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Excessive exercise

J O'Flynn, T G Dinan, J R Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Stress is an event that threatens homoeostasis and thus causes physiological and behavioural responses to reinstate equilibrium. Excessive and/or chronic stress can be psychologically and physiologically detrimental. Examinations can represent a significant source of stress for students. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is the core endocrine stress system. Investigations into the HPA response to examinations have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to further explore the relationship between examination stress, HPA axis activity, mood, sleep and exercise in students undergoing a naturalistic examination period stressor...
March 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Katherine González-Ruíz, María Medrano, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Antonio García-Hermoso, Daniel Humberto Prieto-Benavides, Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, César Agostinis-Sobrinho, María Correa-Rodríguez, Jacqueline Schmidt Rio-Valle, Emilio González-Jiménez, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered a reference method for measuring body fat percentage (BF%) in children and adolescents with an excess of adiposity. However, given that the DXA technique is impractical for routine field use, there is a need to investigate other methods that can accurately determine BF%. We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) technology, including foot-to-foot and hand-to-foot impedance, and Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations in the measurement of BF%, compared with DXA, in a population of Latin American children and adolescents with an excess of adiposity...
August 14, 2018: Nutrients
J Min, H Xue, Y Wang
BACKGROUND: No study has examined how the pattern of income dynamics influences both of children's body mass index (BMI) trajectory and health behaviours. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between household poverty dynamics and childhood overweight risk in the USA. METHODS: Using the longitudinal data of 16 800 children (from kindergarten to the 8th grade) in the nationally representative US cohort-Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class 1998-1999, we examined the differences in BMI trajectory, weight-related health behaviours and risk of overweight in association with household poverty dynamics during follow-up (never [no experience of poverty], transient [once], recurrent [≥2 times] and persistent poor [remained]) using mixed models with fractional polynomial functions and estimating equation models...
August 15, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Thomas Leggett, Jonathan Williams, Colm Daly, Courtney Kipps, Richard Twycross-Lewis
CONTEXT:   Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is a potentially fatal condition that can be prevented by avoiding excessive fluid intake. Running has become more popular in recent years, so it is important to assess the safety of runners' hydration strategies. OBJECTIVE:   (1) To explore the intended hydration strategies of a sample of marathon runners before the 2014 London Marathon, (2) to examine their sources of information and knowledge about fluid intake and their understanding of EAH, and (3) to compare these findings with the results of a similar study carried out before the 2010 London Marathon...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Ewa Otto-Buczkowska, Karolina Grzyb, Natalia Jainta
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually arises during puberty and is marked by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperandrogenism. The principle is that the diagnosis of PCOS must be based on the presence of at least two of the following three criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological), and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents is particularly difficult due to developmental problems in this group. Many symptoms of PCOS, including acne, menstrual irregularities, and hyperinsulinemia, are common in normal puberty...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
A E Rigamonti, A De Col, S Tamini, G Tringali, R De Micheli, L Abbruzzese, C R Goncalves da Cruz, M Bernardo-Filho, S G Cella, A Sartorio
BACKGROUND: The anabolic, lipolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of exercise-stimulated GH secretion could be usefully exploited in the multidisciplinary rehabilitative programs of obese patients, who are reported to suffer from hyposomatotropism. To date, evaluation of GH responses to whole body vibration (WBV) in combination with maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) has been performed in normal-weight subjects, but not obese patients. Thus, aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of WBV and MVC, alone and combined, on GH responsiveness in obese subjects...
