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Parental Care

Shalini Nayee, Charlotte Klass, Gail Findlay, Jennifer E Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Preventable oral diseases such as dental caries remain common in the United Kingdom. Clustering of poor health is observed within deprived communities, such as inner-city areas, where elevated levels of dental need are associated with lower uptake of dental care. Successful oral health promotion (OHP) initiatives are contingent upon effective community engagement. The aim of this pilot study was to engage with families with young children to explore community views on oral health and dental care and thus tailor OHP initiatives more effectively to their needs...
October 20, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Martha Y Kubik, Jayne A Fulkerson, John R Sirard, Ann Garwick, Judy Temple, Olga Gurvich, Jiwoo Lee, Bonnie Dudovitz
Rising levels of severe obesity among children, worsening disparities by race and ethnicity and reluctance of primary care clinicians' to provide obesity management to children are compelling reasons to consider alternatives to primary care management of childhood obesity. The Students Nurses and Parents Seeking Healthy Options Together (SNAPSHOT) trial will test the efficacy of an elementary school-based, school nurse-led, healthy weight management program to reduce excess weight gain among children, 8- to 12-years old with a body mass index (BMI) ≥75th percentile, by increasing healthy dietary practices and physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviors...
October 17, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Barbara Maughan, Edward D Barker
Is earlier intervention always superior? Using two complementary forms of meta-analysis, Gardner and colleagues find no support for the "earlier is better" hypothesis in outcomes of parenting programs for child behavior problems across the 2-11 year age range. This commentary explores possible methodological and substantive reasons for the pattern of their findings. We need additional careful analyses of this kind, assessing age variations in intervention effects across broader age ranges, and in other developmental domains, for strong tests of the "earlier is better" hypothesis...
October 20, 2018: Child Development
Linda Huibers, Ellen Keizer, Anders Helles Carlsen, Grete Moth, Marleen Smits, Oliver Senn, Morten Bondo Christensen
OBJECTIVES: We aim to study the preferred behaviour among individuals from different age groups in three countries when acute health problems occur outside office hours and thereby to explore variations in help-seeking behaviour. DESIGN: A questionnaire study exploring responses to six hypothetical cases describing situations with a potential need for seeking medical care and questions on background characteristics. SETTING: General population in Denmark, the Netherlands and Switzerland...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
C Casper, I Sarapuk, H Pavlyshyn
INTRODUCTION: Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is a cornerstone of neurodevelopment and family-oriented care for preterm infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of skin-to-skin contact in preterm babies depending on regularity, duration, and the period of the first contact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study involved 26 premature infants with gestational age 24/0-28/6 weeks who were treated in the neonatal intensive care unit and neonatal department...
October 16, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Stephanie W Hum, Nader Shaikh
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with delayed antimicrobial treatment in febrile children with urinary tract infection (UTI). STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed data from 802 children with UTI enrolled in 2 previously conducted prospective studies (Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux and Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation) and extracted data on possible predictors of delayed treatment including age, sex, history of UTI, ethnicity, race, primary caregiver's education level, insurance, and income...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
S Tordjman, L Vaivre-Douret, S Chokron, S Kermarrec
We have been sensitized to children with high intellectual potential (HIP) having difficulties given the number of children consulting in our outpatient medico-psychological centres for scholastic problems (possibly leading to school failure), anxiety disorders or behavioral disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in which a high intellectual potential was discovered during psychological assessments. It is the contrast, and more precisely the paradox, between the high intellectual potential of these children and their scholastic difficulties (including school failure), and the psychic suffering expressed by some of them, which led us to question, challenge and propose therapeutic and educational care adapted to these children...
October 16, 2018: L'Encéphale
Fady Sedarous, Helen Dimaras, Maram Isaac, Myrna Lichter, Nasrin N Tehrani
OBJECTIVE: To assess the ophthalmic needs of families with children residing in Toronto shelters. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine families, including 86 children (age 0-16 years) and 55 adult and youth family members (AYFM) (age >16 years), randomly selected from 5 family shelters in Toronto, Ont. METHODS: Ten families with at least 1 child aged 16 years or younger were randomly recruited from each shelter...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Roderik F Viergever, Nicki Thorogood, Judith Rlm Wolf, Mary Alison Durand
Smaller groups of victims of violence, abuse, neglect or exploitation - such as male victims of intimate partner violence (IPV), victims of elder abuse, victims of abuse by carers, victims of parent abuse, victims of human trafficking, girls and boys below 18 years engaging in sex work, victims of sexual exploitation by gangs or groups and victims of honour based violence (such as forced marriages and female genital mutilation) - are often in contact with the health care system without being identified as such and frequently do not receive appropriate treatment...
October 19, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Kathryn E Flynn, Harald Kliems, Nikita Saoji, Jacob Svenson, Elizabeth D Cox
BACKGROUND: Families play a critical role in supporting the health and well-being of children with chronic illnesses, who face a lifetime of responsibility for self-management of their condition. Our goal was to investigate whether the novel Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) Pediatric Family Relationships measure, developed primarily within the general pediatric population, reflects the experiences of family relationships for chronically ill children and their parents...
