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Erika Kropf, Sabrina K Syan, Luciano Minuzzi, Benicio N Frey
Since the pioneering work of Penfield and his colleagues in the 1930s, the somatosensory cortex, which is located on the postcentral gyrus, has been known for its central role in processing sensory information from various parts of the body. More recently, a converging body of literature has shown that the somatosensory cortex also plays an important role in each stage of emotional processing, including identification of emotional significance in a stimulus, generation of emotional states, and regulation of emotion...
December 6, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Karin Oechsle
Patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) nowadays rarely receive palliative or hospice care, and studies on potential effects of integrated palliative care are rare. This narrative review provides a comprehensive overview on their current end-of-life care, first data on integrated specialist palliative care (SPC) and potential barriers. Symptom burden and distress in patients with HM seem to be comparable to other cancer patients, but their performance status and specific symptoms are even worse. Prolongation of life usually remains the main focus until the last days or weeks of life...
December 12, 2018: Oncology Research and Treatment
Rebecca Dillard, Kathryn Maguire-Jack, Kathryn Showalter, Kathryn G Wolf, Megan M Letson
BACKGROUND: The majority of youth with problem sexualized behaviors (PSB) have substantiated experiences of abuse or exposures to violence (Silovsky & Niec, 2002). Little is known about specific abuse experiences that may differentiate youth with PSB from those without. Few studies have examined the types of abuse associated with post-traumatic stress symptomology. OBJECTIVE: The current study explored two research questions: (1) Do children with PSB differ from children without PSB in terms of their abuse disclosures?; and (2) Are the types of abuse disclosed associated with the child's scores on a post-traumatic stress measure?...
December 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Anha Afrin Shefa, Mirana Taz, Monir Hossain, Yong Sik Kim, Sun Young Lee, Byong-Taek Lee
Lethal bleeding due to street accidents, natural calamities, orthopedic/dental surgeries, organ transplantation and household injuries, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In the current study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was incorporated in TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCN) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer system for hemorrhage control by freeze drying method. SEM and XRD data showed the presence of ZnO in the porous structure. FT-IR analysis showed that, successful conjugation occurs among the TOCN and PEG...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Janet Tong, Katrina Simpson, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez, Sarah Bendall
AIM: Despite recommendations from national guidelines, individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP) are currently unlikely to have the effects of their traumatic experiences assessed and treated within psychosis treatment. This may be due to the mismatch between the objectives of trauma-specific treatments (directly targeting post-traumatic stress symptoms by talking about the trauma) and trauma-informed care (limiting practices that may retraumatise clients). We aimed to gain an understanding of what it was like for young people to talk about trauma in FEP treatment, and how their experiences related to the broad conceptualisations of trauma-informed and trauma-specific treatment approaches...
December 9, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Osnat Zamir, Abigail H Gewirtz, Rachel Dekel, Tamar Lavi, Gali Tangir
Using the family stress model as our conceptual framework, we explored whether observed maternal parenting practices (positive and coercive) account for the associations between mothers' post-traumatic stress symptoms and children's externalising behaviours. Mothers' self-reported post-traumatic stress symptoms, observed maternal practices, and reports of children's externalising behaviour were collected from 123 Israeli mothers and their children, who were exposed to ongoing rocket attacks in southern Israel...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Zoe C Bedford, Suzanne Bench
BACKGROUND: Having a child admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is a highly stressful experience, and post-traumatic stress among parents is well documented. How best to support these parents is currently unclear. AIM: To review research on interventions to support the psychological well-being of parents after their child's discharge from paediatric intensive care. METHODS: Searches were conducted using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL and The Cochrane library in January 2017...
