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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098424/sarcopenia
#1
Anne Tournadre, Gaelle Vial, Frédéric Capel, Martin Soubrier, Yves Boirie
Sarcopenia is defined as a combination of low muscle mass with low muscle function. The term was first used to designate the loss of muscle mass and performance associated with aging. Now, recognized causes of sarcopenia also include chronic disease, a physically inactive lifestyle, loss of mobility, and malnutrition. Sarcopenia should be differentiated from cachexia, which is characterized not only by low muscle mass but also by weight loss and anorexia. Sarcopenia results from complex and interdependent pathophysiological mechanisms that include aging, physical inactivity, neuromuscular compromise, resistance to postprandial anabolism, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, endocrine factors, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093163/examination-of-clinical-and-psychosocial-determinants-of-exercise-capacity-change-in-cardiac-rehabilitation
#2
Emily C Gathright, Carly M Goldstein, Eric B Loucks, Andrew M Busch, Loren Stabile, Wen-Chih Wu
PURPOSE: Most cardiac rehabilitation (CR) completers improve in multiple functional and psychosocial domains. However, not all demonstrate uniform improvement in functional indicators such as exercise capacity. This study examined baseline predictors and correlates of change in exercise capacity from CR intake to completion. METHODS: CR participants (n = 488) completed assessment of metabolic equivalents (METs) via treadmill stress test, depressive symptoms, quality of life, and social support at intake and discharge...
August 6, 2018: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089110/cardiac-phase-space-tomography-a-novel-method-of-assessing-coronary-artery-disease-utilizing-machine-learning
#3
Thomas D Stuckey, Roger S Gammon, Robi Goswami, Jeremiah P Depta, John A Steuter, Frederick J Meine, Michael C Roberts, Narendra Singh, Shyam Ramchandani, Tim Burton, Paul Grouchy, Ali Khosousi, Ian Shadforth, William E Sanders
BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are increasingly applied to cardiovascular (CV) medicine in arenas ranging from genomics to cardiac imaging analysis. Cardiac Phase Space Tomography Analysis (cPSTA), employing machine-learned linear models from an elastic net method optimized by a genetic algorithm, analyzes thoracic phase signals to identify unique mathematical and tomographic features associated with the presence of flow-limiting coronary artery disease (CAD). This novel approach does not require radiation, contrast media, exercise, or pharmacological stress...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086685/comparison-of-phase-2-cardiac-rehabilitation-outcomes-between-patients-after-transcatheter-versus-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement
#4
Hafiz M Imran, Muhammad Baig, Marjan Mujib, Charles Beale, Arlene Gaw, Loren Stabile, Nishant R Shah, Paul C Gordon, Wen-Chih Wu
Background Referral rates and outcomes of cardiac rehabilitation have not been evaluated in patients with transcatheter aortic valve replacement or compared with surgical aortic valve replacement. Method A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 488 patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement ( n = 199) and surgical aortic valve replacement ( n = 289) from a university-based statewide transcatheter aortic valve replacement/surgical aortic valve replacement program during 2015-2017...
August 8, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084314/effect-of-a-simulated-tactical-occupation-task-on-physiological-strain-index-stress-and-inflammation
#5
Cody E Morris, Lee J Winchester, Andrew J Jackson, Ariel S Tomes, Wesley A Neal, Damon M Wilcoxen, Harish Chander, Scott W Arnett
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate physiological strain index (PSI) along with specific immune system markers in response to a simulated firefighting occupation workload. METHODS: Ten healthy male adults completed a 6-min simulated fire stair climb (SFSC) at 60 steps/min. The protocol consisted of four conditions, some including the wearing of a 34.04 kg vest to simulate personal protective equipment (PPE) and/or inclusion of a color-word interference test (CWIT) as a distracting mechanism...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081082/neuroprotective-effect-of-treadmill-exercise-against-blunted-brain-insulin-signaling-nadph-oxidase-and-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#6
Jae-Hoon Jeong, Jung-Hoon Koo, Joon-Yong Cho, Eun-Bum Kang
Obesity induces oxidative stress by causing hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, while contributing to cognitive and memory decline by inducing insulin resistance in the brain and hyperphosphorylation of Tau proteins. We aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise in improving these obesity-induced pathological phenomena. Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20 weeks were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks to induce obesity. The rats were subsequently subjected to treadmill exercise (progressively increasing load intensity) for 8 weeks...
