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nerve barrier

F Fang, J Wang, Y-F Wang, Y-D Peng
OBJECTIVE: Microangiopathy is a major cause in diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). This review examines evidence from both human and animal studies to elucidate the important microvascular factors in DPN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a literature review of articles published on PubMed in English. RESULTS: There is an abundance of evidence linking endoneurial microvascular abnormalities to peripheral nerve dysfunction and pathology in patients with diabetes...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Andriy O Glushakov, Olena Y Glushakova, Tetyana Y Korol, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with long-term disabilities and devastating chronic neurological complications including problems with cognition, motor function, sensory processing, as well as behavioral deficits and mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, personality change and social unsuitability. Clinical data suggest that disruption of the thalamo-cortical system including anatomical and metabolic changes in the thalamus following TBI might be responsible for some chronic neurological deficits following brain trauma...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaofeng Chen, Xiaofei He, Shijian Luo, Yukun Feng, Fengyin Liang, Taotao Shi, Ruxun Huang, Zhong Pei, Zhendong Li
Cerebral cortical microinfarct (CMI) is common in patients with dementia and cognitive decline. Emerging studies reported that intestinal dysfunction influenced the outcome of ischemic stroke and that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) protected against ischemic stroke. However, the effects of intestinal dysfunction and VNS on CMI are not clear. Therefore, we examined the influence of colitis and VNS on CMI and the mechanisms of VNS attenuating CMI in mice with colitis. CMI was induced using a two-photon laser. Colitis was induced using oral dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Fengjin Hao, Yueqin Feng, Yifu Guan
OBJECTIVE: Botulinum toxin has many applications in the treatment of central diseases, as biological macromolecules, it is difficult to pass through the blood-brain barrier which greatly limits their application. In this paper, we verified whether the botulinum toxin heavy chain HCS has a specific neural guidance function. METHODS: We have constructed a fusion protein with botulinum toxin heavy chain and a membrane penetrating peptide TAT (TAT-EGFP-HCS). Recombinant plasmid of botulinum toxin light chain (LC) and TAT also were constructed...
October 11, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Gaston Echaniz, Marcos De Miguel, Glenn Merritt, Plinio Sierra, Pranjal Bora, Nabamallika Borah, Christopher Ciarallo, Miriam de Nadal, Richard J Ing, Adrian Bosenberg
BACKGROUND: Cleft defects are common craniofacial malformations which require early surgical repair. These patients are at high risk of postoperative airway obstruction and respiratory failure. Cleft surgery may require high doses of opioids which may contribute to these complications. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of proximal and distal approaches to blocking the maxillary nerve in patients undergoing cleft lip or cleft palate surgery. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled and double-blind study...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Seungmae Seo, Angela Mathison, Adrienne Grzenda, Jewel Podratz, Ezequiel Calvo, Stephen Brimijoin, Anthony Windebank, Juan Iovanna, Gwen Lomberk, Raul Urrutia
Heterochromatin protein 1 γ (HP1γ) is a well-known chromatin protein, which regulates gene silencing during the execution of processes associated with embryogenesis, organ maturation, and cell differentiation. We find that, in vivo, the levels of HP1γ are downregulated during nervous system development. Similar results are recapitulated in vitro during nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuronal cell differentiation in PC12 cells. Mechanistically, our experiments demonstrate that in differentiating PC12 cells, NGF treatment decreases the association of HP1γ to silent heterochromatin, leads to phosphorylation of this protein at S83 via protein kinase A (PKA), and ultimately results in its degradation...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rita Del Giudice, Jens O Lagerstedt
Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) related amyloidosis is a rare disease caused by missense mutations in the APOA1 gene. These mutations lead to protein aggregation and abnormal accumulation of ApoA-I amyloid fibrils in heart, liver, kidneys, skin, nerves, ovaries or testes. Consequently, the carriers are at risk of single- or multi-organ failure and of need of organ transplantation. Understanding the basic molecular structure and function of ApoA-I amyloidogenic variants, as well as their biological effects, is therefore of great interest...
October 5, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Jiyin Zhou, Zuo Zhang, Guisheng Qian
Diabetes impairs the bone marrow (BM) architecture and function as well as the mobilization of immature cells into the bloodstream and number of potential regenerative cells. Circadian regulation of bone immature cell migration is regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, which are expressed on hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts in BM. Diabetes is associated with a substantially lower number of sympathetic nerve terminal endings in BM; thus, diabetic neuropathy plays a critical role in BM dysfunction...
October 5, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Masayuki Ohira, Masaki Takao
Superficial siderosis (SS) is a rare, neurodegenerative disease that results from toxic accumulation of hemosiderin on the surface of the brain and spinal cord. The Japanese guidelines for diagnosis and classification of SS have been classified into three categories, according to the distribution of iron deposition and the clinical symptoms, as follows: "classical" type, "localized" type and "atypical" type. In "classical" type SS, patients typically present with slowly progressive and irreversible cerebellar ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and/or myelopathy, due to involvement of the acoustic nerve, cerebellum, and spinal cord...
October 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Konrad Mende, Michael A Tonkin
In severe carpal tunnel syndrome a continuum of neural changes takes place depending on the degree and duration of the compression, beginning with breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier, followed by endoneurial oedema and, subsequently, perineurial thickening and ischemia. Persisting chronic compression will eventually result in axonal degeneration. We report a case of longstanding carpal tunnel syndrome with amyloid deposits and the unusual intraoperative 'Austrian flag' sign.
