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Parental Care

Annie Gjelsvik, Michelle L Rogers, Ling Song, Alison E Field, Patrick M Vivier
Objectives To investigate the association of residential mobility with flourishing among school-age children. Methods Data from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health were used to examine parent/caregiver-reported information on flourishing and residential mobility for children age 6-17 (N = 63,333). Residential mobility was the number of times the child moved categorized as: none, 1-2, and 3+. Children who were reported to show interest/curiosity, finish tasks, stay calm/in control, care about doing well in school, and do all homework were coded as flourishing...
December 15, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Laila Akbar Ladak, Babar S Hasan, Janice Gullick, Khadija Awais, Ahmed Abdullah, Robyn Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: Inconsistencies have been reported in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in postoperative congenital heart disease (CHD). Despite the need for lifelong care due for residual symptoms, only a few studies have explored cardiac-related HRQOL but none in lower middle-income countries (LMIC). This study therefore addresses the gap by exploring HRQOL and its associated predictors in postoperative CHD in Pakistan. OUTCOME MEASURES: General and cardiac-related HRQOL, associated predictors...
December 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Hdj Creeth, G I McNamara, A R Isles, R M John
In mammals successful rearing imposes a cost on later reproductive fitness specifically on the mother creating the potential for parental conflict. Loss of function of three imprinted genes in the dam result in deficits in maternal care suggesting that, like maternal nutrients, maternal care is a resource over which the parental genomes are in conflict. However, the induction of maternal care is a complex and highly regulated process. Unsurprisingly many gene disruptions, as well as adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy, result in maternal care deficits...
December 13, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Sally A Baddock, Melissa T Purnell, Peter S Blair, Anna Pease, Dawn Elder, Barbara C Galland
This review aimed to better understand the underlying physiology of the risks and benefits of bed-sharing. Eight databases were searched using terms relating to adult-infant/baby, bed-sharing/co-sleeping combined with outcome terms for physiology, sleep, cardiovascular, respiratory, temperature and behaviour. Of 836 papers identified, 59 papers representing 48 cohorts met inclusion criteria. Objective data using various methodologies were available in 27 papers and subjective data in 32 papers. Diverse measures were reported using variable definitions of bed-sharing...
November 16, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Hanne Agerskov, Helle Thiesson, Kirsten Specht, Birthe D Pedersen
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To explore Parents' experiences of donation to their child before kidney transplantation. BACKGROUND: Transplantation is the treatment of choice for pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease. Living donor kidney transplantation has shown a higher long-term transplant survival compared to deceased donor transplantation and entails a more controllable process, with shorter waiting time. Besides complex care and treatment of their child, parents must reflect on the prospects of being a donor for their child...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Laura van Duin, Floor Bevaart, Josjan Zijlmans, Marie-Jolette A Luijks, Theo A H Doreleijers, André I Wierdsma, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Reshmi Marhe, Arne Popma
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with severe problems later in life. This study examines how eleven types of ACEs and mental health care use history are related to current psychological dysfunction among multi-problem young adults. A sample of 643 multi-problem young adult men (age 18-27) gave informed consent for us to collect retrospective regional psychiatric case register data and filled out questionnaires. ACEs were highly prevalent (mean 3.6, SD 2.0). Logistic regression analysis showed that compared with participants who experienced other ACEs, participants who experienced psychological problems in their family and grew up in a single-parent family were more likely to have used mental health care, and physically abused participants were less likely to have used mental health care...
December 14, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Arun Karpur, Angela Lello, Thomas Frazier, Pamela J Dixon, Andy J Shih
Utilizing the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health, this study illustrates that children with ASD have nearly 4 times higher odds of unmet health care needs compared to children without disabilities, whereas children with other disabilities had nearly 2 times higher odds of unmet health care needs compared to children without disabilities. Applying Andersen's Behavioral Model of health care utilization, this study estimates that enabling factors (e.g., access to health insurance, quality of health insurance, access to family-centered care, family-level stress, exposure to adverse childhood experiences, and parental employment) improved prediction of regression model for unmet health care needs by 150%...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Satvinder Ghotra, Michael Vincer, Victoria M Allen, Naeem Khan
OBJECTIVE: To identify the temporal trends, risk factors and outcomes of cystic white matter injury (WMI) detected by ultrasound in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants (VPI) with a minimal risk of selection bias. STUDY DESIGN: All live-born VPIs between 22 and < 31 weeks gestational age born in Nova Scotia, Canada from 1993 to 2013. RESULTS: Cystic WMI was identified in 87 (7%) out of 1184 eligible infants. The gestational age and mortality adjusted prevalence of cystic WMI decreased over time (p = 0...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Samina Ali, Mithra Sivakumar, Tanya Beran, Shannon D Scott, Ben Vandermeer, Sarah Curtis, Hsing Jou, Lisa Hartling
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous insertion (IVI) is a very common procedure in the emergency department (ED). IVI is often painful and stressful for both children and their families. Currently, distraction therapy is not used as a standard of care for IVI in North America. We propose that interaction with a humanoid robot may effectively distract children during IVI thereby reducing their pain and distress. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This randomised controlled superiority trial will be conducted in a Canadian paediatric ED...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Luise V Marino, Carol Fudge, Freya Pearson, Mark John Johnson
To improve the postdischarge growth of exclusively breastfed preterm infants, born weighing ≤1.8 kg, by using breast milk fortifier (BMF) supplements postdischarge until 48 weeks' gestational age. A quality improvement (QI) project involving plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles. A tertiary surgical neonatal unit. Preterm infants weighing ≤1.8 kg at birth. We completed four PDSA cycles to develop and improve an electronic patient information sheet to promote the use BMF beyond discharge. Safety, feasibility and attitudes of parents to home BMF were assessed using questionnaires...