August 3, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077767/induction-of-brain-nrf2-ho-1-pathway-and-antinociception-after-different-physical-training-paradigms-in-mice
#7
A Tutakhail, Q A Nazary, D Lebsir, S Kerdine-Romer, F Coudore
AIM: Activation of the Nrf2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway is a major mechanism in the cellular defense against oxidative or electrophilic stress through conjugative reactions and by enhancing cellular antioxidant capacity. Although exercise training up-regulates antioxidant defenses system, while information regarding the intensity levels of physical exercise that acts on the cellular protection systems is limited. MAIN METHODS: The present study evaluated the effects of different durations and intensities of physical exercise on the hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus Nrf2 and HO-1 gene expression and related protein content and the nociception thresholds in adult C57Bl male mice...
August 2, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075967/exercise-hemodynamics-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-identify-risk-of-incident-heart-failure-but-not-ventricular-arrhythmias-or-sudden-cardiac-death
#8
Eric D Smith, June Tome, Ryan Mcgrath, Suwen Kumar, Maryann Concannon, Sharlene M Day, Sara Saberi, Adam S Helms
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether abnormal blood pressure response (ABPR), with or without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), is associated with adverse heart failure and arrhythmia outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: A retrospective, single-center analysis was performed for adult HCM patients who underwent exercise stress testing. RESULTS: Of 589 patients included in the study, 192 (33%) demonstrated ABPR...
July 24, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075349/gh-responses-to-whole-body-vibration-alone-or-in-combination-with-maximal-voluntary-contractions-in-obese-male-adolescents
#9
A E Rigamonti, A De Col, S Tamini, G Tringali, R De Micheli, L Abbruzzese, C R Goncalves da Cruz, M Bernardo-Filho, S G Cella, A Sartorio
BACKGROUND: The anabolic, lipolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of exercise-stimulated GH secretion could be usefully exploited in the multidisciplinary rehabilitative programs of obese patients, who are reported to suffer from hyposomatotropism. To date, evaluation of GH responses to whole body vibration (WBV) in combination with maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) has been performed in normal-weight subjects, but not obese patients. Thus, aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of WBV and MVC, alone and combined, on GH responsiveness in obese subjects...
July 20, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073814/variable-hemodynamic-responses-during-diastolic-stress-echocardiography-in-patients-who-have-relaxation-abnormality-with-possible-elevated-filling-pressure
#10
Jeong Yoon Jang, Sahmin Lee, Dae Hee Kim, Jong Min Song, Duk Hyun Kang, Jae Kwan Song
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical characteristics of patients with diastolic dysfunction characterized by a relaxation abnormality with possible elevated filling pressure is remain to be determined. We sought to test whether diastolic stress echocardiography (DSE) is useful for characterization of these patients. METHODS: A total of 120 patients (58 men, mean age of 64±7 years) with E/A ratio <1.0 (mean±SD, 0.7±0.1) and 10≤ E/e' <15 at rest echocardiography was enrolled prospectively for supine bicycle exercise up to 50 W...
