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Exercise stress testing

Angus Lindsay, Preston M McCourt, Peter Karachunski, Dawn A Lowe, James M Ervasti
Generation of superoxide by xanthine oxidase can be stimulated under ischemic and aberrant calcium homeostasis. Because patients and mice with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) suffer from ischemia and excessive calcium influx, we tested the hypothesis that xanthine oxidase activity is elevated and contributes to disease pathology. Xanthine oxidase activity was measured by urinary isoxanthopterin in DMD patients at rest and in response to exercise. Urinary isoxanthopterin/creatinine was elevated compared to age-matched controls and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients...
October 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Damiano Formenti, David Perpetuini, Pierpaolo Iodice, Daniela Cardone, Giovanni Michielon, Raffaele Scurati, Giampietro Alberti, Arcangelo Merla
Background: One of the mechanisms responsible for enhancing muscular hypertrophy is the high metabolic stress associated with a reduced muscular oxygenation occurring during exercise, which can be achieved by reducing the speed of movement. Studies have tested that lowered muscle oxygenation artificially induced by an inflatable cuff, could provoke changes in prefrontal cortex oxygenation, hence, to central fatigue. It was hypothesized that (1) exercising with a slow speed of movement would result in greater increase in cerebral and greater decrease in muscle oxygenation compared with exercises of faster speed and (2) the amount of oxygenation increase in the ipsilateral prefrontal cortex would be lower than the contralateral one...
2018: PeerJ
Aaron F Carbuhn, Shelby M Reynolds, Clark W Campbell, Luke A Bradford, Jake A Deckert, Andreas Kreutzer, Andrew C Fry
Our aim was to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation ( Bifidobacterium longum 35624; 1 billion CFU·d-1 ) on exercise performance, immune modulation, and cognitive outlook in collegiate female athletes during six weeks of offseason training. Seventeen National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 collegiate female swimmers participated in this two-group matched, double-blind, placebo controlled design. Via stratified randomization, participants were assigned to probiotic ( B. longum 35624; n = 8) or placebo ( n = 9) groups...
October 10, 2018: Sports
Delfin Rodriguez Leyva, Ayelen Rodriguez-Portelles, Wendy Weighell, Randolph Guzman, Thane G Maddaford, Grant N Pierce
Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at increased risk for cardiovascular events and higher susceptibility for cardiac arrhythmias may be involved. The objectives of this double blinded, randomized controlled FLAX-PAD trial were to determine whether daily consumption of a diet supplemented with 30g of milled flaxseed (or placebo) over one year by PAD patients has effects on the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and exercise capacity. Cardiac arrhythmias were assessed on a cardiac stress test and at rest...
October 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ankit B Shah, Jodi Zilinski, Marcel G Brown, Jennifer H Neary, Rory B Weiner, Adolph M Hutter, Fred S Apple, Michael H Picard, James L Januzzi, Aaron L Baggish
Endurance exercise training (ET) stimulates eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) with left atrial dilation. To date, the biochemical correlates of exercise-induced cardiac remodelling (EICR) remain incompletely understood. Collegiate male rowers (n = 9) were studied with echocardiography and maximal-effort cardiopulmonary exercise testing (MECPET) before and after 90 days of ET intensification. Mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and high-sensitivity troponin T (hscTn) were measured at rest, peak MECPET, and 60 minutes post-MECPET at both study time points...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
F J Meyer, M M Borst, H-C Buschmann, M Claussen, D Dumitrescu, R Ewert, B Friedmann-Bette, S Gläser, R Glöckl, K Haring, B Lehnigk, U Ochmann, A M Preisser, S Sorichter, M Westhoff, H Worth
This document replaces the DGP recommendations published in 1998 and 2013. Based on recent studies and a consensus conference, the indications, choice and performance of the adequate exercise testing method and its necessary technical and staffing setting are discussed. Detailed recommendations are provided: for blood gas analysis and right heart catheterization during exercise, walk tests, spiroergometry, and stress echocardiography. The correct use of different exercise tests is discussed for specific situations in respiratory medicine: exercise induced asthma, obesity, monitoring of rehabilitation or therapeutical interventions, preoperative risk stratification, and evaluation in occupational medicine...