December 10, 2018: Nursing in Critical Care
Maria Cristina Morganti-Kossmann, Bridgette D Semple, Sarah C Hellewell, Nicole Bye, Jenna M Ziebell
This review recounts the definitions and research evidence supporting the multifaceted roles of neuroinflammation in the injured brain following trauma. We summarise the literature fluctuating from the protective and detrimental properties that cytokines, leukocytes and glial cells play in the acute and chronic stages of TBI, including the intrinsic factors that influence cytokine responses and microglial functions relative to genetics, sex, and age. We elaborate on the pros and cons that cytokines, chemokines, and microglia play in brain repair, specifically neurogenesis, and how such conflicting roles may be harnessed therapeutically to sustain the survival of new neurons...
December 7, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
G Caiti, J G G Dobbe, A C Y Loenen, M Beerens, S D Strackee, G J Strijkers, G J Streekstra
PURPOSE: 3D-printed patient-specific instruments (PSIs), such as surgical guides and implants, show great promise for accurate navigation in surgical correction of post-traumatic deformities of the distal radius. However, existing costs of computer-aided design and manufacturing process prevent everyday surgical use. In this paper, we propose an innovative semiautomatic methodology to streamline the PSIs design. METHODS: The new method was implemented as an extension of our existing 3D planning software...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Sedat Giray Kandemirli, Feyza Kabar, Guzin Cakir Kandemirli, Nadide Basak Gulleroglu, Zeynep Yazici
Clavicle duplication is a rare entity with limited number of cases reported. Congenital origin and trauma related mechanisms are the main hypotheses to explain this anatomical variation. In skeletally immature patient, trauma may cause physeal-metaphyseal injury in the distal clavicle rather than acromioclavicular strain. The distal epiphysis remains in continuity with acromion and has an intact periosteal sleeve. The periosteal sleeve is extremely osteogenic, and may lead to new bone formation between epiphysis and displaced metaphysis...
December 8, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Freyja Grupp, Marie Rose Moro, Urs M Nater, Sara M Skandrani, Ricarda Mewes
Many asylum seekers have been confronted with traumatizing events, leading to high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within the diagnostic context, clinicians should take into account patients' culturally shaped presentation of symptoms. Therefore, we sought to provide insights into beliefs about causes of PTSD held by Sub-Saharan African asylum seekers living in Germany. To this aim, we used a quantitative and qualitative methodological triangulation strategy based on a vignette describing symptoms of PTSD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Chander Grover, Geetali Kharghoria
Onychoheterotopia (ectopic nail) is a rare condition characterized by the development of nail tissue, distinct from the normal nail unit. It is usually acquired following traumatic inoculation of nail matrix; the congenital variety being less common. The exact pathogenesis of the disease is not clear. It affects the dorsal aspect of fingers and toes mostly. Herein, we report a case of a 35-year-old man with post-traumatic onychoheterotopia of left middle finger, who was treated with surgical avulsion of the ectopic nail along with chemical matricectomy of the well-formed ectopic matrix...
July 2018: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Yuri Klassov, Vadim Benkovich, M Moti Kramer
Os odontoideum is a rare condition. Nevertheless this condition was described by Giacomini in 1886. It is defined radiologicaly as an oval or round-shaped ossicle of variable size with smooth circumferential cortical margins representing the odontoid process that has no continuity with the body of C2. It is important to review this topic since the upper cervical spinal region is complex from anatomical point of view and has many vital structures passing in close relation to each other. If a person suffers from hyper mobile dens due to insufficiency of its ligamentous complex, it may cause translation of the atlas on the axis and may compress the cervical cord or vertebral arteries...
