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Lung Failure

Mao Dai, Rui Xiao, Luyao Cai, Tong Ge, Liping Zhu, Qinghua Hu
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a mortal disease featured with pulmonary vascular constriction and remodeling, right heart failure and eventual death. Several reports showed that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) appears to be critical for the development of PH, the underlying mechanism, however has not been revealed. Experiments from the current study demonstrated that the HMGB1 level was elevated in the lung tissue and blood plasma of rats after chronic hypoxia exposure and monocrotaline treatment. The HMGB1 was originally located within nucleus and translocated to cytoplasm of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) upon hypoxia exposure, a process that appeared mediated by endogenous H2 O2 ...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Matthieu Schmidt, Guillaume Franchineau, Alain Combes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize results of the most recent trials on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to elaborate on the unmet needs regarding VV-ECMO management in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Although it was terminated early for futility (i.e., failure to demonstrate a difference in 60-day mortality of 20%), the ECMO to Rescue Lung Injury in Severe ARDS trial of VV-ECMO for severe ARDS reported a nonsignificant, but clinically important, reduction in mortality (35 vs...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Takashi Ninomiya, Nobuhisa Ishikawa, Koji Inoue, Toshio Kubo, Masayuki Yasugi, Takuo Shibayama, Tadashi Maeda, Kazunori Fujitaka, Masahiro Kodani, Toshihide Yokoyama, Shoichi Kuyama, Nobuaki Ochi, Yutaka Ueda, Seigo Miyoshi, Toshiyuki Kozuki, Yoshihiro Amano, Tetsuya Kubota, Keisuke Sugimoto, Akihiro Bessho, Tomoya Ishii, Kazuhiko Watanabe, Isao Oze, Katsuyuki Hotta, Katsuyuki Kiura
Afatinib, a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has demonstrated a significant survival benefit over platinum-based chemotherapy in a first-line setting in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR exon 19 deletion. In addition, we and other groups have shown there to be favorable progression-free survival (PFS) outcomes, with acceptable toxicity profiles, with bevacizumab and first-generation EGFR-TKI combination therapy. On the basis of the above, we hypothesized that a combination of bevacizumab and afatinib could potentially improve efficacy...
November 1, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Xiao Lu, ChunShuang Wu, YuZhi Gao, Mao Zhang
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy has been shown to reduce the need for mechanical ventilation and decrease the duration of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stays for patients with a severely compromised respiratory system. This study aims to observe the evolution of lung aeration via lung ultrasound score (LUS) in a chest-injured population who had been treated with HFNC oxygen therapy, and to assess the benefit of the HFNC oxygen therapy in trauma patients...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Gregory M Videtic, Rebecca Paulus, Anurag K Singh, Joe Y Chang, William Parker, Kenneth R Olivier, Robert D Timmerman, Ritsuko R Komaki, James J Urbanic, Kevin L Stephans, Sue S Yom, Clifford G Robinson, Chandra P Belani, Puneeth Iyengar, Munther I Ajlouni, Darindra D Gopaul, Shashikant B Lele, Ronald C McGarry, Hak Choy, Jeffrey D Bradley
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): To present long-term results of XXXX, a randomized lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) trial of 34 Gy in 1 fraction versus 48 Gy in 4 fractions. MATERIALS/METHODS: This was a phase II multicenter study of medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer patients with biopsy-proven peripheral T1 or T2 N0M0 tumors, with 1-year toxicity rates as primary endpoint and selected failure and survival outcomes as secondary endpoints. The study opened in September 2009 and closed in March 2011...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Arash Malakian, Shiva Bashirnezhadkhabaz, Mohammad-Reza Aramesh, Masoud Dehdashtian
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome is one of the main causes of mortality in premature neonates. Treatment of these neonates with invasive mechanical ventilation has side effects such as chronic pulmonary diseases. Noninvasive ventilation, such as nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and nasal high-frequency oscillation ventilation (NHFOV), has shown to reduce the burden of chronic lung disease. NHFOV is a promising new mode of noninvasive ventilation and may reduce the need for mechanical ventilation and reduce possible complications...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Seidai Sato, Toyoshi Yanagihara, Martin Rj Kolb
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an age-associated, progressive and irreversible fatal interstitial lung disease. Although many drugs have failed in clinical trials, these failures improved the understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF. Currently, there are two drugs approved for IPF that slow the progression of the disease. However, the prognosis for patients with IPF remains poor and the search continues for drugs that inhibit the pathogenic pathways active in IPF to further reduce or even halt the progression of the disease...