October 2018: Pneumologie
Amy L Kimball, Patrick M McCue, Michael A Petrie, Richard K Shields
AIM: Exercise modulates glucose tolerance and homeostasis in both healthy and diabetic individuals. Heat stress is a fundamental element of exercise. The acute glycemic response and alterations in glucose clearance following whole body passive heat stress in the absence of muscle activity has yet to be examined in humans. Knowledge of this relationship may prove useful, particularly in populations with compromised glucoregulation from reduced activity. PURPOSE: To determine insulin/glucose levels before and after an acute bout of heat stress in healthy, lean individuals and examine the effects of whole body heat stress (WBHS) and exercise on acute glucose tolerance in an expanded cohort...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
L Chevalier, J M Guy, S Doutreleau
Is the stress test still part of the useful examinations in the detection of risk heart disease in sports subjects? Should we continue to use it as a surveillance examination in coronary sports patients? Meta-analysis, considering a ST subshift of more than 1mm as a criterion for positivity, underline the low prevalence of abnormal examinations and a significant rate of false-positives. But for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, it is mainly the evolution of the ST segment to effort or recovery and the occurrence of stress arrhythmias that detect true positivity...
October 6, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Mònica Solana-Tramunt, Jose Morales, Bernat Buscà, Marina Carbonell, Lara Rodríguez-Zamora
PURPOSE: To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) was correlated with other training load and training tolerance markers for monitoring the effect of a training session on elite synchronized swimmers. METHODS: We recorded the resting HRVs (Rest) of 12 elite swimmers (mean age: 21.5±3.5 yrs) 3 times over 1 week with a cadence of 48 h prior to the 2015 World Swimming Championships. We continuously monitored heart rate (HR) and obtained salivary cortisol (SC) samples before and after the last training session of the week...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Soham Dasgupta, Megan Stark, Sonal Bhatt, Peter Fischbach, Shriprasad Deshpande
INTRODUCTION: A cardiac cause is an extremely rare etiology of pediatric chest pain. Despite its low sensitivity/specificity, exercise stress testing (EST) is widely used to determine the prognosis in patients with suspected/established coronary disease. We aimed to look at the utility of a combined cardiopulmonary EST in the evaluation of pediatric patients with chest pain. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, a retrospective chart review was performed of all pediatric patients who were referred for an EST for chest pain from January 2014 to 2017...
October 9, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
L K Seidlmayer, F Riediger, N Pagonas, P Nordbeck, O Ritter, B Sasko
BACKGROUND: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is an inherited disease presenting with arrhythmic events during physical exercise or emotional stress. If untreated, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a highly lethal condition: About 80% of affected individuals experience recurrent syncope, and 30% experience cardiac arrest. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is caused by mutations in genes encoding ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Yasushi Ueki, Takashi Miura, Tomoaki Mochidome, Keisuke Senda, Soichiro Ebisawa, Tatsuya Saigusa, Hirohiko Motoki, Ayako Okada, Jun Koyama, Koichiro Kuwahara
The exercise ankle-brachial index (ABI) helps diagnose lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Patients with comorbidities may be unable to perform treadmill exercise, the most common stress loading test. While the active pedal plantar flexion (APP) test using the leg loader, simple and easy stress loading device, could be an alternative, there are no data comparing the leg loader and treadmill exercise. Therefore, we aimed to compare APP using the leg loader and treadmill exercise to evaluate PAD...
October 4, 2018: Heart and Vessels
M T Ferguson, M S Hofman, H Ismail, A Melville, K S K Yap, R J Hicks, S Wright, B Riedel
Cardiac events are a common cause of peri-operative morbidity. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing can objectively assess risk, but it does not quantify myocardial ischaemia. With appropriate dietary preparation to suppress basal myocardial glucose uptake, positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose can identify post-ischaemic myocardium, providing an attractive complement to exercise testing. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of this diagnostic algorithm. Patients referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing before major cancer surgery were prospectively recruited...
