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Lin Zhu, Tao Tang, Rong Fan, Jie-Kun Luo, Han-Jin Cui, Chun-Hu Zhang, Wei-Jun Peng, Peng Sun, Xin-Gui Xiong, Yang Wang
Xuefu Zhuyu decoction has been used for treating traumatic brain injury and improving post-traumatic dysfunction, but its mechanism of action needs further investigation. This study established rat models of traumatic brain injury by controlled cortical impact. Rat models were intragastrically administered 9 and 18 g/kg Xuefu Zhuyu decoction once a day for 14 or 21 days. Changes in neurological function were assessed by modified neurological severity scores and the Morris water maze. Immunohistochemistry, western blot assay, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze synapsin protein and mRNA expression at the injury site of rats...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Carolina Stefany Paredes Molina, Stepheny Berry, Alexandra Nielsen, Robert Winfield
BACKGROUND: Injuries and their comorbidities affect victims far beyond their physical recovery period. Some study-measures show that more than half of patients hospitalized for a traumatic injury suffer from Acute Stress Disorder, alcohol dependence, and recurrent trauma. Overall, this literature review serves to review risk factors for PTSD, screening tools, follow-up strategies, and gaps in the literature for achieving feasible patient-centered interventions for the prevention of PTSD after a traumatic injury...
July 26, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Rikinkumar S Patel, Geetha Manikkara, Priya Patel, Jupi Talukdar, Zeeshan Mansuri
Objective : To analyze differences in demographic pattern and hospitalization outcomes in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with opioid use disorder (OUD) patients managed with versus without behavioral therapy (BT). Methods : We conducted case-control study using Nationwide Inpatient Sample and identified PTSD and OUD using ICD⁻9⁻CM codes. Linear regression model was used to evaluate impact of BT on inpatient stay and cost. Results : We analyzed 1531 inpatient admissions and 786 patients received BT...
August 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Sandy Krammer, Andreas Maercker, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Alex Gamma, Michael Liebrenz
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND: The eleventh version of the ICD, expected to be published in 2018, leads to changed criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to the online beta version. Such changes are likely to affect previously known features of PTSD, including the prevalence rate. Little is known about the prevalence of ICD-11 PTSD in imprisoned men. The present study examined this issue in this high-risk group for trauma disorders, as male prisoners are known to be more often affected by traumatic events compared to the general population...
August 13, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Anna Morgan-Mullane
This paper explores children's trauma symptoms related to parental incarceration and lays the groundwork for the implementation of Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) within a clinical community-based setting treating children and adolescents affected by parental incarceration. Children and adolescents who experience parental incarceration are more likely to develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): depression, anger, aggression, and isolating and self-harming behaviors. Although parental incarceration is a known source of trauma, there are no documented studies examining effective clinical treatments to reduce the effects of the trauma experienced by these children and adolescents...
2018: Clinical Social Work Journal
J A Nicholson, C E H Scott, J Annan, I Ahmed, J F Keating
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes and complications following an acetabular fracture associated with a posterior hip dislocation compared to those without dislocation. PATIENTS & METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 113 patients (mean age 42 (14-95), 77% male) with acetabular fracture dislocations compared to 367 patients with acetabular fractures without dislocation (mean age 54 (16-100), 66% male) treated from 1988 to 2010...
July 29, 2018: Injury
James M Walker, Caroline Mulatya, Donald Hebert, Steffanie H Wilson, Anne S Lindblad, Lindell K Weaver
STUDY OBJECTIVE: In this exploratory, double-blind, longitudinal sham-controlled trial of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2 ) for military personnel with post concussive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), self-reports and objective measures of sleep-wake disturbances were assessed and compared to normals. METHODS: Self-reports consisting of Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep diary, screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk, restless legs syndrome (RLS), cataplexy, and objective actigraphic measures of sleep-wake were obtained on 71 military personnel with mTBI [baseline, 13 weeks and six months post-randomization (post-intervention)], of which 35 met post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria, and 75 healthy volunteers (baseline)...
June 30, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Idrish Ali, Juliana Silva, Shijie Liu, Sandy Shultz, Patrick Kwan, Nigel Jones, Terence J O'Brien
In the quest for developing new therapeutic targets for post-traumatic epilepsies (PTE), identifying mechanisms relevant to development and progression of disease is critical. A growing body of literature suggests involvement of neurodegenerative mechanisms in the pathophysiology of acquired epilepsies, including following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this review, we discuss the potential of some of these mechanisms to be targets for the development of a therapy against PTE.
August 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Eduardo Vazquez-Delgado, Marta Viaplana-Gutierrez, Charles Carlson, Rui Figueiredo, Eduard Valmaseda-Castellon
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore how pain and psychological distress influence the sleep quality of patients with painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PPTN). STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-two patients with a diagnosis of PPTN according to the International Classification for Headache Disorders of the International Headache Society were enrolled. All patients completed a number of questionnaires that examined sleep quality, psychological distress, and quality of life...
June 12, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Peter B Rosenquist, Nagy A Youssef, Sandarsh Surya, William V McCall
The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for those suffering from major depressive disorder is well-evidenced, time-honored, and recognized by most treatment guidelines. However, since its inception ECT has been used by practitioners for a broader range of neuropsychiatric conditions. This article reviews the highly variable evidence supporting the use of ECT in conditions other than depression, such as schizophrenia, bipolar manic states, catatonia, Parkinson disease, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Jessica Liang, Stephanie J Lee, Barry E Storer, Bronwen E Shaw, Eric J Chow, Mary E Flowers, Elizabeth F Krakow, Merav Bar, Karen L Syrjala, Rachel B Salit, Chareeni E Kurukulasuriya, Heather S L Jim
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) can cause significant distress in patients and their informal caregivers. Despite advances in reduced intensity conditioning and supportive care, few recent studies have reported rates of clinically-significant post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology (hereafter referred to as PTSD). Goals of the current study were to: 1) examine rates of PTSD and distress in patients and caregivers and 2) identify sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for PTSD...
