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nerve barrier

Xiao Shan, Mark R Sambrook, David C Clary
In order to further understand and support approaches for the degradation and destruction of toxic chemicals, the thermal decomposition of the nerve agent VX through possible pericyclic hydrogen transfer reactions is investigated using simulant molecules. A total of four simulant molecules are studied. Three of them have only one possible H transfer site while the other has two. They are chosen to bring physical insights into individual steps of the pericyclic reaction mechanism as well as the possible existence of competing mechanisms...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Juanjuan Wu, Yuhui Ma, Yayun Ding, Peng Zhang, Xiao He, Zhiyong Zhang
Ceria nanoparticles (nanoceria) have been used as a fuel-borne catalyst, and are emitted in the particulate phase in the diesel exhaust. To evaluate the potential health risks of airborne nanoceria, the pulmonary and systemic consequences of nanoceria to ICR mice were studied under repeated transnasal instillation. Two different size nanoceria (7-nm and 25-nm) were chose, representing the nanoceria mostly used as fuel additives and the combustion products of the very nanoceria, respectively. As the first target organ of nanoceria, the lungs suffered serious damages manifested in the results of their biochemical and pathological examinations...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Alessio Facciolà, Giuseppa Visalli, Sebastiano La Maestra, Manuela Ceccarelli, Francesco D'Aleo, Giuseppe Nunnari, Giovanni Francesco Pellicanò, Angela Di Pietro
Due to their morphological and physicochemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enhance the structural properties of several materials and are produced in great volumes. The production and the manufacturing of CNTs-incorporated products can lead to the potential environmental release of CNTs. For these reasons, CNTs can represent a serious concern for human health. Humans are exposed to nanoparticles through inhalation, ingestion and skin uptake. After their entrance, the particles can reach the Central Nervous System (CNS) through three different pathways: the systemic, olfactory and trigeminal pathways...
November 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ronald B Pringle, Edward C Meek, Howard W Chambers, Janice E Chambers
The nerve agents are extremely toxic organophosphates which lead to massive inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The currently approved pyridinium oxime reactivators of organophosphate-inhibited AChE (eg, 2-PAM in the United States) cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier because of the permanent positive charge in the pyridinium ring. Therefore these current oximes cannot rescue inhibited AChE in the brain. Our laboratories have invented and patented a platform of substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes that have been tested for efficacy as therapy within the brains of adult male rats which were challenged with a high sublethal dosage of highly relevant surrogates of sarin (nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate, NIMP) and VX (nitrophenyl ethyl methylphosphonate, NEMP)...
December 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Annika Keller, Mario Nuvolone, Irina Abakumova, Andra Chincisan, Regina Reimann, Merve Avar, Daniel Heinzer, Simone Hornemann, Josephin Wagner, Daniel Kirschenbaum, Fabian F Voigt, Caihong Zhu, Luca Regli, Fritjof Helmchen, Adriano Aguzzi
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused by the prion, which consists essentially of PrPSc, an aggregated, conformationally modified form of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). Although TSEs can be experimentally transmitted by intracerebral inoculation, most instances of infection in the field occur through extracerebral routes. The epidemics of kuru and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease were caused by dietary exposure to prions, and parenteral administration of prion-contaminated hormones has caused hundreds of iatrogenic TSEs...
November 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Oluwaseun O Mustapha, Matthew A Olude, Stephen T Bello, A Taiwo, A Jagun, James O Olopade
Depletion of myelin and neurobehavioural deficits are indications that vanadium crosses the blood-brain barrier and such neurotoxic effects of vanadium on the brain of Wistar rats have been elucidated. The effect however on the peripheral nerves, is yet to be reported. Thus, this work was designed to evaluate the axonal and myelin integrity of sciatic nerves in Wistar rats following exposure to vanadium. 10 male Wistar rats were exposed to 3mg/kg body weight of sodium metavanadate for 7 days, subjected to rearing and forelimb grip behavioural tests, and sciatic nerves processed for histology (Haematoxylin and Eosin, Cresyl Violet, Luxol Fast Blue)...