December 2018: Trauma Case Reports
Domenico Policicchio, Giampiero Muggianu, Giosuè Dipellegrini, Riccardo Boccaletti
Background: Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICA) are often associated with poor prognosis and should be diagnosed as soon as possible to prevent delayed intracranial hemorrhage and high rates of morbidity/mortality related to bleeding. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. The goal of treatment is to exclude the aneurysm issue with surgical or endovascular methods. Case Description: We report the case of a 19-year-old boy who suffered a cranio-orbital trauma; 2 weeks after initial trauma he deteriorates with a new intracranial bleeding...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Xiao-Ying Zhang, Wang Wei, You-Zhi Zhang, Qiang Fu, Wei-Dong Mi, Li-Ming Zhang, Yun-Feng Li
The translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) recently attracted increasing attention in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study is testing the hypothesis that the overexpression of TSPO in hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG) could alleviate the anxiogenic-like response in the mice model of PTSD induced by foot-shock. In this study, hippocampal DG overexpression of TSPO significantly reversed the increase of the contextual freezing response, the decrease of the percentage of both entries into and time spent in the open arms in elevated plus maze test and the decrease of the account of crossings from the dark to light compartments in light-dark transition test induced by electric foot-shocks procedure...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wafaa M Farghaly, Mohamed A Abd Elhamed, Enas M Hassan, Wael T Soliman, Mohamed A Yhia, Nermin A Hamdy
Background: A high prevalence of epilepsy in children is frequently found in developing countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical pattern of childhood and adolescence epilepsy in Upper Egypt. Methods: This is a door-to-door study conducted on all inhabitants < 18 years in Al Kharga district and Al Qusier city (36,195 subjects). The study was conducted through two stages; every stage consisted of two phases (screening and diagnostic)...
2018: The Egyptian journal of neurology, psychiatry and neurosurgery
Emily Moulton, Marisa Chamness, Dayan Knox
Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) shuttle from the cytoplasm (cy) to the nucleus (nu) when bound with glucocorticoids (i.e. GR internalization) and alter transcriptional activity. GR activation within the fear circuit has been implicated in fear memory and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no study to date has characterized GR internalization within the fear circuit during fear memory formation or examined how traumatic stress impacts this process. To address this, we assayed cy and nu GR levels at baseline and after auditory fear conditioning (FC) in the single prolonged stress (SPS) model of PTSD...
2018: PloS One
Francisco J Bonilla-Escobar, Andrés Fandiño-Losada, Diana M Martínez-Buitrago, Julián Santaella-Tenorio, Daniel Tobón-García, Edgar J Muñoz-Morales, Ivan D Escobar-Roldán, Lori Babcock, Eva Duarte-Davidson, Judith K Bass, Laura K Murray, Shannon Dorsey, Maria I Gutierrez-Martinez, Paul Bolton
BACKGROUND: Exposure to violence has negative consequences on mental health. Armed-conflict in Colombia has widely affected Afro-descendants in the Pacific region. Evidence regarding effectiveness of mental health interventions is lacking in low-income settings, especially in areas with active conflict. The objective of this study is to evaluate an individualized Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA), a transdiagnostic psychotherapy model based on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, for adult trauma survivors...
2018: PloS One
Jack K Phillips, Sydney A Sherman, Kristen Y Cotton, John M Heddleston, Aaron B Taylor, John D Finan
BACKGROUND: Unbiased screening studies have repeatedly identified actin-related proteins as one of the families of proteins most influenced by neurotrauma. Nevertheless, the status quo model of cytoskeletal reorganization after neurotrauma excludes actin and incorporates only changes in microtubules and intermediate filaments. Actin is excluded in part because it is difficult to image with conventional techniques. However, recent innovations in fluorescent microscopy provide an opportunity to image the actin cytoskeleton at super-resolution resolution in living cells...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Holly S Hake, Jazmyne K P Davis, River R Wood, Margaret K Tanner, Esteban C Loetz, Anais Sanchez, Mykola Ostrovskyy, Erik B Oleson, Jim Grigsby, Rick Doblin, Benjamin N Greenwood
Clinical trials have demonstrated that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) paired with psychotherapy is more effective at reducing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, alone or in combination. The processes through which MDMA acts to enhance psychotherapy are not well understood. Given that fear memories contribute to PTSD symptomology, MDMA could augment psychotherapy by targeting fear memories. The current studies investigated the effects of a single administration of MDMA on extinction and reconsolidation of cued and contextual fear memory in adult, male Long-Evans rats...
December 4, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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