December 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
S Zewari, L Hadi, F van den Elshout, R Dekhuijzen, Y Heijdra, P Vos
COPD and obesity often coexist and there is a complex interaction between them. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in a secondary care COPD population. Furthermore, the presence of comorbidities in obese (COPDOB ) and non-obese COPD (COPDNO ) individuals was studied. In 1654 COPD patients (aged ≥18 years) who visited a pulmonologist between January 2015 and December 2015, patient characteristics, pulmonary function tests and comorbidities were obtained from the medical records. Subjects were categorized according their BMI as underweight (<18...
December 4, 2018: COPD
Jayden Spencer, Reginald Dusing, Wendell Yap, Jacqueline Hill, Carissa Walter
A 60-year-old male presented with complaints of dyspnea, intermittent fever, and 40 pounds of weight loss over the previous 9 months and was admitted for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Labs demonstrated elevated inflammatory markers, mild anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scan demonstrated diffusely increased pulmonary fluorodeoxyglucose uptake without corresponding abnormality on CT images. Excisional lung biopsy demonstrated intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IV-LBCL)...
February 2019: Radiology Case Reports
Theodore K Marras, Christopher Vinnard, Quanwu Zhang, Keith Hamilton, Jennifer Adjemian, Gina Eagle, Raymond Zhang, Engels Chou, Kenneth N Olivier
RATIONALE: The risk of all-cause mortality of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD) in the United States (US) population is not well established. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the public health burden of NTMLD in the US by comparing the relative risk of all-cause mortality in the NTMLD population with an age- and sex-matched cohort from the general population. METHODS: Patients with physician claims for NTMLD (ICD-9 0.031; ICD-10 A31...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Paulo T Muller, Karina A M Utida, Tiago R L Augusto, Marcos V P Spreafico, Reiby C Mustafa, Ana W Xavier, Erlandson F Saraiva
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is highly prevalent in COPD and conflicting results have emerged regarding the consequences on exercise capacity in the 6MWT. We sought to examine the ventilatory efficiency and variability metrics as the primary endpoint and aerobic capacity (V'O2 ) as the secondary endpoint. METHODS: Forty subjects were included and submitted to comprehensive lung function tests, detailed pulsed-Doppler echocardiography, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Tiffany S Lung, David Cruickshank, Heather J Grant, Michael J Rainbow, Timothy J Bryant, Ryan T Bicknell
BACKGROUND: Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is typically performed in patients with cuff tear arthropathy. A common type of RSA baseplate has a central peg and 4 peripheral screws inserting into the glenoid surface. Baseplate failure is a significant postoperative complication that reduces prosthetic longevity and usually requires revision surgery. This study evaluated the contribution of mechanical factors on initial baseplate fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study simulated glenoid baseplate loading in a RSA...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
David B Nelson, Alda L Tam, Kyle G Mitchell, David C Rice, Reza J Mehran, Boris Sepesi, Mara B Antonoff, Ara A Vaporciyan, Wayne L Hofstetter
BACKGROUND: Microwave ablation is a therapeutic option for patients with lung malignancies who are not surgical candidates. However, reports on local recurrence have been limited to small case series or retrospective reports. This review was conducted to synthesize the evidence regarding local recurrence and adverse events after microwave ablation for primary non-small cell lung cancer or pulmonary metastases. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed studies investigating microwave ablation of lung malignancies with local recurrence or adverse events as a primary outcome...
