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Toby M Maher, Jeffrey J Swigris, Michael Kreuter, Marlies Wijsenbeek, Nicola Cassidy, Lucy Ireland, Judit Axmann, Steven D Nathan
BACKGROUND: Antifibrotics are recommended for the treatment of individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but treatment use remains at ∼60%. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the views of individuals with IPF and pulmonologists on the diagnosis and management of IPF to understand treatment patterns. METHODS: Interviews and/or online surveys were completed by patients and pulmonologists from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK...
August 16, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Kahyun Yoon-Flannery, Lauren M DeStefano, Lucy M De La Cruz, Carla S Fisher, Lisa Y Lin, Lauren S Coffua, Rose E Mustafa, Dahlia M Sataloff, Julia C Tchou, Ari D Brooks
BACKGROUND: Nipple sparing mastectomy (NSM) is considered safe for select patients. Our objective was to examine quality of life (QOL) and satisfaction for NSM compared with skin sparing mastectomy (SSM). We aimed to evaluate these using the BREAST-Q. METHODS: After IRB approval, we analyzed patients who underwent NSM and reconstruction between July 2010-June 2015. NSM patients were matched with those after SSM based on age, race, and body mass index. Telephone interviews were prospectively conducted using the BREAST-Q Mastectomy Postoperative Module...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Lucy D Burr, Geraint B Rogers, Alice C-H Chen, Steven L Taylor, Simon D Bowler, Rebecca L Keating, Megan L Martin, Sumaira Z Hasnain, Michael A McGuckin
BACKGROUND: Chronic airway inflammation in conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis is characterised by a predominant neutrophilic inflammatory response, commonly due to the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We hypothesised that down-regulation of the anti-inflammatory nuclear transcription regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ in non-CF bronchiectasis subjects may explain why this exuberant neutrophilic inflammation is able to persist unchecked in the inflamed airway...
2018: PloS One
Yiannis Philippou, Eli Harriss, Lucy Davies, Ibrahim Jubber, Tom Leslie, Richard W Bell, Richard J Bryant, Freddie C Hamdy, Clare Verill, Alastair D Lamb
INTRODUCTION: Capsular Incision (CapI) is an iatrogenic breach of the prostatic capsule during radical prostatectomy that can cause positive surgical margins (PSM) in organ-confined (pT2) prostate cancer (PCa), or the retention of benign prostatic tissue. We systematically interrogated the literature in order to clarify the definition of CapI, and the implications of this event for rates of PSM and biochemical recurrence (BCR). METHODS: A literature search was conducted according to PRISMA criteria using the search terms 'CapI' AND 'prostatectomy' and variations of each...
August 16, 2018: BJU International
Andrea Němcová, Radovan Smíšek, Lucie Maršánová, Lukáš Smital, Martin Vítek
The assessment of ECG signal quality after compression is an essential part of the compression process. Compression facilitates the signal archiving, speeds up signal transmission, and reduces the energy consumption. Conversely, lossy compression distorts the signals. Therefore, it is necessary to express the compression performance through both compression efficiency and signal quality. This paper provides an overview of objective algorithms for the assessment of both ECG signal quality after compression and compression efficiency...
2018: BioMed Research International
Lucy L Furfaro, Barbara J Chang, Matthew S Payne
SUMMARY Streptococcus agalactiae , or group B streptococcus (GBS), is a major neonatal pathogen. Recent data have elucidated the global prevalence of maternal and neonatal colonization, but gaps still remain in the epidemiology of this species. A number of phenotypic and genotypic classifications can be used to identify the diversity of GBS strains, and some are more discriminatory than others. This review explores the main schemes used for GBS epidemiology and further details the targets for epidemiological surveillance...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
E H Pieter van Dijkhuizen, Maria De Iorio, Lucy R Wedderburn, Claire T Deakin
BACKGROUND: It is currently impossible to predict the prognosis of patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). The aim of this study was to find clinical features most strongly associated with outcome variables in JDM as a first step towards tailor-made treatment. METHODS: In a large, prospectively followed, multicenter cohort study of 340 patients with JDM, each contributing multiple visits, a Bayesian model of disease activity was developed, using the four continuous outcome variables creatine kinase (CK), childhood myositis assessment score (CMAS), manual muscle testing of 8 muscle groups (MMT8) and the physician's global assessment of disease activity (PGA)...