August 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073350/choroidal-vascular-reactivity-in-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#11
Felice Cardillo Piccolino, Marco Lupidi, Carlo Cagini, Daniela Fruttini, Massimo Nicolò, Chiara Maria Eandi, Silvia Tito
Purpose: To investigate by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) the choroidal vascular response to experimentally increased blood pressure in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods: For this multicenter, observational, case-control study, we enrolled 35 patients with an established diagnose of CSCR and 25 age-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent a handgrip isometric exercise to obtain elevation of blood pressure (BP)...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071871/efficacy-of-heat-killed-lactococcus-lactis-jcm-5805-on-immunity-and-fatigue-during-consecutive-high-intensity-exercise-in-male-athletes-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blinded-trial
#12
Yuta Komano, Kazunori Shimada, Hisashi Naito, Kosuke Fukao, Yoshihiko Ishihara, Toshio Fujii, Takeshi Kokubo, Hiroyuki Daida
BACKGROUND: Lactococcus lactis JCM 5805 (LC-Plasma) is a unique lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which activates plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). We aimed to evaluate the effect of LC-Plasma on dendritic cell (DC) activity and subjective indices of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and fatigue in athletes under high intensity exercise. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial. Fifty-one male subjects belonging to a university sports club were randomized into placebo (n = 25) and LC-Plasma (n = 26) groups...
August 2, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058347/does-blood-lactate-predict-the-chronic-adaptive-response-to-training-a-comparison-of-traditional-and-talk-test-prescription-methods
#13
Nicholas Preobrazenski, Jacob T Bonafiglia, Matthew W Nelms, Simo Lu, Lauren Robins, Camille LeBlanc, Brendon J Gurd
The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that: 1) inter-individual variability in acute blood lactate responses during exercise at 65% of peak work rate (WRPEAK; REL) will predict variability in the chronic responses to exercise training, and 2) exercising at an intensity that causes uncomfortable speech production (negative [NEG] talk test [TT] stage) elicits high acute blood lactate responses and large adaptations to training. Twenty-eight participants competed four weeks of exercise training consisting of REL (n: 14) NEG (TT, n: 14)...
July 30, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053728/exercise-and-%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-on-carnosine-acrolein-adduct-in-skeletal-muscle
#14
Victor H Carvalho, Ana H S Oliveira, Luana F de Oliveira, Rafael P da Silva, Paolo Di Mascio, Bruno Gualano, Guilherme G Artioli, Marisa H G Medeiros
Previous studies have demonstrated that exercise results in reactive aldehyde production and that β-alanine supplementation increases carnosine content in skeletal muscle. However, little is known about the influence exercise and β-alanine supplementation have on the formation of carnosine-aldehydes. The goal of the present study was to monitor the formation of carnosine-aldehyde adducts, following high-intensity intermittent exercise, before and after β-alanine supplementation. Vastus lateralis biopsy samples were taken from 14 cyclists, before and after a 28 day β-alanine supplementation, following 4 bouts of a 30 s all-out cycling test, and carnosine and CAR-aldehyde adducts [carnosine-acrolein, CAR-ACR (m/z 303), carnosine-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, CAR-HHE (m/z 341) and carnosine-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, CAR-HNE (m/z 383)] were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS...
July 18, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053413/heat-induced-extracellular-hsp72-release-is-blunted-in-elderly-diabetic-people-compared-with-healthy-middle-aged-and-older-adults-but-it-is-partially-restored-by-resistance-training
#15
Carlos Henrique de Lemos Muller, Anderson Rech, Cíntia Ehlers Botton, Helena Trevisan Schroeder, Patricia Martins Bock, Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Pedro Lopez, Cinthia Maria Schöler, Gisele Bettú Grigolo, Jerônimo Coelho, Lucas Stahlhöfer Kowalewski, Maria Inês Lavina Rodrigues, Marcela Alves de Azevedo, André Quincozes-Santos, Josianne Rodrigues-Krause, Alvaro Reischak-Oliveira, Ronei Silveira Pinto, Giuseppe De Vito, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt Júnior, Mauricio Krause
Recent evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory heat shock response (HSR) is reduced in aging and diabetes. In this study we compared HSR between healthy middle-aged adults, healthy elderly and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) elderly, and tested whether resistance training (RT) could improve the HSR in T2DM group. Thirty sedentary participants volunteered for this study. HSR (assessed as the capacity to export HSP72 during heat stress) was measured in the blood and compared between the groups. HSR was similar between healthy middle-aged and healthy elderly volunteers, but diminished in elderly T2DM (p < 0...
