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Sulfur Liquid

Mengqi Zhu, Songmei Li, Bin Li, Shubin Yang
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been regarded as a promising candidate for energy storage owing to their ultrahigh theoretical capacity and low cost. However, the commercial application of Li-S batteries has been plagued by the huge volume change of sulfur, the insulative nature of solid active materials (S and Li2S) and the polysulfide shuttle. Here, a uniform sulfur-gallium core-shell structure (S@Ga) with an ultrathin liquid gallium shell was prepared by harnessing the reaction between sulfur and gallium via a facile mixing process...
December 13, 2018: Nanoscale
Irena R Štenglová Netíková, Luboš Petruželka, Martin Šťastný, Václav Štengl
Introduction: Macrocrystalline oxides of alkaline earth metals (Mg and Ca) or light metals (Al and Ti) can respond to standard warfare agents such as sulfur mustard, soman, or agent VX. In this paper, we compared the decontamination ability of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide [CP] and ifosfamide [IFOS]) with a new procedure using a destructive sorbent based on nanocrystalline and nanodispersive titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) as a new efficient and cheap material for complete decontamination of surfaces...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Keyi Chen, Ye Zhang, Chilin Li
Metal-polysulfide batteries are attracting broad attentions as conversion reaction systems of high theoretical energy density and low cost. However, their further applications are hindered by low loading of active species, excess conductive additive and loose (nanostructured) electrode network. Herein, we propose that compact grain stacking and surface fluorination are two crucial factors for achieving high-rate and long-life pyrite (FeS2) cathode enabled by sulfurating ionic liquid wrapped open framework fluorides...
December 5, 2018: ACS Nano
Jemaneh Habtewold, Robert Gordon, Vera Sokolov, Andrew VanderZaag, Claudia Wagner-Riddle, Kari Dunfield
Liquid dairy manure treated with sulfuric acid was stored in duplicate pilot-scale storage tanks for 120 days with continuous monitoring of CH4 emissions and concurrent examination of changes in the structure of bacterial and methanogenic communities. Methane emissions were monitored at the site using laser-based Trace Gas Analyzer whereas quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and massively parallel sequencing were employed to study bacterial and methanogenic communities using 16S rRNA and methyl-coenzyme M Reductase A ( mcrA ) genes/transcripts, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiong Su, Xiao-Feng Yang, Yanqiang Huang, Bin Liu, Tao Zhang
Simply yet powerfully, single-atom catalysts (SACs) with atomically dispersed metal active centers on supports have received a growing interest in a wide range of catalytic reactions. As a specific example, SACs have exhibited distinctive performances in CO2 chemical conversions. The unique structures of SACs are appealing for adsorptive activation of CO2 molecules, transfer of intermediates from support to active metal sites, and production of desirable products in CO2 conversion. In this Account, we have exemplified our recent endeavors in the development of SACs toward CO2 conversions in thermal catalysis and electrocatalysis...
December 4, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Amelie Tsoutsoulopoulos, Markus Siegert, Harald John, Tabea Zubel, Aswin Mangerich, Annette Schmidt, Harald Mückter, Thomas Gudermann, Horst Thiermann, Dirk Steinritz, Tanja Popp
Inhalation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) is associated with severe acute and long-term pulmonary dysfunctions and health effects. The still not completely elucidated molecular toxicology and a missing targeted therapy emphasize the need for further research. However, appropriate human data are extremely rare. In vivo animal experiments are often regarded as gold standard in toxicology but may exhibit significant differences compared to the human pulmonary anatomy and physiology. Thus, alternative in vitro exposure methods, adapted to the human in vivo situation by exposing cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI), are complimentary approaches at a cellular level...
November 28, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Dongsoo Kim, Jie Chen, Andrew Meram, Stavan Patel, Eric Wei, Junaid Ansari, Ghali Ghali, Christopher Kevil, Rodney E Shackelford
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm of the salivary glands. MECs of the mouth floor are rare, with only a few cases reported. Here we report a MEC of the mouth floor in a 55-year-old woman. Since several studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2 S)-synthesizing enzymes are often increased in malignant tumors compared to benign counterpart tissues, we used western blotting to compare the protein levels of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) in a mouth floor MEC to adjacent benign oral mucosae...
