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Parental Care

Alexandra Capodeanu-Nägler, Elena Ruiz de la Torre, Anne-Katrin Eggert, Scott K Sakaluk, Sandra Steiger
In animal families, parents are expected to adapt to their offspring's traits, and offspring, in turn, are expected to adapt to the environment circumscribed by their parents. However, whether such coevolutionary trajectories differ between closely related species is poorly understood. Here, we employ interspecific cross-fostering in three species of burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis , Nicrophorus pustulatus and Nicrophorus vespilloides , to test for divergent co-adaptation among species with different degrees of offspring dependency on parental care, and to test whether they are able to discriminate against interspecific parasites...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jennifer W Hill, Carol F Elias
A minimum amount of energy is required for basic physiological processes, such as protein biosynthesis, thermoregulation, locomotion, cardiovascular function, and digestion. However, for reproductive function and survival of the species, extra energy stores are necessary. Production of sex hormones and gametes, pubertal development, pregnancy, lactation, and parental care all require energy reserves. Thus the physiological systems that control energy homeostasis and reproductive function coevolved in mammals to support both individual health and species subsistence...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Kylie Zirbel, Bradley Eastmond, Barry W Alto
The environmental conditions experienced by parents can influence offspring phenotype along with the conditions experienced by offspring. These parental effects are clear in organisms that display parental care and are less clear in other organisms. Here, we consider effects of parental and offspring larval nutrition on offspring development time, survivorship and infection with dengue virus in Aedes aegypti , the mosquito vector of dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika. Parents were raised on either high or low larval detritus inputs with subsequent offspring being divided into two groups, one receiving high nutrients and the other low...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Helena Dunbar, Bernie Carter, Jayne Brown
BACKGROUND: Limited knowledge exists of parents' perceptions and experiences of children's hospices and how these contribute to the varied access and uptake of services. AIM: This study aimed to explore parents' perspectives and experiences of a hospice, to understand the barriers and/or facilitators to accessing a hospice, and what characteristics parents wanted from hospice provision. METHODS: A two-phase qualitative study underpinned by a constructivist grounded theory methodology was employed...
August 14, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Amber E Vaughn, Rachel Bartlett, Courtney T Luecking, Heidi Hennink-Kaminski, Dianne S Ward
Although social marketing principles have been successfully employed in school-based interventions to prevent obesity, use in early care and education (ECE) settings has been limited. This paper describes the use of the social marketing approach to develop an ECE-based intervention that encourages an ECE provider-parent partnership to improve the quality of preschool children's diets and their level of physical activity. A six-step social marketing approach for public health interventions guided the development of this ECE-based intervention...
August 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Fovzieh Sanaati, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Hamidreza Farrokh Eslamlo, Mojgan Mirghafourvand
This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 189 pregnant women to determine the effect of lifestyle-based training for women and their husbands on post-partum anxiety (PPA) and depression (PPD). Follow-ups were continued up for 6 weeks after childbirth. Participants were allocated to three groups using block randomization. In the first intervention group, both the women and their husbands, and in the second intervention group only the women received the lifestyle-based education. In the control group, women received only routine care...
August 9, 2018: Health Education Research
Xue Bai
This study examined ageing parents' care expectations across multiple care domains (financial and material, emotional, personal and informational) towards filial and formal sources and identified intergenerational correlates of care expectation patterns using a proposed care expectation model. Data of 780 eligible ageing parents were drawn from a representative household survey of ageing adults (≥50 years) conducted in 2016-2017. Latent class analysis was used to examine the typological structure underlying ageing parents' care expectations...
August 14, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
K A Stiver, H K Kindsvater, N Tamburello, K L Heckman, J Klein, S H Alonzo
This paper describes how individual female ocellated wrasse Symphodus ocellatus distribute their spawning among males and nests in space and time. It is based on previously collected genetic data of larvae from ten different nests (used to reconstruct half and full-sibling groupings both within and among nests on multiple days) and behavioural data of marked females across the reproductive season. Both the genetic analyses and behavioural observations confirm that female S. ocellatus intentionally engage in multiple mating, by repeatedly spawning at the same nest on different days and at several different nests (up to 12 spawning events over 3 weeks), leading to mixed paternity among her young...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Samuel E Kolman, Allan M Glanzman, Laura Prosser, David A Spiegel, Keith D Baldwin
Background: It is unknown what role specific tasks associated with personal care, positioning, communication and social interaction, and comfort and emotions play in predicting the overall health and quality of life of individuals with non-ambulatory cerebral palsy (CP). In this study, we prospectively evaluated which of these factors were significant predictors of overall health and quality of life. Methods: Parents and guardians of non-ambulatory children, adolescents and young adults with CP were prospectively recruited from the Cerebral Palsy Clinic of a large pediatric academic hospital...