November 28, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Takefumi Yamaguchi
Purpose: Dry eye is a major ocular pathology worldwide. Although dry eye is a multifactorial disease, recent studies have shown that chronic immunologic processes have a pivotal role in its pathogenesis, characterized by the infiltration of immune cells in the lacrimal glands, elevated levels of tear inflammatory cytokines, and increased density of immune cells in the cornea and conjunctiva. This review describes the recent advances in understanding the relationship between dry eye and inflammation...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Katerina Deike-Hofmann, Julia Reuter, Robert Haase, Daniel Paech, Regula Gnirs, Sebastian Bickelhaupt, Michael Forsting, Claus Peter Heußel, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Alexander Radbruch
BACKGROUND: The "glymphatic system" (GS), a brain-wide network of cerebrospinal fluid microcirculation, supplies a pathway through and out of the central nervous system (CNS); malfunction of the system is implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. In this exploratory study, we analyzed the potential of a new imaging approach that we coined delayed T2-weighted gadolinium-enhanced imaging to visualize the GS in vivo. METHODS: Heavily T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (hT2w-FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging was obtained before, and 3 hours and 24 hours after intravenous gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) application in 33 neurologically healthy patients and 7 patients with an impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to cerebral metastases...
November 21, 2018: Investigative Radiology
N Banayan, C Georgeon, K Grieve, D Ghoubay, F Baudouin, V Borderie
The limbus is the anatomical and functional barrier between corneal and conjunctival epithelia. It is characterized by presence of the limbal stem cell niche which allows corneal homeostasis to be maintained. Limbal stem cell deficiency is characterized by a dual process: insufficient regeneration of corneal epithelium, which cannot therefore assure its function of physiological support, associated with corneal invasion by conjunctival proliferation. Diagnosis is currently made via routine clinical examination, corneal impression cytology and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM)...
November 22, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Orly Ravid, Shirin Elhaik Goldman, David Macheto, Yael Bresler, Raquel Ines De Oliveira, Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Fabien Gosselet, Lucie Dehouck, Michal Schnaider Beeri, Itzik Cooper
Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are highly toxic chemicals widely used as pesticides (e.g., paraoxon (PX)- the active metabolite of the insecticide parathion) and as chemical warfare nerve agents. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage has been shown in rodents exposed to PX, which is an organophosphate oxon. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in BBB reaction after acute exposure to PX in an established in vitro BBB system made of stem-cell derived, human brain-like endothelial cells (BLECs) together with brain pericytes that closely mimic the in vivo BBB...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
N Banayan, C Georgeon, K Grieve, D Ghoubay, F Baudouin, V Borderie
The limbus is the anatomical and functional barrier between the corneal and conjunctival epithelia. It is characterized by the presence of the limbal stem cell niche, which allows corneal homeostasis to be maintained. Limbal stem cell deficiency is characterized by a dual process: insufficient regeneration of corneal epithelium, which cannot therefore assure its function of physiological support, associated with corneal invasion by conjunctival proliferation. Diagnosis is currently made via routine clinical examination, corneal impression cytology and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM)...
November 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Tivadar Feczkó, Albrecht Piiper, Saema Ansar, Frank W Blixt, Mukul Ashtikar, Susanne Schiffmann, Thomas Ulshöfer, Michael J Parnham, Yifat Harel, Liron Limor Israel, Jean-Paul Lellouche, Matthias G Wacker
For many years, delivering drug molecules across the blood brain barrier has been a major challenge. The neuropeptide nerve growth factor is involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation of cholinergic neurons and holds great potential in the treatment of stroke. However, as with many other compounds, the biomolecule is not able to enter the central nervous system. In the present study, nerve growth factor and ultra-small particles of iron oxide were co-encapsulated into a chemically crosslinked albumin nanocarrier matrix which was modified on the surface with apolipoprotein E...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Tina B McKay, Yashar Seyed-Razavi, Chiara E Ghezzi, Gabriela Dieckmann, Thomas J F Nieland, Dana M Cairns, Rachel E Pollard, Pedram Hamrah, David L Kaplan
The cornea is a valuable tissue for studying peripheral sensory nerve structure and regeneration due to its avascularity, transparency, and dense innervation. Somatosensory innervation of the cornea serves to identify changes in environmental stimuli at the ocular surface, thereby promoting barrier function to protect the eye against injury or infection. Due to regulatory demands to screen ocular safety of potential chemical exposure, a need remains to develop functional human tissue models to predict ocular damage and pain using in vitro-based systems to increase throughput and minimize animal use...