December 14, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Stephen T Trumbo
Juvenile hormone (JH) has both gonadotropic and non-gonadotropic roles in eusocial insects. There is controversy over whether the non-gonadotropic role is novel, related specifically to social evolution, or is a second conserved role. Study of subsocial insects suggests that when JH is non-gonadotropic, the specific associations of high JH, low vitellogenin, suppressed ovarian development and elevated metabolism may parallel those in workers of eusocial insects. This suggests that a more fundamental understanding of JH in insect biology is required...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata
Cognitive theory posits the central role of negative core beliefs about the self in cognitive vulnerabilities to depression, and this position is supported by empirical studies. It is also hypothesized that these core beliefs develop as a result of negative interactions with significant others in early life. To test the hypothesis that negative core beliefs about the self are formed by dysfunctional parenting, we examined their relations with perceived parental rearing. The subjects were 355 Japanese healthy volunteers...
December 2018: Psychiatry Research
Marcie S Rubin, Natali Nunez, Jessica D Quick, Burton L Edelstein
OBJECTIVES: To identify and characterize US early childhood caries (ECC) programs. METHODS: A 39 question online survey was fielded to 245 ECC programs identified from the literature and peer programs. The 101 respondents (41 percent response rate) reported their program's geographic reach, type, areas of focus, target populations, approaches, affiliations, providers, goals, costs, and funding. RESULTS: Half of the programs affiliate with formal early childhood social service or nutrition programs...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Rebecca E Lee, Elizabeth Lorenzo, Jacob Szeszulski, Anel Arriola, Meg Bruening, Paul A Estabrooks, Jennie Hill, Flavio Marsiglia, Teresia O'Connor, Kim Sellers Pollins, Gabriel Q Shaibi, Erica Soltero, Michael Todd
Strategies are needed to help early care and education centers (ECEC) comply with policies to meet daily physical activity and fruit and vegetable guidelines for young children. This manuscript describes the design and methodology of Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a 12-session cluster-randomized controlled crossover design trial using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to test a garden-based ECEC physical activity and fruit and vegetables promotion intervention for young children aged 3-5 years in 20 sites...
December 11, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Jessica Y Islam, Joann F Gruber, Deanna Kepka, Manju Kunwar, Sara B Smith, Mitchel C Rothholz, Noel T Brewer, Jennifer S Smith
HPV vaccination coverage in the United States (US) falls short of the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% coverage among 13-15 year-old adolescents. Pharmacies are a promising alternative vaccine delivery site that may increase access to HPV vaccination. Our objective was to assess pharmacists' insights into HPV vaccination provision to adolescents. We recruited 40 licensed pharmacists in eight states with different pharmacy vaccination laws: Alabama, California, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Tennessee, Texas, and Washington...
December 14, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Adamos Hadjipanayis
Childhood immunization is amongst the most cost-effective public health interventions for reducing children's morbidity and mortality. Vaccination coverage is commonly used to assess the vaccination status of a community. Adherence to schedule is critical for providing maximum effectiveness against vaccine-preventable diseases in the community. This is of paramount importance for diseases that are continuously circulating because they can cause large outbreaks. All stakeholders (public health administrators and vaccination providers) should work together in order to increase both vaccination coverage and adherence to schedule...
December 14, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jackie Vasey, Joanna Smith, Marilynne N Kirshbaum, Kathleen Chirema
AIMS: To explore parental involvement in the child's acute pain care and establish ways in which parental preferences for involvement in their child's care can be identified, facilitated and enhanced by nurses. BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence supporting effective acute pain management in children and the availability of national and international practice guidelines, children still experience acute pain. Involving parents in their child's pain care has been identified as being a central tenet of pain management in children...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Wei-Chih Chin, Hsin-Mei Li, Kuo-Yu Chao, Hsueh-Ling Chang
Autism spectrum disorder has only recently been recognized as a developmental disability in Taiwan. We conducted an exploratory qualitative descriptive study with children (n = 14, mean age = 13.57 years) and their parents to understand stressors experienced by children with autism spectrum disorder in Taiwan. An analysis of face-to-face interviews revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder experienced stressors of daily living, which included environmental stimuli, academic and behavioral expectations, deviations in routine, behavioral expectations, and emotional control, and stressors of socializing, which included bullying, communication, personal interactions, conflict resolution, and difficulty understanding others' emotions...
December 11, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
Sarah L Goff, Jane L Garb, Haley Guhn-Knight, Aruna Priya, Penelope S Pekow, Peter K Lindenauer
AIM: Publicly reported quality data theoretically enable parents to choose higher-performing paediatric practices. However, little is known about how parents decide where to seek paediatric care. We explored the relationship between geographic factors, care quality and choice of practice to see if the decision-making process could be described in terms of a 'gravity model' of spatial data. METHODS: In the context of a randomised controlled trial, we used a geographic information system to calculate flow volume between practice locations and participants' homes, to locate subjects within a census tract, to determine distances between points and to perform exploratory mapping...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Jesse W Young, Kathryn Jankord, Marnie M Saunders, Timothy D Smith
Functional studies of skeletal anatomy are predicated on the fundamental assumption that form will follow function. For instance, previous studies have shown that the femora of specialized leaping primates are more robust than those of more generalized primate quadrupeds. Are such differences solely a plastic response to differential loading patterns during postnatal life, or might they also reflect more canalized developmental mechanisms present at birth? Here, we show that perinatal Lemur catta, an arboreal/terrestrial quadruped, have absolutely and relatively weaker femora than perinatal Propithecus coquereli, a closely-related species specialized for vertical clinging and leaping (a highly unusual locomotor mode in which the hindlimbs are used to launch the animal between vertical tree trunks)...
December 8, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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