October 3, 2018: Anaesthesia
Nathaniel Millard, Andrew DeMoss, Gary McIlvain, Joseph A Beckett, John J Jasko, Mark K Timmons
OBJECTIVES: The medial elbow is stabilized during valgus loading by the ulnar collateral ligament, the flexor pronator mass (FPM), and the radial head. Impairment of the FPM can occur as a result of repeated wrist flexion activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of repeated elbow flexion exercise on medial elbow stability. METHODS: Thirty volunteers were included in this study. Ultrasound images of the medial joint space of the nondominant elbow of the participants were collected during a valgus stress test...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Joshua Bautz, David Hostler, Priya Khorana, Joe Suyama
Bautz, J, Hostler, D, Khorana, P, and Suyama, J. Cardiovascular effects of compression garments during uncompensable heat stress. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study examined the potential hemodynamic benefits of wearing lower extremity compression garments (CGs) beneath thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by wildland firefighters, while exercising in a heated environment. Using in a counterbalanced design, 10 male subjects ([mean ± SD] age 27 ± 6 years, height 1.78 ± 0.09 m, body mass 74...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Daria Frestad Bechsgaard, Ida Gustafsson, Jesper James Linde, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed, Eva Prescott, Jens Dahlgaard Hove
PURPOSE: Combined coronary CT angiography and CT perfusion (CTP) is a novel, non-invasive, 'one-stop' diagnostic tool to rule out ischaemia in patients suspected for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the normal myocardial perfusion pattern by static CTP in humans is poorly described. We aimed to investigate global and regional myocardial perfusion during rest and adenosine-induced hyperaemia in asymptomatic women without history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Using a 320-row CT scanner with a static protocol, semi-quantitative assessment of rest and stress CTP was performed in 34 asymptomatic middle-aged women without obstructive CAD (<50% stenosis) or history of CHD, and with normal exercise stress test and left ventricular (LV) function...
September 30, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Shivani M Bhatt, Yan Wang, Okan U Elci, Elizabeth Goldmuntz, Michael McBride, Stephen Paridon, Laura Mercer-Rosa
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary insufficiency (PI) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are long-term complications in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). The aim of this study was to investigate RV contractile reserve and changes in PI that occur during exercise in patients with rTOF and the associations of these changes with exercise performance using stress echocardiography. METHODS: Subjects with rTOF (n = 32) and healthy control subjects (n = 10) were prospectively enrolled and underwent rest and peak exercise echocardiography during standard cardiopulmonary exercise test protocol on a cycle ergometer or treadmill...
September 27, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
S D Soligon, M E Lixandrão, Tmpc Biazon, V Angleri, H Roschel, C A Libardi
Low-intensity resistance exercise with blood-flow restriction (BFR) promotes similar adaptations to high-intensity resistance exercise (HI-RE). Interestingly, BFR has been demonstrated to be effective for a wide range of occlusion pressures. However, the occlusion pressure magnitude may alter the psychophysiological stress related to BFR as measured by rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE) and rating of pain. We aimed to compare the RPE and pain levels across different magnitudes of occlusion pressures, promoting new knowledge regarding occlusion pressure on stress related to BFR...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
Eli Puterman, Jordan Weiss, Jue Lin, Samantha Schilf, Aaron L Slusher, Kirsten L Johansen, Elissa S Epel
STUDY DESIGN: Family members caring for chronically ill relatives are typically sedentary, chronically stressed, and at high risk of disease. Observational reports suggest caregivers have accelerated cellular aging as indicated by shorter leukocyte telomere lengths. We performed a randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of aerobic exercise on changes in telomerase levels (primary outcome) and telomere lengths (secondary outcome) in inactive caregivers. METHODS: 68 female and male community dwelling dementia caregivers who reported high stress and physical inactivity were randomly assigned to a highly supervised aerobic exercise intervention vs...
August 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Asuka Sakamoto, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Hitoshi Nakagawa, Kazuyoshi Gamada
BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of a pelvic realignment device-aided exercise programme after childbirth. Postpartum low-back pain and pelvic girdle pain often occur due to pregnancy and childbirth. Pelvic stabilization exercises are considered effective for reducing these symptoms. However, such exercise might be more effective if the sacro-iliac joints were held in optimal conformity. There is no published evidence regarding the use of a pelvic realignment device during stabilization exercises...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
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