November 30, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Takeru Kashiwada, Yoshinobu Saito, Yasuhiro Terasaki, Kakeru Hisakane, Susumu Takeuchi, Teppei Sugano, Akihiko Miyanaga, Rintaro Noro, Yuji Minegishi, Masahiro Seike, Kaoru Kubota, Akihiko Gemma
Background: Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel is indicated for the treatment of patients with lung cancer. It can induce interstitial lung disease, but the incidence of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel-associated interstitial lung disease in clinical practice has not been determined. We investigated the incidence of interstitial lung disease in patients with lung cancer who had received nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel therapy at our institution. Methods: We reviewed clinical data for patients with advanced lung cancer who received nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel with or without carboplatin or bevacizumab therapy at the Nippon Medical School Main Hospital between April 2013 and September 2017...
December 1, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Kim Gilbert, Guy Rousseau, Caroline Bouchard, Sophie Dunberry-Poissant, Frédérique Baril, Anne Marie Cardinal, François Khazoom, Melissa Aubin Vega, Emmanuelle Brochiero, Emmanuel Charbonney
BACKGROUND: Multiple organ failure can develop after hemorrhagic shock (HS). Uric acid (UA) is released from dying cells and can be pro-inflammatory. We hypothesized that UA could be an alternative mediator of organ apoptosis and inflammation after HS. METHODS: ventilated male Wistar rats were used for the HS model. Two durations of shock (5 vs 60 min) were compared, and shams were instrumented only; animals were resuscitated and observed for 24h/72h. Caspases-(8/3), myeloperoxidase (MPO), TNF-α were measured in lungs and kidneys...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Alexandra G May, Ryan A Orizondo, Brian J Frankowski, Peter D Wearden, William J Federspiel
Respiratory failure is a significant problem within the pediatric population. A means of respiratory support that readily allows ambulation could improve treatment. The Pittsburgh Pediatric Ambulatory Lung (P-PAL) is being developed as a wearable pediatric pump-lung for long-term respiratory support and has previously demonstrated positive benchtop results. This study aimed to evaluate acute (4-6 hours) in vivo P-PAL performance, as well as develop an optimal implant strategy for future long-term studies. The P-PAL was connected to healthy sheep (n = 6, 23-32 kg) via cannulation of the right atrium and pulmonary artery...
November 21, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Alessia Pedoto, Albert C Perrino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lung and esophageal surgery remain a curative option for resectable cancers. However, despite advances in surgical and anesthesia practices, the inclusion of patients with comorbidities that would have previously not been offered curative resection presents additional concerns and challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Perioperative complication rates remain high and prolonged and/or painful recovery are common. Further, many patients face a permanent decline in their functional status, which negatively affects their quality of life...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Jayaraman Krishnaraj, Abdul Basit Baba, Periasamy Viswanathan, Veeran Veeravarmal, Viswalingam Balasubramanian, Siddavaram Nagini
Substantial evidence has established the negative impact of inhalation exposure to welding fumes on respiratory functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of welding fume inhalation on expression of molecules that function as sensors, transducers and effectors of DNA damage response (DDR) in the respiratory tract of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were exposed to 50 mg/m3 stainless steel welding fumes for 1 h/d for 4, 8, and 12 weeks, respectively. Histological examination demonstrated preneoplastic changes in trachea and bronchi with focal atelectasis and accumulation of chromium (Cr) in the lungs...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Yoshihiko Sakata, Kodai Kawamura, Naoki Shingu, Shigeo Hiroshige, Yuko Yasuda, Yoshitomo Eguchi, Keisuke Anan, Junpei Hisanaga, Tatsuya Nitawaki, Aiko Nakano, Kazuya Ichikado
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are used to treat patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and EGFR driver mutations. Although some patients discontinued these treatments because of adverse events, it is unclear whether switching EGFR-TKI because of adverse events provides a benefit. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated data from 22 patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC who received at least two EGFR-TKIs that were switched because of adverse events (March 2011 to September 2017)...
December 2, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Jérôme Le Pavec, Sébastien Hascoët, Elie Fadel
Heart-lung transplantation (HLTx) is currently the best treatment for patients who have end-stage heart and lung failure. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) was the main indication for HLTx in the 1980s. However, when studies showed resolution of right ventricular dysfunction after double-lung transplantation (DLTx), this last procedure became the preferred option for end-stage IPAH. Currently, the main indication of HLTx is congenital heart disease (CHD), followed by acquired heart disease combined with pulmonary hypertension and/or intrinsic lung disease...
October 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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