2018: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
Amy E Mitchell
Dermatological conditions are common among children. They are a frequent cause of presentation to health care services and a leading contributor to burden of disease. Evidence supports the notion that bidirectional relationships exist between children's physical and psychological health, whereby the child's dermatological condition can impact their psychological health and well-being, while, in the reverse direction, psychological factors (eg, stress) can impact the severity and course of the child's skin disease...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Lenisa V Chang, Anita N Shah, Erik R Hoefgen, Katherine A Auger, Huibin Weng, Jeffrey M Simmons, Samir S Shah, Andrew F Beck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hospitalization-related nonmedical costs, including lost earnings and expenses such as transportation, meals, and child care, can lead to challenges in prioritizing postdischarge decisions. In this study, we quantify such costs and evaluate their relationship with sociodemographic factors, including family-reported financial and social hardships. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected during the Hospital-to-Home Outcomes Study, a randomized trial designed to determine the effects of a nurse home visit after standard pediatric discharge...
August 13, 2018: Pediatrics
Parvaneh Vasli
PURPOSE: This study aimed to offer a translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and psychometric testing of the Perception of Family-Centered Care-Staff (PFCC-S) and Perception of Family-Centered Care-Parents (PFCC-P) questionnaires for use in pediatric nursing in Iran. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was comprised of six steps. The first five steps included the preparation, forward translation, reconciliation, back translation, and back translation review of the translated questionnaires...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Jenny Hall, Vanora Hundley, Bethan Collins, Jillian Ireland
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing number of women with disability globally becoming pregnant, there is currently limited research about their experiences. A national survey of women's experience of dignity and respect during pregnancy and childbirth raised concerns about the possibility of women with disability having unequal care with overall less choice and control. To address this further we conducted a study to explore the experiences of dignity and respect in childbirth of women with disability...
August 13, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Mohammad T Akkawi, Jamal A S Qaddumi, Hala R M Issa, Liana J K Yaseen
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the developing retina of preterm infants due to defective vasculogenesis. The aim of the study was to analyze the level of awareness, knowledge, attitude and practice of pediatricians about ROP in the West Bank, Palestine. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed on the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) pattern. The questionnaire included questions about pediatrician's educational and practicing profile, knowledge of screening guidelines, risk factors for ROP, referral facilities and barriers for referral...
August 13, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Chung Eun Lee, Meghan M Burke, Catherine K Arnold, Aleksa Owen
BACKGROUND: Parents often face many barriers when taking care of their offspring with disabilities. In childhood, support needs vary with families of children with Down syndrome often reporting less caregiving challenges. However, it is unclear whether support needs vary in adulthood. This study compared parents of adults with Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) regarding support needs of their offspring with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and their families...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Omar Karlsson, Jan-Walter De Neve, S V Subramanian
Background: Parental education has been suggested to be an effective instrument for improving child health in low- and middle-income countries. Both education and child health have improved, however, as well as related factors. These changes may have implications for the observed association. Methods: We used Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 43 countries at two points in time, between 1991 and 2016, to test if the association of parental education with child health has changed over time...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Cornelia M Borkhoff, David W H Dai, Jennifer A Jairam, Peter D Wong, Kelly Anne Cox, Jonathon L Maguire, Catherine S Birken, Colin Macarthur, Patricia C Parkin
Background: Little is known about nutrition outcomes in preschoolers associated with breastfeeding duration beyond 12 mo of age. Objective: The aim was to examine the association between total breastfeeding duration and nutrition outcomes at 3 to 5 y of age. Design: A cross-sectional study in healthy children, ages 3-5 y, recruited from 9 primary care practices in Toronto was conducted through the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) research network...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Daniel N Racey, Jerry Fox, Vashti L Berry, Kelly V Blockley, Rachel A Longridge, Jennifer L Simmons, Astrid Janssens, Willem Kuyken, Tamsin J Ford
We aimed to evaluate whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was feasible and acceptable for young people, their parents and the clinicians working with them; whether a parallel course for parents was a useful addition; and whether attendance at MBCT was associated with improved outcomes. The design was a mixed-method service evaluation of an eight-session MBCT programme for young people who were recovering from depression. The course was a manualised eight-session group intervention. Both young people ( n  = 18) and parents ( n  = 21) completed validated measures before and after the course...
2018: Mindfulness
Clare Shakespeare, Abi Merriel, Danya Bakhbakhi, Ruth Baneszova, Katie Barnard, Mary Lynch, Claire Storey, Hannah Blencowe, Fran Boyle, Vicki Flenady, Katherine Gold, Dell Horey, Tracey Mills, Dimitrios Siassakos
BACKGROUND: Stillbirth has a profound impact on women, families, and healthcare workers. The burden is highest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is need for respectful and supportive care for women, partners, and families after bereavement. OBJECTIVE: To perform a qualitative metasummary of parents' and healthcare professionals' experiences of care after stillbirth in LMICs. SEARCH STRATEGY: Search terms were formulated by identifying all synonyms, thesaurus terms and variations for stillbirth...
August 12, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Nicolas M Adreani, Wolfgang Goymann, Lucia Mentesana
Behaviors such as territorial interactions among individuals can modulate vertebrate physiology and vice versa. Testosterone has been pointed out as a key hormone that can be rapidly affected by aggressive interactions. However, experimental evidence for such a link is mixed. In addition, behaviors can elicit changes in multiple hormones, which in turn have the potential to synergistically feedback to behavior. For example testosterone and progesterone can act interdependently in modulating male behavior. However, if aggression can affect progesterone levels in males remain unknown and - to the best of our knowledge - no one has yet tackled if and how aggressive behavior simultaneously affects testosterone and progesterone in free-living animals...
August 10, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
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