August 15, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Ione O C Woollacott, Jennifer M Nicholas, Amanda Heslegrave, Carolin Heller, Martha S Foiani, Katrina M Dick, Lucy L Russell, Ross W Paterson, Ashvini Keshavan, Nick C Fox, Jason D Warren, Jonathan M Schott, Henrik Zetterberg, Jonathan D Rohrer
BACKGROUND: Reliable biomarkers of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are currently lacking. FTD may be associated with chronic immune dysfunction, microglial activation and raised inflammatory markers, particularly in progranulin (GRN) mutation carriers. Levels of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) are elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but they have not been fully explored in FTD. METHODS: We investigated whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sTREM2 levels differ between FTD and controls, across different clinical and genetic subtypes of FTD, or between individuals with FTD due to AD versus non-AD pathology (based on CSF neurodegenerative biomarkers)...
August 16, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Eric S Kerns, Esther D Kim, Lucy A Meoni, Stephen M Sozio, Bernard G Jaar, Michelle M Estrella, Rulan S Parekh, Ghada Bourjeily
BACKGROUND: Mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) occurs predominantly from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by periodic airflow limitation associated with sleep arousal and oxygen desaturation and is prevalent in patients with ESRD. Whether OSA increases the risk for SCD, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among hemodialysis patients remains unknown. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 558 incident hemodialysis patients, we examined the association of OSA with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and SCD using Cox proportional hazards models controlling for traditional CVD risk factors...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Ida M B Knudsen, Christinne Hedberg, Lucy Kate Ladefoged, Daisuke Ide, Anne Brinkø, Espen Z Eikeland, Atsushi Kato, Henrik H Jensen
Four new α-glucosidase inhibitors have been synthesised through 5-8 synthetic steps from a common synthetic intermediate obtained through a recently developed carbocyclisation. The compounds were designed as hybrids of the known glucosidase inhibitors valienamine, voglibose and miglitol. All four compounds showed activity against rat intestinal sucrase with the most potent inhibitor acting at low micromolar concentration. The newly synthesised compounds were not as potent as miglitol against sucrase but showed greater selectivity towards the tested glycosidases...
August 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Miriam Franklin, Lucy Gentles, Elizabeth Matheson, Nick Bown, Paul Cross, Angela Ralte, Connor Gilkes-Immeson, Alice Bradbury, Maryam Zanjirband, John Lunec, Yvette Drew, Rachel O'Donnell, Nicola J Curtin
NUCOLL43 is a novel ovarian clear cell carcinoma (O-CCC) cell line that arose from a primary culture of a patient's malignant ascites. The cells grow reliably in cell culture with a doubling time of approx. 45 hours and form colonies at high efficiency. They have a very high degree of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) affecting approximately 85% of the genome, mostly copy neutral and almost identical to the original tumor. The cells express epithelial (pan-cytokeratin) and mesenchymal (vimentin) characteristics, CA125 and p16, like the original tumor...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Lucie Favre, Laura Marino, Aline Roth, James Acierno, Didier Hans, Nicolas Demartines, Nelly Pitteloud, Michel Suter, Tinh-Hai Collet
PURPOSE: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin resistance. The physiological mechanisms underlying the benefits of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) on glucose metabolism remain incompletely understood. The impact of RYGB on VAT was assessed among three groups of patients stratified by their glucose tolerance before surgery. METHODS: Forty-four obese women were categorized into normoglycemia (n = 21), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 18) and diabetes (n = 5) before surgery...