August 8, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Ajay Aggarwal, Siddharth Pandey, Vishwajeet Singh, Rahul Janak Sinha
A 22-year-old woman met with road traffic accident 6 months back following which she underwent exploratory laparotomy with intraperitoneal bladder rupture repair. She presented with urethrovaginal fistula due to a fragment of fractured pubic bone impinging into the anterior vaginal wall. The findings were confirmed on CT scan and cystoscopy. The patient was managed with removal of the bony spicule and transvaginal repair of urethrovaginal fistula with Martius fat pad interposition.
August 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Despina Pampaka, Stefania I Papatheodorou, Mohammad AlSeaidan, Rihab Al Wotayan, Rosalind J Wright, Julie E Buring, Douglas W Dockery, Costas A Christophi
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms, identify relevant risk factors, and assess comorbid mental health problems, among pregnant women enrolled in a population based study. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data collected from 1916 pregnant women who participated in the TRansgenerational Assessment of Children's Environmental Risk (TRACER) study in Kuwait, and had answered the Baseline Questionnaire and completed the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS)...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
D Kendrick, R Baker, T Hill, K Beckett, C Coupland, B Kellezi, S Joseph, J Barnes, J Sleney, N Christie, R Morriss
OBJECTIVE: To quantify psychological morbidity and identify baseline factors associated with depression, anxiety and post-traumatic distress symptoms up to 12 months post-injury. METHODS: Multicentre cohort study of 668 adults, aged 16 to 70, admitted to 4 UK NHS hospital trusts. Data on injury, socio-demographic characteristics and health status was collected at recruitment. Depression, anxiety and post-traumatic distress were measured at 1, 2, 4 and 12 months post-injury...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
JoAnne M Youngblut, Dorothy Brooten
BACKGROUND: Losing a child is devastating for parents and grandparents. Family and friends generally focus on comforting and supporting the bereaved parents, unintentionally ignoring the bereaved grandparents. Grandmothers and grandfathers often struggle with wanting to help their adult children (deceased child's parents) without usurping the parents' responsibilities and decisions regarding the deceased child. Research on mothers' and grandmothers' health at about the same time after the same child's death in the neonatal or pediatric intensive care unit is lacking...
August 10, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Subin Park, Soo Jung Rim, Jin Yong Jun
This study investigated the factors associated with suicidal ideation among 174 North Korean refugees (aged 13⁻27 years) residing in South Korea. Specifically, we compared sociodemographic, familial, social, and psychological characteristics between participants with and without suicidal ideation. Twenty-nine refugees (16.7%) had exhibited suicidal ideation in the past 12 months. These refugees had significantly lower levels of familial cohesion ( U = 1459.0; p < 0.001), self-esteem ( U = 1032.0; p < 0...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
R Corne, C Leconte, M Ouradou, V Fassina, Y Zhu, E Déou, V Besson, M Plotkine, C Marchand-Leroux, R Mongeau
Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and both disorders share common symptoms and neurobiological defects. Relapse after successful treatment, known as long-term fear resurgence, is common in PTSD patients and a major therapeutic hurdle. We induced a mild focal TBI by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in male C57BL/6 J mice and used fear conditioning to assess PTSD-like behaviors and concomitant alterations in the fear circuitry. We found for the first time that mild TBI, and to a lesser extent sham (craniotomy), mice displayed a spontaneous resurgence of conditioned fear when tested for fear extinction memory recall, despite having effectively acquired and extinguished conditioned fear 6 weeks earlier in the same context...
August 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Jon E Grant, Sarah A Redden, Katherine Lust, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: This study sought to examine the occurrence of the nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (amphetamines and methylphenidate) in a university sample and their associated physical and mental health correlates, including potential relationships with risky sexual practices. METHODS: A 156-item anonymous online survey was distributed via e-mail to a sample of 9449 university students. Current use of alcohol and drugs, psychological and physical status, and academic performance were assessed, along with questionnaire-based measures of impulsivity and compulsivity...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Benjamin T Dunkley, Simeon M Wong, Rakesh Jetly, Jimmy K Wong, Margot J Taylor
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with heightened responses to threatening stimuli, particularly aggression-related emotional facial expressions. The stability over time of this neurophysiological 'hyperactive' threat response has not been determined. We studied implicit emotional face processing in soldiers with and without PTSD at two time-points (roughly 2 years apart) using magnetoencephalography to determine the response of oscillations and synchrony to happy and angry faces, and the reliability of this marker for PTSD over time...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Gina Troisi
In a global context where the percentage of women who are victim of violence is still high (World Health Organization, 2013), intimate partner violence (IPV) can be considered the most widespread form of violence against women: in such cases violent attacks are perpetuated or threatened by a partner or ex-partner within an intimate relationship, which makes its recognition more difficult. IPV requires specific tools and, although the literature has highlighted the specific role played by some emotions (such as shame, guilt, and fear) that keep women experiencing this violence in a state of passivity and confusion, to date too little attention has been given to the construction of sound instruments able to detect post-traumatic affectivity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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