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Ron Flatau, Michal Segoli, Irina Khokhlova, Hadas Hawlena
Endosymbionts-microbes that live within and engage in prolonged and intimate associations with their hosts-are gaining recognition for their direct impact on plant and animal reproduction. Here we used the overlooked Wolbachia-flea system to explore the possibility that endosymbionts may also play a role as mediators in shaping the reproductive success of their hosts. We simultaneously quantified the Wolbachia density in field- and laboratory-originated fleas that fed and mated on rodents for either five or ten days and assessed their body size and current reproductive success...
August 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Esther M Bauleni, Leesa Hooker, Hassan P Vally, Angela Taft
The reproductive years are a critical period where women experience greater risk of intimate-partner violence (IPV). Most studies investigating the association between IPV and reproductive health have been completed in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to examine the relationship between IPV and women's reproductive decision-making in Victoria, Australia. We analysed secondary data from a cluster-randomised trial of IPV screening that surveyed new mothers attending Maternal- and Child-Health centres in Melbourne...
August 14, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Swamy Peraka, Akram Hussain, Dhevalapally Buchi Ramachary
An organocatalytic reductive coupling and Lewis acid catalyzed annulative ring-opening strategy is developed, as two-step protocol for the stereoselective synthesis of dihydropyrans as the major products from the chiral formylcyclopropanes, CH-acids and Hantzsch ester. It is an efficient, catalytic, two-step protocol for the chiral synthesis of dihydropyrans and dihydrofurans. Structurally important and challenging functionally rich cyclopropanes containing cyclic-1,3-diones were synthesized in very good yields with excellent chemo-, enantio- and diastereoselectivities from the readily available starting materials, chiral formylcyclopropanes, cyclic-1,3-diones or CH-acids and Hantzsch ester through an organocatalytic reductive coupling reaction at ambient conditions, especially without harming the cyclopropane ring...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ahmed I El-Sakka
Numerous studies have highlighted the intimate association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the true pathogenesis of ED among diabetic men has not yet been fully discovered. The treatment of ED in diabetic patients remains an interesting area of research. The last two decades have witnessed phenomenal advances in the management of ED with the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for ED in diabetic patients encouraging, especially with introduction of innovative conservative tools for treatment...
August 14, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Cong-Cong Shen, Ya-Nan Liu, Xin Wang, Xiao-Xiang Fang, Zhi-Wei Zhao, Nan Jiang, Liu-Bo Ma, Xiao Zhou, Tuck-Yun Cheang, An-Wu Xu
Metal-organic framework (MOF)-based materials possess numerous attractive characteristics; however, the application of MOF-based photocatalysts in the area of visible-light photocatalytic H2 evolution is still in its infancy. Herein, we develop a series of novel UiO-66-NH2-based composites with embedded NiO nanoparticles via solvothermal treatment and subsequent calcination. Their characterizations demonstrate intimate lattice-level contacts between UiO-66-NH2 photocatalysts and NiO nanoparticles. By optimizing each component, even without noble metal loading, the U6N-NiO-2 sample (the weight ratio of NiO to U6N-NiO-2 is theoretically calculated to be ca...
August 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Daniel M Patton, Terry Li, Marie-France Hétu, Andrew G Day, Erika Preece, Murray F Matangi, Amer M Johri
PURPOSE: Circumferential speckle tracking carotid artery strain is a novel method of quantifying vessel wall stiffness. We hypothesized that carotid wall stiffness would be associated with carotid intimal medial thickening (a medial process associated with risk factors), but not coronary artery disease (an intimal process). METHODS: Bilateral carotid artery ultrasound was conducted on outpatients who had previously undergone elective coronary angiography. Mean carotid artery far wall circumferential strain (FWCS) was assessed for correlations with coronary angiographic stenosis, cardiac risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and carotid plaque...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Lata Satyen, Amiee C Rogic, Meu Supol
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an issue that affects women across all cultures. It is essential to understand how women could be assisted to prevent and reduce the effects of violence. This systematic review examined studies that made cross-cultural comparisons of differences in help-seeking behaviour of women who have experienced IPV. Databases including the Cochrane Library, PsychInfo and others were searched for literature published between 1988 and 2016. Seventeen articles with a total of 40,904 participants met the inclusion criteria...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
David C Buitenweg, Ilja L Bongers, Dike van de Mheen, Hans A M van Oers, Chijs van Nieuwenhuizen
PURPOSE: Quality of life (QoL) is a broad outcome that is often used to assess the impact of treatment and care interventions in mental health services. QoL, however, is known to be influenced by individual values and preferences. To investigate this heterogeneity on the individual level, this study aimed to distinguish classes with distinct QoL profiles in a broad group of people with severe mental health problems and to identify the QoL domains that are most strongly related to the classes...