September 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Markus Siegert, Felix Gandor, Andreas Kranawetvogl, Hans Börner, Horst Thiermann, Harald John
Exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard (SM) may lead to erythema and blistering. Toxicity of SM is hypothesized to be due to the alkylation of DNA bases and nucleophilic amino acid side chains in proteins (adducts) by forming the hydroxyethylthioethyl (HETE) moiety. Despite of its prohibition by the chemical weapons convention, SM still represents a serious threat to military personnel and civilians. Therefore, development and improvement of forensic analytical methods for the verification of SM exposure is of high interest...
November 23, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Geng Leng, Qiong Hu, Wen-Feng He, Zhe Liu, Wen-Jin Chen, Wen-Bo Xu, Qiu-Hong Yang, Jing Sun
Sulfite is known to be harmful to human health and associated to sulfur related environmental effects and ideally should be analyzed onsite owing to its instability. Here we describe an automated, miniaturized, and highly efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system that seamlessly coupled to a UV-vis spectrophotometer for the trace analysis of sulfite in natural waters. The automated DLLME system was constructed by a single syringe pump that is coupled with a multiposition valve. Nanomolar levels of sulfite could be extracted from natural water samples and injected into the hyphenated spectrophotometer for quantification...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jan B Thiäner, Sigrid Richter-Brockmann, Christine Achten
Proceedings in environmental analytical chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the past decades cover improvements in laboratory methods as well as new insights in the toxicology of single PAH compounds. A re-evaluation of the established list of 16 priority PAH published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency seems overdue. In this study we have applied PAH analysis by atmospheric pressure laser ionization - mass spectrometry (APLI-MS) to NIST 1941b, NIST 1649b, BAM CC013a and IRMM BCR 535 giving further references in addition to the certificates of analysis...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Feng-Yi Zheng, Ruisong Li, Jiadan Hu, Jie Zhang, Xudong Han, Xinrui Wang, Wen-Rong Xu, Yucang Zhang
Ball-milled chitin was liquefied with an optimal yield of 92% under sulfuric acid in diethylene glycol (DEG) at 160 °C for 120 min. The resulting liquid mixture was roughly separated into two portions: the real products of the reaction (liquefied ball-milled chitin, LBMC) and the remaining unreacted DEG. LBMC was further mingled with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to prepare LBMC/PVA blend membranes. To promote the direct utilization of shellfishery waste, raw shrimp shells were used to replace chitin for the liquefaction and membrane preparation operations...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Nawa Raj Baral, Carlos Quiroz-Arita, Thomas H Bradley
The recalcitrant nature of lignocelluloses requires a pretreatment process before the fermentative butanol production. The commonly used pretreatment processes, such as steam explosion, sulfuric acid, ammonia fiber explosion, ionic liquid (IL), and biological, require different quantities and types of process chemicals, and produce different quality and quantity of fermentable sugars. This study determines life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) these pretreatment methods by developing a system-level process model including corn stover feedstock supply system and the downstream butanol production process...
November 29, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
M M Liu, B F Liu, J Zhang, J Liu, M Zhang, S L Zhao
Objective: To establish a elution solution-liquid chromatography method for determination of p-Phenylene diamine (PPD) in workplace air. Methods: p-Phenylene diamine (PPD) in the air of workplace was collected with glass fiber filters coated with dilute sulfuric acid and extracted with an aqueous EDTA solution. The target toxicant was separated with the C(18) column and analyzed with UV detector, identified by retention time, and quantified by peak area. Results: The linear range of PPD in the air of workplace was 2...
September 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Yukai Chang, Anmin Nie, Shijun Yuan, Bochong Wang, Congpu Mu, Jianyong Xiang, Bingchao Yang, Lei Li, Fusheng Wen, Zhongyuan Liu
Black phosphorus (BP) has recently drawn great attention in the field of electrocatalysis due to its distinct electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, the slow OER kinetics and the poor environmental stability of BP seriously limits its overall OER performance and prevents its electrocatalysis application. Here, sulfur (S)-doped BP nanosheets, which are prepared using high-pressure synthesis followed by liquid exfoliation, have been demonstrated to have much better OER electrocatalytic activity and environmental stability compared to their undoped counterparts...