September 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
Shu-Wen Mu, Yuan Dang, Shou-Sen Wang, Jian-Jun Gu
The occurrence and development of acute cerebrovascular diseases involves an inflammatory response, and high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is a pro-inflammatory factor that is expressed not only in the early-injury stage of disease, but also during the post-repair process. In the initial stage of disease, HMGB1 is released into the outside of the cell to participate in the cascade amplification reaction of inflammation, causing vasospasm, destruction of the blood-brain barrier and apoptosis of nerve cells...
September 2018: Biomedical Reports
Thomas J Wilson
Nerve transfer surgery involves using a working, functional nerve with an expendable or duplicated function as a donor to supply axons and restore function to an injured recipient nerve. Nerve transfers were originally popularized for the restoration of motor function in patients with peripheral nerve injuries. However, more recently, novel uses of nerve transfers have been described, including nerve transfers for sensory reinnervation, nerve transfers for spinal cord injury and stroke patients, supercharge end-to-side nerve transfers, and targeted muscle reinnervation for the prevention and treatment of postamputation neuroma pain...
September 28, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Joshua Scott Will, David C Bury, John A Miller
Low back pain is usually nonspecific or mechanical. Mechanical low back pain arises intrinsically from the spine, intervertebral disks, or surrounding soft tissues. Clinical clues, or red flags, may help identify cases of nonmechanical low back pain and prompt further evaluation or imaging. Red flags include progressive motor or sensory loss, new urinary retention or overflow incontinence, history of cancer, recent invasive spinal procedure, and significant trauma relative to age. Imaging on initial presentation should be reserved for when there is suspicion for cauda equina syndrome, malignancy, fracture, or infection...
October 1, 2018: American Family Physician
X Chen, D Zhu, Y G Yang, Z S Li, Y Zhang, J W Xiao, B Li
Objective: To evaluate the effect of acrylamide on the apoptosis of nerve cells by integral cell modelling in vitro which simulates the barrier effect and metabolic micro - environment. Methods: A non - contact and co-cultured in vitro blood brain barrier (BBB) model was established by using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and rat glioma cells (C6) . The trans - endotheilal electrical resistance (TEER) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracer effects were measured to verify the tight connectivity and permeability of the established BBB model...
June 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Ya-Xiong Yong, Yu-Ming Li, Jia Lian, Chuan-Ming Luo, De-Xia Zhong, Ke Han
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), an acute degenerative pathology of the central nervous system, is a leading cause of death and disability. As the glial scar is a mechanical barrier to nerve regeneration, inhibitory molecules in the forming scar and methods to overcome them have suggested molecular modification strategies to allow neuronal growth and functional regeneration. Herein, we aim to investigate the effects of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) gene silencing on the glial scar formation after TBI by establishing rat models...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Carol Munsterman, Penelope Strauss
PURPOSE: The purpose of the project was to reduce the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in adult surgical patients who fasted for more than 12 hours with the administration of a preinduction intravenous fluid (IVF) bolus. DESIGN: This interdisciplinary project used the Plan-Do-Study-Act model for quality improvement. METHODS: After institutional approval, 381 consecutive adult surgical patients were evaluated for participation; 148 patients fasted more than 12 hours and met inclusion criteria to receive a 1 liter, IV fluid bolus before anesthesia induction...
October 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Haoyue Tan, Huan Jia, Yun Li, Zhihua Zhang, Weidong Zhu, Yun Cai, Zhaoyan Wang, Hao Wu
PURPOSE: To investigate the outcomes of cochlear implantation in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and to discuss the current management strategy for NF2 patients. METHODS: The medical records of NF2 patients who received cochlear implants (CI) at our center between 2012 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Pre-operative hearing status, tumor status, treatment of tumors, and auditory outcomes post-implantation were evaluated. RESULTS: Twelve patients were included in the study...
November 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
William M Pardridge, Ruben J Boado, Daniel J Patrick, Eric Ka-Wai Hui, Jeff Zhiqiang Lu
A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transferrin receptor (TfR) is a potential agent for delivery of biologic drugs to the brain across the BBB. However, to date, no TfRMAb has been tested with chronic dosing in a primate model. A humanized TfRMAb against the human (h) TfR1, which cross reacts with the primate TfR, was genetically engineered with high affinity (ED50 = 0.18 ± 0.04 nM) for the human TfR type 1 (TfR1). For acute dosing, the hTfRMAb was tritiated and injected intravenously (IV) in the Rhesus monkey, which confirmed rapid delivery of the humanized hTfRMAb into both brain parenchyma, via transport across the BBB, and into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), via transport across the choroid plexus...
September 27, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Qianyan Liu, Xinghui Wang, Sheng Yi
Peripheral nerves are composed of complex layered anatomical structures, including epineurium, perineurium, and endoneurium. Perineurium and endoneurium contain many physical barriers, including the blood-nerve barrier at endoneurial vessels and the perineurial barrier. These physical barriers help to eliminate flux penetration and thus contribute to the establishment of a stable microenvironment. In the current review, we introduce the anatomical compartments and physical barriers of peripheral nerves and then describe the cellular and molecular basis of peripheral physical barriers...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Herbert Venthur, Jing-Jiang Zhou
Recently, two alternative targets in insect periphery nerve system have been explored for environmentally-friendly approaches in insect pest management, namely odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs). Located in insect antennae, OBPs are thought to be involved in the transport of odorants to ORs for the specific signal transduction of behaviorally active odorants. There is rich information on OBP binding affinity and molecular docking to bioactive compounds as well as ample 3D crystal structures due to feasible production of recombinant proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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