, can provide students with the ability to generate informed opinions on new scientific advances throughout their lifetime...
October 4, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Francis X Baker, Jon F Merz
Waivers of informed consent for research participation are permitted in the United States under the Common Rule, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations, and the US Food and Drug Administration's Exception from Informed Consent rule for emergency research. We assess the novel question regarding what legal right researchers have to carry out research procedures on or about another person, be it experimental medical intervention, psychological or social manipulation, or invasion of privacy, without the permission of their subjects...
October 3, 2018: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
Gabriela E Perez, Richard R Gammon, Barbee I Whitaker, Ralph R Vassallo, James R Stubbs
BACKGROUND: The Food and Drug Administration's requirements for "Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion or Further Manufacturing Use" (Final Rule) effective May 2016 changed eligibility criteria for blood donors. A multivariate analysis was performed to measure its impact on donor deferral rates. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Four blood centers submitted data for similar 6-month periods before and after implementation of the Final Rule. Data included presenting donors, units collected, deferrals, intended products from deferred donors, deferral reasons, presenting donor demographics, donor hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (HCT), pulse, blood pressure (BP), temperature, and other reasons for deferral...
September 27, 2018: Transfusion
María José Gómez Ramos, Ana Lozano, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
EU legislation requires that chemicals migrating from food packaging into food do not endanger human health. A proper safety assessment must go further than simply testing for known ingredients used to make the packaging materials. The identification of all potential migrants, including non-intentionally added substances (NIAS), is required to assess the safety of these materials. In this study, the benefits of using LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS equipment combined with the data-independent acquisition method SWATH (Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All THeoretical MS) have been evaluated for the identification of unexpected migrants from multilayer plastic packaging materials...
January 1, 2019: Talanta
Jane P F Bai, Chia-Wen Hsu
There are no approved drugs or biologics to treat Ebola virus disease (EVD). Literature reviews identified a list of 141 drugs with reports of preliminary in-vitro potency and/or in-vivo effectiveness in animals or with reports of clinical use/trials in EVD patients. The majority of these drugs have been individually approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating various non-EVD diseases. The anti-Ebola potency data of these drugs were curated from literature and publicly accessible databases, along with their individual biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characteristics...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mélanie Deschasaux, Inge Huybrechts, Neil Murphy, Chantal Julia, Serge Hercberg, Bernard Srour, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Paule Latino-Martel, Carine Biessy, Corinne Casagrande, Mazda Jenab, Heather Ward, Elisabete Weiderpass, Christina C Dahm, Kim Overvad, Cecilie Kyrø, Anja Olsen, Aurélie Affret, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Yahya Mahamat-Saleh, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn, Heiner Boeing, Lukas Schwingshackl, Christina Bamia, Eleni Peppa, Antonia Trichopoulou, Giovanna Masala, Vittorio Krogh, Salvatore Panico, Rosario Tumino, Carlotta Sacerdote, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H Peeters, Anette Hjartåker, Charlotta Rylander, Guri Skeie, J Ramón Quirós, Paula Jakszyn, Elena Salamanca-Fernández, José María Huerta, Eva Ardanaz, Pilar Amiano, Ulrika Ericson, Emily Sonestedt, Ena Huseinovic, Ingegerd Johansson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nick Wareham, Kathryn E Bradbury, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Pietro Ferrari, Elio Riboli, Marc J Gunter, Mathilde Touvier
BACKGROUND: Helping consumers make healthier food choices is a key issue for the prevention of cancer and other diseases. In many countries, political authorities are considering the implementation of a simplified labelling system to reflect the nutritional quality of food products. The Nutri-Score, a five-colour nutrition label, is derived from the Nutrient Profiling System of the British Food Standards Agency (modified version) (FSAm-NPS). How the consumption of foods with high/low FSAm-NPS relates to cancer risk has been studied in national/regional cohorts but has not been characterized in diverse European populations...
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Brice M Ohin, Kifouli Adéoti, Sonagnon S Kouhoundé, Pacôme A Noumavo, Sabine M Ogoua, Nansirine Wabi, Marcellin C Faïnou, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Fatiou Toukourou, Farid Baba-Moussa
In Benin, the boiled hypocotyl ( Borassus aethiopum Mart) is one of the most common street foods consumed for its therapeutic properties. However, the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of boiled hypocotyl food sellers are poorly known despite the high contamination potential of these street foods. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of boiled hypocotyls food vendors in the streets of Cotonou and its outskirts. The approach used concerned the process of good hygiene and production...
2018: BioMed Research International
Christie Le Coeur, Benoît Pisanu, Jean-Louis Chapuis, Alexandre Robert
Reproduction costs depend on the general life-history strategies employed by organisms for resource acquisition, the decision rules on resource allocation, and the resource availability. Although the predictability of resource availability is expected to influence the breeding strategy, the relationship between predictability and strategy has rarely been investigated at the population level. One reason is that, while the resource availability is commonly variable in space and time, their predictability is generally assumed constant...