January 18, 2019: Nanotechnology
Moo Yeol Lee, Hae Rang Lee, Cheol Hee Park, Seul Gi Han, Joon Hak Oh
Bioelectronics for healthcare that monitor the health information on users in real time have stepped into the limelight as crucial electronic devices for the future due to the increased demand for "point-of-care" testing, which is defined as medical diagnostic testing at the time and place of patient care. In contrast to traditional diagnostic testing, which is generally conducted at medical institutions with diagnostic instruments and requires a long time for specimen analysis, point-of-care testing can be accomplished personally at the bedside, and health information on users can be monitored in real time...
November 7, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ayalew Debebe, Shibru Temesgen, Mesfin Redi-Abshiro, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi, Estifanos Ele
The main objective of this study was to improve the performance of analytical methods for the determination of sugars in fermented alcoholic beverages based on mid-infrared-partial least squares (MIR-PLS), high-performance liquid chromatography with the ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV), high-performance liquid chromatography with the refractive index detector (HPLC-RI), and sulfuric acid methods. The MIR-PLS method was found to give good prediction of individual sugars: glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose in the alcoholic beverages with less than 4% error...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Xiu-Yang Li, Jin-Di Xu, Shan-Shan Zhou, Ming Kong, Ya-Yun Xu, Ye-Ting Zou, Ya Tang, Li Zhou, Ming-Zhe Xu, Jun Xu, Song-Lin Li
In this study, a time segment scanning-based quasi-multiple reaction monitoring (quasi-MRM) mode was proposed to improve the quantitative performance of UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. To achieve the quasi-MRM mode, a strategy to select the ion pair (precursor and product ions) of each analyte was adopted as follows. First, a stable and abundant ion by quadrupole was set as precursor ion in MS scan mode. Second, the fragment ions of the precursor ion formed via collision-induced dissociation were measured by time-of-flight (TOF) in MS/MS scan mode; a characteristic, stable and abundant fragment ion (or precursor ion in case of fragment ion unavailable) was designated as the product ion...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Karen S Prado, Márcia A S Spinacé
Pineapple crown is an important source of cellulose that is still going to waste because of the lack of knowledge about their economic uses. The isolation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from pineapple crown leaf (PCL) wastes arises as an important alternative to use PCL wastes in high value-added applications, and has not been reported yet. In this study, CNC were successfully extracted from PCL wastes using chemical treatments followed by acid hydrolysis using sulfuric acid. FTIR results confirmed the removal of the non-cellulosic compounds of PCL through the mercerization and bleaching treatments...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Haruto Hiraba, Hiroshi Nogawa, Hiroyasu Koizumi, Akihisa Kodaira, Shunsuke Akahane
PURPOSE: This study investigated the influence of an interaction between sulfur-containing monomers and other monomers in multipurpose primers on the bond durability of a tri-n-butylborane (TBB)-initiated acrylic resin to a gold alloy. METHODS: The disk-shaped adherend materials were prepared from a gold alloy (Casting Gold M.C. Type IV). Two multipurpose-primers (Universal Primer, Monobond Plus), four metal primers containing an organic sulfur compound (M.L. Primer, Alloy Primer, Metaltite, and V-Primer), and three acidic primers (Estenia Opaque Primer, Acryl Bond, and Super-Bond Liquid) were used...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
Xiang Luo, Xianbo Lu, Gangyong Zhou, Xingyu Zhao, Yue Ouyang, Xiaobo Zhu, Yue-E Miao, Tianxi Liu
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted great attentions due to their high energy density and high theoretical capacity. However, the "shuttle effect" caused by the dissolution of polysulfide in liquid electrolytes severely hinders their practical applications. Herein, we originally propose a carboxyl functional polyamide acid (PAA) nanofiber separator with dual-functions for inhibiting polysulfide transfer and promoting Li+ migration via a one-step electrospinning synthesis method. Especially, the functional groups of -COOH in PAA separators provide an electronegative environment which promotes the transport of Li+, while suppresses the migration of negative polysulfide anions...
October 30, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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