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nerve barrier

Krzyżanowska Weronika, Pomierny Bartosz, Starek-Świechowicz Beata, Broniowska Żaneta, Strach Beata, Budziszewska Bogusława
Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is the most commonly used chemical UV filter. This compound can easily be absorbed through the skin and the gastrointestinal tract and can disturb sex hormone receptor function. BP-3 is lipophilic and should cross the blood-brain barrier and it may reduce the survival of neurons, although so far, its effects on nerve cells have been studied in only in vitro cultures. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of BP-3 on apoptosis and the expression of oestrogen, androgen and arylhydrocarbon receptors (AhR) in the rat frontal cortex and hippocampus...
August 9, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Zenghui Zhao, Liang Guo, Yong Zhu, Wei Luo, Yunsheng Ou, Zhengxue Quan, Dianming Jiang
BACKGROUND Long-term follow-up results showed that epidural scar formation and adhesion after laminectomy always affected the outcomes of repeat operations. The establishment of a barrier between scar tissue and dura was effective in preventing epidural scar formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (n-HA/PA66) artificial lamina was designed and fabricated and used to cover the opened spinal canal in patients who received laminectomy. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) Scores, X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging results were periodically recorded and evaluated...
August 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jianzhuang Yao, Xiabin Chen, Fang Zheng, Chang-Guo Zhan
Carboxylesterase-1 (CE-1) is a crucial enzyme responsible for metabolism/activation/inactivation of xenobiotics (therapeutic agents, prodrugs, abused drugs, and organophosphorus nerve agents etc.) and also involved in many other biological processes. In this study, we performed extensive computational modeling and simulations to understand the fundamental reaction mechanism of cocaine hydrolysis catalyzed by CE-1, revealing that CE-1-catalyzed cocaine hydrolysis follows a novel reaction pathway with only two reaction steps: a single-step acylation process and a single-step deacylation process...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Rodney A Gabriel, Brian M Ilfeld
Maximizing analgesia is critical following joint arthroplasty because postoperative pain is a major barrier to adequate physical therapy. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks have been the mainstay for acute pain management in this population; however, this and similar techniques are limited by their duration of action. Cryoneurolysis and peripheral nerve stimulation are two methodologies used for decades to treat chronic pain. With the advent of portable ultrasound devices and percutaneous administration equipment, both procedures may now be suitable for treatment of acute pain...
September 2018: Anesthesiology Clinics
Luca Antonioli, Valentina Caputi, Matteo Fornai, Carolina Pellegrini, Daniela Gentile, Maria Cecilia Giron, Genny Orso, Nunzia Bernardini, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Balázs Csóka, György Haskó, Zoltán H Németh, Carmelo Scarpignato, Corrado Blandizzi, Rocchina Colucci
BACKGROUND: The murine model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is characterized by an increment of intestinal permeability, secondary to an impairment of mucosal epithelial barrier and enteric inflammation, followed by morphofunctional rearrangement of the enteric nervous system. The present study investigated the involvement of abdominal macrophages in the mechanisms underlying the development of enteric dysmotility associated with obesity. METHODS: Wild type C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD (60% kcal from fat) or normocaloric diet (NCD, 18% kcal from fat) for 8 weeks...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Niyanta N Kumar, Jeffrey J Lochhead, Michelle E Pizzo, Geetika Nehra, Sam Boroumand, Gretchen Greene, Robert G Tnhorne
The intranasal route has been hypothesized to circumvent the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers, allowing entry into the brain via extracellular pathways along olfactory and trigeminal nerves and the perivascular spaces (PVS) of cerebral blood vessels. We investigated the potential of the intranasal route to non-invasively target antibodies to the brain 30 min following delivery by characterizing distribution, dose-response, and mechanisms of antibody transport to and within the brain after administering non-targeted radiolabeled or fluorescently labeled full length immunoglobulin G (IgG) to normal adult female rats...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Hyeong Guk Jeong, Sun Tae Ahn, Jong Wook Kim, Kyung Keun Seo, Dong Soo Lee, Hong Sun Uh, Je Jong Kim, Du Geon Moon
INTRODUCTION: Glans penis augmentation (GPA) using hyaluronic acid (HA) gel has been developed for treating premature ejaculation (PE) with penile hypersensitivity. The injected HA filler creates a barrier that reduces the tactile stimuli to the hypersensitive dorsal nerve. Although the HA filler is biodegradable and is believed to not cause permanent loss of sexual function, the current International Society for Sexual Medicine guideline for PE does not recommend this procedure owing to concerns regarding sexual dysfunction...