July 24, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051385/sex-differences-in-autonomic-response-to-exercise-testing-in-patients-with-brugada-syndrome
#16
Mireia Calvo, Virginie Le Rolle, Daniel Romero, Nathalie Béhar, Pedro Gomis, Philippe Mabo, Alfredo Hernández
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac events in patients with Brugada syndrome (BS) typically occur at rest and mainly during sleep, suggesting that changes in autonomic modulation play an important role in the arrhythmogenesis of the disease. Moreover, sex differences in clinical manifestations of BS have been reported, identifying male patients with worse prognosis. The aim of our work was to assess and compare, according to sex, autonomic response to exercise in a clinical series including 105 BS patients...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050662/antifatigue-potential-activity-of-sarcodon-imbricatus-in-acute-excise-treated-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-in-mice-via-regulation-of-nrf2-mediated-oxidative-stress
#17
Xue Wang, Yidi Qu, Yongfeng Zhang, Shaopeng Li, Yiyang Sun, Zepeng Chen, Lirong Teng, Di Wang
Sarcodon imbricatus (SI), a precious edible fungus, contains 35.22% of total sugar, 18.33% of total protein, 24 types of fatty acid, 16 types of amino acid, and 8 types of minerals. Encouragingly, it is rich in potential antioxidants such as total polyphenols (0.41%), total sterols (3.16%), and vitamins (0.44%). In the present study, the antifatigue properties of SI and its potential mechanisms of action were explored by the experiments on acute excise-treated mice and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) mice. SI (0...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049459/relation-of-atrial-premature-complexes-during-exercise-stress-testing-to-the-risk-for-the-development-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-rehabilitation
#18
Arwa Younis, Eyal Nof, Ariel Israel, Ilan Goldenberg, Avi Sabbag, Michael Glikson, Yael Peled, Robert Klempfner, Roy Beinart
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine whether atrial premature complexes (APCs) detected during a standard exercise stress test (EST) in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are associated with an increased risk of AF. The present study population comprised 6,523 consecutive patients without prior AF who participated in a CR program in a tertiary medical center in years 2009 to 2016. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the association between APCs during the baseline EST at CR and the risk for the development of AF over a mean follow-up period of 2...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041008/single-session-high-intensity-aerobic-exercise-fails-to-affect-plasticity-related-protein-expression-in-the-rat-sensorimotor-cortex
#19
Jonathan S Thacker, Derrick Yeung, Paige J Chambers, A Russell Tupling, W Richard Staines, John G Mielke
Typical responses in muscle following acute aerobic exercise have been well documented, but the responses in brain have remained relatively unexplored. Recent reports suggest that a single bout of aerobic exercise can prime motor regions of the human brain to experience use-dependent plasticity, however, the mechanisms underlying this priming phenomenon are unclear. As a result, we asked whether a graded test to exhaustion (GXT), the most widely employed test to examine relationships between exercise and integrated responses within the musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, and neuropsychological systems, would be able to upregulate the expression of plasticity-related proteins in sensorimotor cortex in rats...
July 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040673/health-promoting-behaviors-of-staff-in-a-university-of-medical-sciences-in-southeast-of-iran
#20
Jamileh Farokhzadian, Golnaz Forughameri, Maryam Mohseny
Background Health promoting behaviors are appropriate indicators to determine individuals' health status. The staff of a health care system plays an important role in enhancing health promoting behaviors in society; therefore, the present study is aimed to evaluate health promoting behaviors of the staff in a university of medical sciences. Methods A descriptive study was conducted on 140 staff of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences in the southeast of Iran. Data were collected using the Persian version of the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile-II questionnaire with six dimensions of spiritual growth, health responsibility, interpersonal relationships, stress management, exercise and physical activity and nutrition habits...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
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