October 19, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Alexandre Paim Diaz, Connie Svob, Ruixin Zhao, Baxter DiFabrizio, Virginia Warner, Marc J Gameroff, Jamie Skipper, Jay Gingrich, Jonathan Posner, Priya J Wickramaratne, Myrna M Weissman, Ardesheer Talati
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies of children with disruptive disorders (DDs) have shown high rates of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and substance use in adulthood, but few have examined the contribution of parental disorders. We examine child-/adulthood outcomes of DDs in offspring, whose biological parents did not have a history of ASPD, bipolar disorder, or substance use disorders. METHOD: Offspring (N = 267) of parents with or without major depression (MDD), but no ASPD or bipolar disorders were followed longitudinally over 33 years, and associations between DDs and psychiatric and functional outcomes were tested...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Fahd A Ahmad, Donna B Jeffe, Christopher R Carpenter, Lauren S Chernick, Kristin S Stukus, Michael Turco, Feliciano B Yu, Thomas C Bailey
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Nearly 20 million adolescents receive emergency department (ED) care each year, many of whom have untreated reproductive health issues. ED visits represent an opportunity to provide appropriate care, however ED physician reproductive healthcare practices and capabilities in the United States have not been described. We sought to characterize pediatric ED director's individual practice and ED system resources for providing adolescent reproductive healthcare. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION: We invited pediatric ED division and/or medical directors nationally to participate in an anonymous, online survey...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Mandy Mihelic, Alina Morawska, Ania Filus
Fathers are increasingly expected to contribute to their parenting role at the transition to parenthood; however, many fathers experience mental health problems during this time. Parenting support for new fathers is limited, and research often only includes the mothers in intervention studies. Clear evidence for parenting programs for fathers has not yet been established. This study evaluated the effects of a parenting intervention (Baby Triple P) on fathers who were expecting their first baby. The design was a randomized controlled trial comparing Baby Triple P with care as usual over three time points (pregnancy, 10 weeks' postbirth, and 6 months' postbirth) for 112 fathers living in Brisbane, Australia...
October 19, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Bernies Bos, Ioana Antonescu, Hilda Osinga, Sietske Veenje, Kim de Jong, Tjalling W de Vries
BACKGROUND: Adherence to topical corticosteroids is low among atopic dermatitis patients and their parents. This can lead to treatment failure and decreased quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the worries and beliefs concerning topical corticosteroids among parents of children with atopic dermatitis, involved health care professionals, and between different professionals. Also, we identify factors associated with corticosteroid phobia (corticophobia) in professionals...
October 18, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
Line Raunsbæk Knudsen, Annette de Thurah, Merete Bjerrum
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate experiences and needs in the transition from child to adult care in an outpatient clinic from the perspective of adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and their parents focusing on which aspects in the transition could ease the process. Design: A qualitative design with an inductive approach. Methods: Inductive content analysis was used to analyse individual interviews with three parents and three adolescents from a rheumatology clinic in Denmark...
October 2018: Nursing Open
Eve Reynaud, Anne Forhan, Barbara Heude, Marie-Aline Charles, Sabine Plancoulaine
The objective was to study the longitudinal associations between inattention/hyperactivity symptoms and night-waking in preschool-years, in light of their joint evolution. Within the French birth-cohort study EDEN, repeated measures of 1342 children's night-waking and inattention/hyperactivity symptoms were collected at age 2, 3 and 5-6 through questionnaires. Trajectories were computed using group-based modeling. Logistic regressions, adjusted for confounding factors, were used to measure the association between trajectories and to determine risk factors for belonging to the identified joint trajectories...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marek Šmejkal, Allan T Souza, Petr Blabolil, Daniel Bartoň, Zuzana Sajdlová, Lukáš Vejřík, Jan Kubečka
Animals that do not provide parental care have to secure the survival of their offspring by ensuring a safe reproductive environment or smart timing tactics. Nocturnal spawning behaviour of many fish species is an example of the latter behaviour in the animal kingdom and is hypothesized to provide a survival advantage to the eggs spawned during the night. In order to test the efficiency of the smart timing tactics in a freshwater fish, a study was carried out of the interaction of the rheophilic spawner (asp Leuciscus aspius) and the predator of its drifting eggs (bleak Alburnus alburnus) using passive telemetry...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tzu Tsun Luk, Man Ping Wang, Yi Nam Suen, David Soo-Quee Koh, Tai Hing Lam, Sophia Siu-Chee Chan
Evidence on behavioural abnormalities in children exposed to secondhand smoke is limited. This study examined the relation between infant/ toddler cotinine concentration, a biomarker of secondhand smoke exposure, and behavioural problems in preschoolers who were unexposed to maternal smoking during gestation. A prospective cohort of 301 non-smoking mothers with their young children aged ≤18 months visiting postnatal primary care clinics in Hong Kong was enrolled in 2012 and followed by telephone survey 3 years afterwards...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert Lynch, Helen Wasielewski, Lee Cronk
Because parental care is expected to depend on the fitness returns generated by each unit of investment, it should be sensitive to both offspring condition and parental ability to invest. The Trivers-Willard Hypothesis (TWH) predicts that parents who are in good condition will bias investment towards sons, while parents who are in poor condition will bias investment towards daughters because high-quality sons are expected to out-reproduce high quality daughters, while low-quality daughters are expected to out-reproduce low quality sons...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria Brenner, Miriam P O'Shea, Philip Larkin, Daniela Luzi, Fabrizio Pecoraro, Oscar Tamburis, Jay Berry, Denise Alexander, Michael Rigby, Mitch Blair
With improvements in neonatal and paediatric care, more children living with complex care needs are surviving beyond infancy into late childhood and adulthood than in the past. We examined the current approach to the management and integration of care of children living with complex care needs in 30 European countries, as well as the implications for primary care service delivery. This descriptive study, with an embedded qualitative aspect, consisted of questions adapted from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs, and included questions on a complex care European survey of change, adapted from the Eurobarometer survey...
November 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
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