August 2, 2018: Sexual Medicine
Noboru Tanaka, Sachiho Kida, Masafumi Kinoshita, Hideto Morimoto, Tadao Shibasaki, Katsuhiko Tachibana, Ryuji Yamamoto
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), an enzyme that catabolizes glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including heparan sulfate (HS) and dermatan sulfate (DS). GAG accumulation leads to severe neurological and somatic impairments. At present, the most common treatment for MPS II is intravenous enzyme replacement therapy; however, the inability of recombinant IDS to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts therapeutic efficacy for neurological manifestations...
July 23, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Irem Tasci, Caner Feyzi Demir, Tuncay Kuloglu
Objectives: Diabetic neuropathy is the most frequent chronic complication of diabetes. It may attack to sensory, motor or autonomous fibers. Varied mechanisms account for the development of diabetic neuropathy such as metabolic disorders, microvascular damages, neurotrophic support deficit, alternation in neuro-immune interactions, neural and glial cell apoptosis, and inflammation. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a potent lipophilic antioxidant in vitro and in vivo conditions, which plays a main role as cofactor in many mitochondrial reactions, easily absorbed from gastointestinal tract and can easily cross the blood brain barrier (BBB)...
June 2018: Medical Archives
M Fornai, R M van den Wijngaard, L Antonioli, C Pellegrini, C Blandizzi, W J de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Nerve-mucosa interactions control various elements of gastrointestinal functions, including mucosal host defense, gut barrier function, and epithelial cell growth and differentiation. In both intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases, alterations of autonomic nerve activity have been observed to be concurrent with the disease course, such as in inflammatory and functional bowel diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. This is relevant as the extrinsic autonomic nervous system is increasingly recognized to modulate gut inflammatory responses...
July 29, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Jonathan Vinet, Anna-Maria Costa, Manuel Salinas-Navarro, Giuseppina Leo, Lieve Moons, Lutgarde Arckens, Giuseppe Biagini
Recently, we showed that matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) is highly expressed in microglia and myeloid infiltrates, which are presumably involved in blood⁻brain barrier (BBB) leakage and subsequent neuronal cell death that follows status epilepticus (SE). Here, we assessed the effects of a hydroxypyrone-based inhibitor selective for MMP-12 in the pilocarpine-induced SE rat model to determine hippocampal cell survival. In the hippocampus of rats treated with pilocarpine, intra-hippocampal injections of the MMP-12 inhibitor protected Cornu Ammonis 3 (CA3) and hilus of dentate gyrus neurons against cell death and limited the development of the ischemic-like lesion that typically develops in the CA3 stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the hippocampus...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aristo Vojdani, Elroy Vojdani
Antibodies against many neural antigens are detected in the sera of both patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and some healthy individuals. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction could make it possible for brain-reactive autoantibodies to reach the brain, where they can react with amyloid ß peptide (AßP). The origin of these autoreactive antibodies in the blood is unclear. The goals of this study were as follows: (1) to examine the immune reactivity of anti-AßP-42 with 22 neuronal and other associated antigens, some of which are involved in the pathophysiology of AD; (2) to classify antibodies to these 22 different antigens into those that cross-react with AßP-42 and those that do not; (3) to determine whether these antibodies react with BBB proteins, nerve growth factors, and enteric neuronal antigens...
2018: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Prasenjit Mondal, Varsha Gupta, Gaurav Das, Krishnangsu Pradhan, Juhee Khan, Prabir Kumar Gharai, Surajit Ghosh
Design and development of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor has tremendous implications in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we have adopted a computational approach for the design of a peptide based AChE inhibitor from its active site. We identified an octapeptide, which interacts with the catalytic anionic site (CAS) of AChE enzyme and inhibits its activity. Interestingly, this peptide also inhibits amyloid aggregation through its interaction at the 17-21 region of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and stabilizes microtubules by interacting with tubulin as well...