August 14, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Meddy El Alaoui, Laurent Soulère, Alexandre Noiriel, Priscila Sutto-Ortiz, Lucie Grand, Florence Popowycz, Jorge Alberto Rodríguez-González, Yves Queneau, Abdelkarim Abousalham
To date, several sensitive methods, based on radiolabeled elements or sterically hindered fluorochrome groups, are usually employed to screen lipase and phospholipase A (PLA) activities. Here, a new ultraviolet spectrophotometric assay for lipase or PLA was developed using natural triglycerides or synthetic glycerophosphatidylcholines containing α-eleostearic acid (9Z, 11E, 13E-octadecatrienoic acid) purified from Aleurites fordii seed oil. The conjugated triene present in α-eleostearic acid constitutes an intrinsic chromophore and consequently confers strong UV absorption properties of this free fatty acid as well as of lipid substrates harboring it...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Christine J Park, Sarah J Armenia, Lucy Zhang, Robert A Cowles
BACKGROUND: Enteric serotonin may function as a mucosal growth factor. Previous work demonstrated increased crypt cell proliferation and intestinal mucosal surface area with potentiation of serotonin. While an indirect mechanism was postulated to explain these effects, the presence of 5-HT4 receptors on enterocytes raises the possibility of a direct action of serotonin. We hypothesized that a 5-HT4 specific agonist, prucalopride, would stimulate intestinal mucosal growth and enhance absorptive function in the murine small intestine...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Michaela Tvrdonova, Marcela Vlcnovska, Lucie Pompeiano Vanickova, Viktor Kanicky, Vojtech Adam, Lena Ascher, Norbert Jakubowski, Marketa Vaculovicova, Tomas Vaculovic
In this paper, we describe the labelling of antibodies by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with diameters of 10 and 60 nm with detection by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Additionally, the AuNPs labelling strategy is compared with commercially available labelling reagents based on MeCAT (metal coded affinity tagging). Proof of principle experiments based on dot blot experiments were performed. The two labelling methods investigated were compared by sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD)...
August 14, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Sarmitha Sathiamoorthy, Rebecca J Malott, Lucy Gisonni-Lex, Siemon H S Ng
There is a need for a broad and efficient testing strategy for the detection of both known and novel viral adventitious agents in vaccines and biologicals. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) is an approach for such testing; however, an optimized testing method is one with a sample-processing pipeline that can help detect any viral adventitious agent that may be present. In this study, 11 commercial methods were assessed for efficient extraction of nucleic acids from a panel of viruses. An extraction strategy with two parallel arms, consisting of both the Invitrogen PureLink™ Virus RNA/DNA kit for total nucleic acid extraction and the Wako DNA Extractor® kit with an RNase A digestion for enrichment of double-stranded nucleic acid, was selected as the strategy for the extraction of all viral nucleic acid types (ssRNA, dsRNA, and dsDNA)...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Jan Zitko, Ondřej Jand'ourek, Pavla Paterová, Lucie Navrátilová, Jiří Kuneš, Jarmila Vinšová, Martin Doležal
Hybrid compounds based on a combination of the first-line antitubercular pyrazinamide (PZA) and a formerly identified antimycobacterial scaffold of 4-arylthiazol-2-amine were designed. Eighteen compounds were prepared, characterized and tested for in vitro growth inhibition activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. kansasii , M. avium and M. smegmatis by Microplate Alamar Blue Assay at neutral pH. Active compounds were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2)...
April 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Dhanya Thomas, Mala S Bagiya, Poikayil Sukumaran Sunil, Lucie Rolland, Anakuzhikkal Sudarsanan Sunil, T Dylan Mikesell, Srinivas Nayak, Subrahmanyam Mangalampalli, Durbha Sai Ramesh
GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) is an integrated quantity; hence it is difficult to relate the detection of ionospheric perturbations in TEC to a precise altitude. As TEC is weighted by the maximum ionospheric density, the corresponding altitude (hmF2) is, generally, assumed as the perturbation detection altitude. To investigate the validity of this assumption in detail, we conduct an accurate analysis of the GPS-TEC measured early ionospheric signatures related to the vertical surface displacement of the Mw 7...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel J Lawson, Lucy van Dorp, Daniel Falush
Genetic clustering algorithms, implemented in programs such as STRUCTURE and ADMIXTURE, have been used extensively in the characterisation of individuals and populations based on genetic data. A successful example is the reconstruction of the genetic history of African Americans as a product of recent admixture between highly differentiated populations. Histories can also be reconstructed using the same procedure for groups that do not have admixture in their recent history, where recent genetic drift is strong or that deviate in other ways from the underlying inference model...
August 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Munira Nasser Hassen, Abyot Bekele Woyessa, Mekonen Getahun, Berhane Beyene, Lucy Buluanger, Ayesheshem Ademe, Alemayehu Bekele, Adamu Addissie, Amha Kebede, Daddi Jima
BACKGROUND: Measles is a highly infectious and serious respiratory viral disease which caused by a virus. It is a significant cause of illness and death worldwide. This data analysis was conducted to describe the trend and determine the reporting rate of measles cases in Addis Ababa to make recommendation for the government of the city to strengthening measles control interventions. METHODS: We obtained and extracted ten years (2005-2014) Addis Ababa city's measles surveillance data from national database...
August 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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