July 20, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Thomas P J Solomon, Frank F Eves, Matthew J Laye
Physical inactivity and excessive postprandial hyperglycemia are two major independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular-related mortality. Current health policy guidelines recommend at least 150 min of physical activity per week coupled with reduced daily sedentary behavior by interrupting prolonged sitting with bouts of light activity every 30-min. This evidence-based strategy promotes health and quality of life. Since modern lifestyle enforces physical inactivity through motorized transportation and seated office working environments, this review examines the practical strategies (standing, walking, stair climbing, and strength-based circuit exercises) for reducing sitting time and increasing activity during the workday...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Paul M C Lemmens, Francesco Sartor, Lieke G E Cox, Sebastiaan V den Boer, Joyce H D M Westerink
BACKGROUND: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy increases the risk for negative effects on mother and child during pregnancy, delivery, and also postnatally. Excessive weight gain can be partially compensated by being sufficiently physically active, which can be measured using activity trackers. Modern activity trackers often use accelerometer data as well as heart rate data to estimate energy expenditure. Because pregnancy affects the metabolism and cardiac output, it is not evident that activity trackers that are calibrated to the general population can be reliably used during pregnancy...
July 31, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Robert Lakin, Camilo Guzman, Farzad Izaddoustdar, Nazari Polidovitch, Jack M Goodman, Peter H Backx
Most exercise studies in mice have relied on forced training which can introduce psychological stress. Consequently, the utility of mouse models for understanding exercise-mediated effects in humans, particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) remodeling, have been challenged. We compared the effects of voluntary free-wheel running vs. non-voluntary swimming on heart function in mice with a focus on the regulation of heart rate (HR) by the ANS. Under conditions where the total excess O2 consumption associated with exercise was comparable, the two exercise models led to similar improvements in ventricular function as well as comparable reductions in HR and its control by parasympathetic nervous activity (PNA) and sympathetic nervous activity (SNA), compared to sedentary mice...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Shahira Ahmed, Jessica Autrey, Ingrid T Katz, Matthew P Fox, Sydney Rosen, Dorina Onoya, Till Bärnighausen, Kenneth H Mayer, Jacob Bor
BACKGROUND: Many people living with HIV (PLWH) who are eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) do not initiate treatment, leading to excess morbidity, mortality, and viral transmission. As countries move to treat all PLWH at diagnosis, it is critical to understand reasons for non-initiation. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the qualitative literature on reasons for ART non-initiation in low- and middle-income countries. We screened 1376 titles, 680 abstracts, and 154 full-text reports of English-language qualitative studies published January 2000-April 2017; 20 met criteria for inclusion...
May 30, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Cinderella K Cardol, Cristopher I Escamilla, Winifred A Gebhardt, José C Perales
This cross-sectional survey study had the aim of clarifying the relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and non-drug-re-lated self-regulation problems (non-drug-related SRPs), including behavioral addictions, and the role of impulsive personality traits therein. Spanish university students (N = 329; Mage = 21.20) completed questionnaires for each of these constructs. Fitness and Bodybuilding LTPA was negatively associated with video gaming-related SRPs, r = -.13, p = .019, 95% CI (bootstrapped) [-...
July 20, 2018: Adicciones
Javier Simón Simón Grima, Nerea Estrada-Marcén, Jesús Montero-Marín
Research on physical exercise addiction is becoming more frequent due to the importance of excessive physical activity on health in general. Different studies have investigated the prevalence of risk of exercise addiction (REA) and its consequences. Furthermore, there exist a series of contradictions regarding the relationship between REA and other variables associated with physical training. One goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis consists of analysing possible differences in prevalence, age, general health (mental and physical quality of life, eating disorders) and physical training (hours/week) between groups with REA and non-addicted groups...
July 13, 2018: Adicciones
Victor Bengtsson, Lars Berglund, Ulrika Aasa
Pain and injuries are considered a common problem among elite athletes and recreational lifters performing the squat, bench press and deadlift. Since all three lifts engage multiple joints and expose the lifters' bodies to high physical demands often several times a week, it has been suggested that their injuries might be related to the excessively heavy loads, the large range of motion during the exercises, insufficient resting times between training sessions and/or faulty lifting technique. However, no previous article has summarised what is known about specific injuries and the injury aetiology associated with the three lifts...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Martin D Hoffman, Trent Stellingwerff, Ricardo J S Costa
It is not unusual for those participating in ultra-endurance (> 4 hr) events to develop varying degrees of either hypohydration or hyperhydration. Yet, it is important for ultra-endurance athletes to avoid the performance limiting and potentially fatal consequences of these conditions. During short periods of exercise (< 1 hr), trivial effects on the relationship between body mass change and hydration status result from body mass loss due to oxidation of endogenous fuel stores, and water supporting the intravascular volume being generated from endogenous fuel oxidation and released with glycogen oxidation...