August 1, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Dezhuang Ye, Xiaohui Zhang, Yimei Yue, Ramesh Raliya, Pratim Biswas, Sara Taylor, Yuan-Chuan Tai, Joshua B Rubin, Yongjian Liu, Hong Chen
Focused ultrasound combined with microbubble-mediated intranasal delivery (FUSIN) is a new brain drug delivery technique. FUSIN utilizes the nasal route for direct nose-to-brain drug administration, thereby bypassing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and minimizing systemic exposure. It also uses FUS-induced microbubble cavitation to enhance transport of intranasally (IN) administered agents to the FUS-targeted brain location. Previous studies have provided proof-of-concept data showing the feasibility of FUSIN to deliver dextran and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor to the caudate putamen of mouse brains...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Emad Khalilzadeh, Farzin Azarpey, Reza Hazrati, Gholamreza Vafaei Saiah
It seems that histamine release in the site of neuronal injury could contribute to the neuropathic pain mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the anti-allodynic effects of chronic administration of different classes of histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists on neuropathic nociceptive behavior following tibial nerve transection (TNT) in rats. Peripheral neuropathy was induced by TNT surgery. We performed acetone tests (AT) to record cold allodynia, Von Frey tests (VFT) to measure mechanical allodynia, double plate test (DPT) to evaluate thermal place preference/avoidance and open field test (OFT) for evaluation of animal activity...
July 27, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Pavlina Tsoka, Hidetaka Matsumoto, Daniel E Maidana, Keiko Kataoka, Irene Naoumidi, Achille Gravanis, Demetrios G Vavvas, Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris
Retinal detachment (RD) leads to photoreceptor cell death secondary to the physical separation of the retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. Intensifying photoreceptor survival in the detached retina could be remarkably favorable for many retinopathies in which RD can be seen. BNN27, a blood-brain barrier (BBB)-permeable, C17-spiroepoxy derivative of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has shown promising neuroprotective activity through interaction with nerve growth factor receptors, TrkA and p75NTR ...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anne Z Eriksen, Rasmus Eliasen, Julia Oswald, Paul J Kempen, Fredrik Melander, Thomas L Andresen, Michael Young, Petr Baranov, Andrew J Urquhart
A common event in optic neuropathies is the loss of axons and death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) resulting in irreversible blindness. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway agonists have been shown to foster axon regeneration and RGC survival in animal models of optic nerve damage. However, many challenges remain in developing therapies that exploit cell growth and tissue remodeling including (i) activating/inhibiting cell pathways synergistically, (ii) avoiding tumorigenesis, and (iii) ensuring appropriate physiological tissue function...
July 18, 2018: ACS Nano
Tatiana Borisova
Nerve cells take a special place among other cells in organisms because of their unique function mechanism. The plasma membrane of nerve cells from the one hand performs a classical barrier function, thereby being foremost targeted during contact with micro- and nano-sized particles, and from the other hand it is very intensively involved in nerve signal transmission, i.e., depolarization-induced calcium-dependent compound exocytosis realized via vesicle fusion following by their retrieval and calcium-independent permanent neurotransmitter turnover via plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters that utilize Na+ /K+ electrochemical gradient as a driving force...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lukas Snopek, Jiri Mlcek, Lenka Sochorova, Mojmir Baron, Irena Hlavacova, Tunde Jurikova, Rene Kizek, Eva Sedlackova, Jiri Sochor
Wine consumption has been popular worldwide for many centuries. Based on in vitro and in vivo studies, a certain amount of everyday wine consumption may prevent various chronic diseases. This is due, in part, to the presence and amount of important antioxidants in red wine, and, therefore, research has focused on them. Wine polyphenols, especially resveratrol, anthocyanins, and catechins, are the most effective wine antioxidants. Resveratrol is active in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by neutralizing free oxygen radicals and reactive nitrogenous radicals; it penetrates the blood-brain barrier and, thus, protects the brain and nerve cells...
July 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nicole M Smith, Marcus K Giacci, Alexander Gough, Charlotte Bailey, Terence McGonigle, Anna M B Black, Thomas O Clarke, Carole A Bartlett, K Swaminathan Iyer, Sarah A Dunlop, Melinda Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Following injury to the central nervous system, increased microglia, secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and altered blood-brain barrier permeability, a hallmark of degeneration, are observed at and immediately adjacent to the injury site. However, few studies investigate how regions remote from the primary injury could also suffer from inflammation and secondary degeneration. METHODS: Adult female Piebald-Viral-Glaxo (PVG) rats underwent partial transection of the right optic nerve, with normal, age-matched, unoperated animals as controls...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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