September 15, 2018: Oecologia
Laura N Truitt, Kathleen M Vazquez, Rachel C Pfuntner, Steven L Rideout, Arie H Havelaar, Laura K Strawn
Several produce-borne outbreaks have been associated with the use of contaminated water during preharvest applications. Salmonella has been implicated in a number of these outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of agricultural surface water used in preharvest production on the Eastern Shore of Virginia in accordance with the Food Safety Modernization Act's Produce Safety Rule water standards. The study also examined the prevalence, concentration, and diversity of Salmonella in those water sources...
October 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Tatiana Andreyeva, Kathryn E Henderson
BACKGROUND: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) sets nutrition standards for foods served in participating settings. Licensing regulations in many states, including Connecticut (CT), extend these rules to nonparticipating facilities. This study evaluates the food environment for preschool-age children in CT child care centers and describes center-reported adherence to the CACFP nutrition regulations. METHODS: We surveyed directors of licensed CACFP-participating and non-CACFP centers that served meals and/or snacks...
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
Kimberly N Cowles, Russell L Groves, Jeri D Barak
Enteric human pathogens such as Salmonella enterica are typically studied in the context of their animal hosts, but it has become apparent that these bacteria spend a significant portion of their life cycle on plants. S. enterica survives the numerous stresses common to a plant niche, including defense responses, water and nutrient limitation, and exposure to UV irradiation leading to an increased potential for human disease. In fact, S. enterica is estimated to cause over one million cases of foodborne illness each year in the United States with 20% of those cases resulting from consumption of contaminated produce...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gail A Van Norman
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of Class III medical devices can take from 3 to 7 years. Although this is shorter than times for drug approvals, patients with serious or life-threatening diseases and disorders may not have time to wait for device approval to access needed treatments. The FDA has a number of pathways, similar to drug approval processes, for expanded use of unapproved medical devices in patients for whom no reasonable alternative therapy is available. Additionally, the FDA regulates the manufacture and use of "custom" medical devices-those made for use by 1 specific patient...
August 2018: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
Judy Yuen-Man Siu, Kara Chan, Albert Lee
The development of dietary preferences of adolescents involves a complex interplay of individual behaviours and environmental factors. Interpersonal factors-such as peer influences and unpleasant school experiences-and institutional factors-such as school rules and policies-are closely associated with unhealthy eating of adolescents. Family support and guidance are also crucial in influencing adolescents' eating habits. However, the low social status, low educational levels, and low household incomes of disadvantaged parents can markedly prevent their children from establishing healthy eating habits...
August 30, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Zhijin Liu, Xinxin Tan, Pablo Orozco-terWengel, Xuming Zhou, Liye Zhang, Shilin Tian, Zhongze Yan, Huailiang Xu, Baoping Ren, Peng Zhang, Zuofu Xiang, Binghua Sun, Christian Roos, Michael W Bruford, Ming Li
Background: The rhesus macaque (RM, Macaca mulatta) is the most important nonhuman primate model in biomedical research. We present the first genomic survey of wild RMs, sequencing 81 geo-referenced individuals of five subspecies from 17 locations in China, a large fraction of the species' natural distribution. Results: Populations were structured into five genetic lineages on the mainland and Hainan Island, recapitulating current subspecies designations. These subspecies are estimated to have diverged 125...
September 1, 2018: GigaScience
Robert Ball, Sengwee Toh, Jamie Nolan, Kevin Haynes, Richard Forshee, Taxiarchis Botsis
INTRODUCTION: In May 2008, the Food and Drug Administration launched the Sentinel Initiative, a multi-year program for the establishment of a national electronic monitoring system for medical product safety that led, in 2016, to the launch of the full Sentinel System. Under the Mini-Sentinel pilot, several algorithms for identifying health outcomes of interest, including one for anaphylaxis, were developed and evaluated using data available from the Sentinel common data model. PURPOSE: To evaluate whether features extracted from unstructured narrative data using natural language processing (NLP) could be used to classify anaphylaxis cases...
October 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Liane M Schneller, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Maciej L Goniewicz, Scott McIntosh, Deborah Ossip, Richard J O'Connor
INTRODUCTION: Flavored e-cigarettes are enticing to new users and established cigarette smokers using e-cigarettes to quit smoking due to the wide variety of flavor options. However, specific flavor combinations that are popular among e-cigarette users are understudied. Recently, the Deeming rule extended the US Food and Drug Administration's authority over all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. METHODS: The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study Wave 2 data were analyzed to assess the prevalence of self-reported flavor categories that are used individually and in combination with other flavor categories among past 30-day youth and adult e-cigarette users in the US...
2018: PloS One
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