November 16, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Lisa Hark, Megan Acito, Jennifer Adeghate, Jeffrey Henderer, Joseph Okudolo, Kunal Malik, Jeanne Molineaux, Rita Eburuoh, Tingting Zhan, L Jay Katz
Blindness from glaucoma can be prevented by early detection and treatment. Telemedicine improves access to treatment in high-risk populations that face barriers to receiving adequate ophthalmic care. We used a practice-based telemedicine screening model at two health centers. Telemedicine imaging of the fundus and optic nerve, followed by a complete eye exam at the same location for participants with abnormal findings, unreadable images, or ocular hypertension (OHTN), was performed. A total of 182 participants were screened, of whom 108 qualified for a complete eye exam...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Teruki Dainichi, Akihiko Kitoh, Atsushi Otsuka, Saeko Nakajima, Takashi Nomura, Daniel H Kaplan, Kenji Kabashima
The skin provides both a physical barrier and an immunologic barrier to external threats. The protective machinery of the skin has evolved to provide situation-specific responses to eliminate pathogens and to provide protection against physical dangers. Dysregulation of this machinery can give rise to the initiation and propagation of inflammatory loops in the epithelial microenvironment that result in inflammatory skin diseases in susceptible people. A defective barrier and microbial dysbiosis drive an interleukin 4 (IL-4) loop that underlies atopic dermatitis, while in psoriasis, disordered keratinocyte signaling and predisposition to type 17 responses drive a pathogenic IL-17 loop...
December 2018: Nature Immunology
Andrew J Franjesevic, Sydney B Sillart, Jeremy M Beck, Shubham Vyas, Christopher S Callam, Christopher M Hadad
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents and pesticides present significant threats to civilian and military populations. OP compounds include the nefarious G and V chemical nerve agents, but more commonly, civilians are exposed to less toxic OP pesticides, while resulting in the same negative toxicological effects and thousands of deaths on an annual basis. After decades of research, no new therapeutics have been realized since the mid-1900s. Upon phosphylation of the catalytic serine residue, known as inhibition, there is an accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain synapses and neuromuscular junctions, leading to a cholinergic crisis and eventually death...
November 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Xinghui Wang, Yang Miao, Jun Ni, Yaxian Wang, Tianmei Qian, Jun Yu, Qianyan Liu, Pan Wang, Sheng Yi
Tight junctions seal off physical barriers, regulate fluid and solute flow, and protect the endoneurial microenvironment of the peripheral nervous system. Physical barriers in the peripheral nervous system were disrupted after nerve injury. However, the dynamic changes of tight junction components after peripheral nerve injury have not been fully determined yet. In the current study, by using previously obtained deep sequencing outcomes and bioinformatic tools, we found that tight junction signaling pathway was activated after peripheral nerve injury...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hulya Karatas, Muge Yemisci, Emine Eren-Kocak, Turgay Dalkara
The realization of the importance of growth factors in adult CNS led to several studies investigating their roles in neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on the observations that chronic stress decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and antidepressant treatments reverse BDNF to normal levels, "neurotrophic hypothesis of depression" was proposed. Subsequent studies found that several other growth factors, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor, nerve growth factor were also decreased by chronic stress...
November 11, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Spyridon Skoufias, Mikaël Sturny, Rodrigo Fraga-Silva, Theodore G Papaioannou, Nikolaos Stergiopoulos, Ioannis Adamakis, Constantinos A Constantinides
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have shown that electrostimulation of the cavernosal nerve can induce and maintain penile erection. Based on these discoveries, neurostimulation to activate the erectile response has been considered a potential solution to treat erectile dysfunction (ED). However, despite recognized potential, this technology has not been further developed. The barrier is the complex anatomy of the human cavernous nerve, which challenges the intraoperative identification of the cavernosal nerves for electrode placement...
November 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
T Schmitz-Rixen, R T Grundmann
The answer to the question of whether endovascular techniques extend the barriers to treatment in multimorbid vascular patients depends on the localization of the vascular disease and its stage. In multimorbid vascular patients with limited life expectancy and asymptomatic carotid stenosis, neither an endovascular nor an open procedure is indicated but a conservative best medicinal treatment is to be preferred. In symptomatic carotid stenosis the endovascular procedure is indicated for special anatomical conditions, such as contralateral carotid artery occlusion, contralateral recurrent nerve palsy, recurrent stenosis following endarterectomy, radical neck dissection and radiotherapy in the cervical region...
October 31, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
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