August 13, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Huanhuan Wei, Kexuan Liao, Penghui Shi, Jinchen Fan, Qunjie Xu, Yulin Min
A 3D porous carbon matrix with a high nitrogen content has been synthesized by employing particles of a nitrogen-enriched superabsorbent polymer (SAP) from the waste diapers of newborn babies. The derived material exhibits an ultrathin layered structure with interconnected pores and a large specific surface area. As it inherits the unique skeleton of the functional polymer from waste diapers, the resulting material (NSAPC-W) has been assessed as an inserting host anode with excellent ultralong cycling performance, as well as steady rate capability for both Li+ and Na+ ions in half cells...
August 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Kun Qian, Li Feng, Yujie Sun, Bowen Xiong, Yi Ding, Panting Han, Hailun Chen, Xiao Chen, Ling Du, Yuxue Wang
Inhibiting vascular endothelial foam is the focus of clinical attention. Using SonoVue (an ultrasound contrast agent), the salusin- α gene was transfected into the arterial intima of an atherosclerotic rabbit model induced by a high-fat diet in this study. Subsequently the model of blood lipid indexes, the pathological structure of the intima, and changes in molecules regulating atherosclerosis were investigated. The high-density lipoprotein C and apolipoprotein A values in the salusin- α gene overexpression (P) group were higher than those in the salusin- α gene interference (RP) group ( P < 0...
2018: BioMed Research International
Andrea L Wirtz, Nancy A Perrin, Amelie Desgroppes, Verena Phipps, Ali A Abdi, Brendan Ross, Francesco Kaburu, Isatu Kajue, Ezekiel Kutto, Eri Taniguchi, Nancy Glass
Background: Humanitarian emergencies increase the risk of gender-based violence (GBV). We estimated the prevalence of GBV victimisation and perpetration among women and men in urban settings across Somalia, which has faced decades of war and natural disasters that have resulted in massive population displacements. Methods: A population-based survey was conducted in 14 urban areas across Somalia between December 2014 and November 2015. Results: A total of 2376 women and 2257 men participated in the survey...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Iuliia Naumova, Camil Castelo-Branco
Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) is a silent epidemic that affects up to 50%-60% of postmenopausal women who are suffering in silence from this condition. Hormonal changes, especially hypoestrogenism inherent in menopause, are characterized by a variety of symptoms. More than half of menopausal women are concerned about the symptoms of VVA, such as dryness, burning, itching, vaginal discomfort, pain and burning when urinating, dyspareunia, and spotting during intercourse. All these manifestations significantly reduce the quality of life and cause discomfort in the sexual sphere...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
Seunghwan Choi, Minsik Park, Joohwan Kim, Wonjin Park, Suji Kim, Dong-Keon Lee, Jong Yun Hwang, Jongseon Choe, Moo-Ho Won, Sungwoo Ryoo, Kwon-Soo Ha, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 (PKG1) plays an important role in nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP-mediated maintenance of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype and vasorelaxation. Inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), have long been understood to mediate several inflammatory vascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanism of TNF-α-dependent inflammatory vascular disease is unclear. Here, we found that TNF-α treatment decreased PKG1 expression in cultured VSMCs, which correlated with NF-κB-dependent biogenesis of miR-155-5p that targeted the 3'-untranslated region of PKG1 mRNA...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shubha Kamana Mandal, Leesa Hooker, Hassan Vally, Angela Taft
Intimate-partner violence and poor mental health are common, harmful issues for women of childbearing age. Although the prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression are well established, far less is known about postpartum anxiety. We aimed to investigate the association between postnatal depression and anxiety, and intimate-partner violence among women attending Victorian Maternal and Child Health services, using data from a randomised control trial: Improving Maternal and Child Health care for Vulnerable Mothers (MOVE)...