July 28, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Magda Bosch de Basea, David Moriña, Jordi Figuerola, Ignasi Barber, Jordi Muchart, Choonsik Lee, Elisabeth Cardis
BACKGROUND: CT scan is a life-saving medical diagnostic tool, entailing higher levels of ionising radiation exposure than conventional radiography, which may result in an increase in cancer risk, particularly in children. Information about the use and potential health effects of CT scan imaging among young people in Spain is scarce. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to estimate the number of radiation-related cancer cases which can be expected due to the use of CT scanning in Spanish children and young adults in a single year (2013)...
July 24, 2018: Environment International
Paul N Morison, Montserrat Bacardi-Gascon, Manuel Lopez-Corrales, Arturo Jimenez-Cruz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Excessive gestational weight gain has been associated with higher risk for large for gestational age newborns. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess whether an intensive diet and exercise intervention has an effect in reducing gestational weight gain and large for gestational age newborns. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The search was conducted on PubMed and Cochrane database. Through PRISMA flow diagram, clinical trials which met the inclusion criteria were selected...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Al-Anoud Al-Thani, Aiman H Farghaly, Hammad Akram, Shams Eldin Khalifa, Benjamin Vinodson, Alma M Loares, Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra
Introduction Diabetes is a well-known global public health challenge affecting millions globally. The aims of this study are to examine the community diabetes knowledge, perceptions, and awareness among the public in Qatar regarding (1) disease symptoms, risk factors, complications, prevention, and associated behaviors, and (2) local diabetes campaigns and available services or resources. Methods This study involved a total of 501 respondents selected through purposive sampling from major public malls and public places in Doha, Qatar between February and May 2015...
May 22, 2018: Curēus
Valéria L G Panissa, David H Fukuda, Renan S Caldeira, Jose Gerosa-Neto, Fabio S Lira, Alessandro M Zagatto, Emerson Franchini
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the contributions of the anaerobic pathway as determined by two different methods and energy expenditure during a typical high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) protocol. Methods: A descriptive research design was utilized in which thirteen physically active men performed six experimental sessions consisting of an incremental test (session 1), submaximal tests at 40, 50, 60, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90% of velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake (v <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ernesto Crisafulli, Matteo Vigna, Antonella Ielpo, Panagiota Tzani, Angelo Mangia, Elisabetta Teopompi, Marina Aiello, Veronica Alfieri, Giuseppina Bertorelli, Paolo Palange, Alfredo Chetta
Background Heart rate recovery delay is a marker of cardiac autonomic dysfunction. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, the ventilatory response to exercise during incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test may add information about dynamic hyperinflation by low values of inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity ratio (at peak) and excess ventilation by the slope of minute ventilation to carbon dioxide output ratio (VE /VCO2 slope ). We aimed to assess if the ventilatory response to exercise might be a determinant for heart rate recovery delay...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Louise M Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L Fahrenholtz, Anna K Melin
The human body requires energy for numerous functions including, growth, thermogenesis, reproduction, cellular maintenance, and movement. In sports nutrition, energy availability (EA) is defined as the energy available to support these basic physiological functions and good health once the energy cost of exercise is deducted from energy intake (EI), relative to an athlete's fat-free mass (FFM). Low EA provides a unifying theory to link numerous disorders seen in both female and male athletes, described by the syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, and related to restricted energy intake, excessive exercise or a combination of both...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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