August 14, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Silvia Hilt, Robin Altman, Tamás Kálai, Izumi Maezawa, Qizhi Gong, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu, Lee-Way Jin, John C Voss
There is growing recognition regarding the role of intracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) in the Alzheimer's disease process, which has been linked with aberrant signaling and the disruption of protein degradation mechanisms. Most notably, intraneuronal Aβ likely underlies the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction that have been identified as key elements of disease progression. In this study, we employed fluorescence imaging to explore the ability of a bifunctional small molecule to reduce aggregates of intracellular Aβ and attenuate oxidative stress...
August 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aravind Shekar, Shylaja Ramlal, Joseph Kingston Jeyabalaji, Murali Harishchandra Sripathy
Ruminants are the major reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its fecal shedding mainly act as a source of entry of this pathogen into the human food chain. In humans, E. coli O157:H7 infection causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Intimate adherence of E. coli O157:H7 is mediated by Translocated intimin receptor (Tir) to which intimin binds in the host cell. Since E. coli O157:H7 colonizes intestinal epithelium, the mucosal vaccine has a potential to prevent its colonization...
August 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Renee Lovi, John Hurley, Marie Hutchinson
Health care professionals are frequently one of the first points of contact in episodes of intimate partner violence (IPV). This paper presents qualitative data from a larger research project on IPV-related content in undergraduate curriculum for Australian health care professionals. IPV is a serious public health issue with findings from this paper supporting the proposition that key health care workers such as nurses, midwives and paramedics are ill prepared to respond to the challenges it poses. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to better understand the barriers and facilitators to the inclusion of IPV-related content into undergraduate curricula for nurses, midwives and paramedics...
August 1, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Chao Jiang, Rong Zeng, Xiao-Jun Song, Weiwei Wu, Changwei Liu, Wei Ye
OBJECTIVE: To study the relevance between serum sorting protein-related receptor containing the LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor) class A (SorLA) and intimal hyperplasia (IH) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) operation. METHODS: 79 carotid artery stenosis patients receiving CEA operation from September, 2013 to March, 2015 were included. Serum SorLA level was detected by ELISA method preoperatively. All the 79 patients received regular follow-up to diagnose the intimal hyperplasia of target lesions, postoperatively...
August 10, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Dale Spencer, Laura M Funk, Rachel V Herron, Emily Gerbrandt, Lisette Dansereau
One topic rarely addressed in the literature on older adults and interpersonal violence is the violence that can be experienced by family carers in relationship with a person living with cognitive impairment. This violence tends to remain hidden and is rarely framed as intimate partner violence. We examine how situations of intimidation and violence invoked fear in family carers and how they interpreted and reacted to these circum- stances. Interview and diary data were collected from family members who had previously or were currently experiencing some form of aggression in caring for someone with cognitive impairment or dementia...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Beidou Guo, Liangqiu Tian, Wenjing Xie, Aisha Batool, Guancai Xie, Qin Xiang, Saad Ullah Jan, Rajender Boddula, Jian Ru Gong
Because of inefficient charge utilization caused by localized π-electron conjugation and large exciton binding energy, the photoelectrochemical water-splitting efficiency of organic polymers is seriously limited. Taking the graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) polymer as an example, we report a novel photoanode based on a vertically aligned g-CN porous nanorod (PNR) array prepared in situ, using a thermal polycondensation approach, with anodic aluminum oxide as the template. The g-CN PNR array exhibits an excellent photocurrent density of 120...
August 13, 2018: Nano Letters
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