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Occiput posterior

Thomas Beez, Jennifer Brown
BACKGROUND: Atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is a rare but severe sequela of high energy trauma. Children are at increased risk, due to their immature spine and biomechanical characteristics. LITERATURE REVIEW: The prevailing mechanism of injury is motor vehicle collision as passenger. AOD commonly presents with cardiorespiratory arrest, spinal cord injury or cranial nerve deficits. Concomitant injuries, such as traumatic brain injury, are frequently encountered...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Sandra C Jasinoski, Fernando Abdala
Ontogenetic changes in the skull and mandible of thirty-one specimens of Galesaurus planiceps, a basal non-mammaliaform cynodont from the Early Triassic of South Africa, are documented. The qualitative survey indicated eight changes in the craniomandibular apparatus occurred during growth, dividing the sample into three ontogenetic stages: juvenile, subadult, and adult. Changes in the temporal region, zygomatic arch, occiput, and mandible occurred during the transition from the subadult to adult stage at a basal skull length of 90 mm...
September 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Antonio Malvasi, Andrea Tinelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Taigo Inada, Takeo Furuya, Koshiro Kamiya, Mitsutoshi Ota, Satoshi Maki, Takane Suzuki, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Masashi Yamazaki, Masaaki Aramomi, Chikato Mannoji, Masao Koda
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PURPOSE: To elucidate the impact of postoperative occiput-C2 (O-C2) angle change on subaxial cervical alignment. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: In the case of occipito-upper cervical fixation surgery, it is recommended that the O-C2 angle should be set larger than the preoperative value postoperatively. METHODS: The present study included 17 patients who underwent occipito-upper cervical spine (above C4) posterior fixation surgery for atlantoaxial subluxation of various etiologies...
August 2016: Asian Spine Journal
Juri Kivelev, Riku Kivisaari, Mika Niemelä, Juha Hernesniemi
OBJECTIVE: Skull opening in occipital and suboccipital regions might be associated with risk of damage to the transverse venous sinus and the confluence of sinuses. We analyze the value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in localizing the venous sinuses in relation to the superior muscle insertion line (MIL) on the occipital bone. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed head MR images of 100 consecutive patients imaged for any reason from 1 January 2013. All MR images were interpreted by a radiologist (R...
October 2016: World Neurosurgery
R Shane Tubbs, Fabian N Fries, Charles Kulwin, Martin M Mortazavi, Marios Loukas, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol
Chronic postoperative neuralgias and headache following retrosigmoid craniotomy can be uncomfortable for the patient. We aimed to better elucidate the regional nerve anatomy in an effort to minimize this postoperative complication. Ten adult cadaveric heads (20 sides) were dissected to observe the relationship between the lesser occipital nerve and a traditional linear versus modified U incision during retrosigmoid craniotomy. Additionally, the relationship between these incisions and the occipital artery were observed...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Wei Ji, Jie Tong, Zhiping Huang, Minghui Zheng, Xiuhua Wu, Jianting Chen, Qingan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Ventral defect caused by resection of the lesions involving the upper cervical spine was commonly reconstructed with a fabricated mesh cage. Recently, a clival screw and plate fitted to the osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction was developed for this pathological state. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the stability a clivus plate system fixation (CPSF) for the craniovertebral junction and compared with a conventional fashioned mesh cage fixation (FMCF)...
June 30, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Dino Samartzis, Prakasam Kalluri, Jean Herman, John P Lubicky, Francis H Shen
BACKGROUND: It has been propagated that patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) exhibit "clinical triad" findings (CTFs), known as a short neck, low posterior hairline, and limited cervical range of motion (ROM). However, the literature has noted that up to 50 % of KFS cases may not present with such findings and the reasoning behind such assertions remains speculative. As such, the following study addressed the association between CTFs to that of congenitally-fused cervical segments and other risk factors in KFS patients...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Jinsong Zhou, Alejandro A Espinoza Orías, Xia Kang, Jade He, Zhihai Zhang, Nozomu Inoue, Howard S An
OBJECTIVE The segmental occipital condyle screw (OCS) is an alternative fixation technique in occipitocervical fusion. A thorough morphological study of the occipital condyle (OC) is critical for OCS placement. The authors set out to introduce a more precise CT-based method for morphometric analysis of the OC as it pertains to the placement of the segmental OCS, and they describe a novel preoperative simulation method for screw placement. Two new clinically relevant parameters, the height available for the OCS and the warning depth, are proposed...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
William F Lavelle, Kathryn Palomino, Siddharth A Badve, Stephen A Albanese
BACKGROUND: C1-C2 rotatory subluxation can result from a variety or etiologies. Pediatric patients are particularly susceptible to C1-C2 rotatory subluxation. If left untreated the condition is termed an atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) and chronic neck pain and deformity can result. Patients failing conservative treatment or those with recurrent or chronic rotatory subluxation may require halo treatment or surgical intervention. This illustrative case report is about a patient with chronic C1-C2 AARF who was treated with C1 lateral mass screws and C2 translaminar screws, a treatment that has not been addressed by this technique in a pediatric population...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Camille Le Ray, Flavie Lepleux, Aurélie De La Calle, Jessy Guerin, Nathalie Sellam, Michel Dreyfus, Anne A Chantry
BACKGROUND: Fetal occiput posterior positions are associated with poorer maternal outcomes than occiput anterior positions. Although methods that include instrumental and manual rotation can be used at the end of labor to promote the rotation of the fetal head, various maternal postures may also be performed from the beginning of labor in occiput posterior position. Such postures might facilitate flexion of the fetal head and favor its rotation into an occiput anterior position. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a lateral asymmetric decubitus posture facilitates the rotation of fetal occiput posterior into occiput anterior positions...
October 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ian G Dorward, Jacob M Buchowski, Geoffrey E Stoker, Lukas P Zebala
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the fusion rate and evaluate the complications associated with the application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in posterior cervical fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The rates of fusion and complications associated with the use of rhBMP-2 in posterior cervical fusion is unclear, though recent work has shown up to a 100% fusion rate...
July 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Mustafa Kemal Ilik, Abdülfettah Tumturk, Halil Ulutabanca, Ahmet Kücük, Rahmi Kemal Koc
BACKGROUND: The craniocervical junction is a complex anatomic location that contains the occipital bone, atlas, axis, and important complex ligamentous structures. The stability of this region is ensured only with the help of ligaments. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old boy was admitted to our clinic for neck pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lytic bone lesion involving the C2 vertebral body and pedicle without odontoid tip. The tumor was resected using an anterior retropharyngeal approach and a wide marginal resection method...
July 2016: World Neurosurgery
Adam Schell, John M Rhee, Abigail Allen, Lindsay Andras, Feifei Zhou
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Gorham disease is a rare osteolytic condition, with only 17 reported cases primarily affecting the cervical spine. PURPOSE: We report the case of a 31-year-old woman with severe kyphotic instability and myelopathy of the upper cervical spine secondary to massive osteolysis of the posterior elements. The surgical management, clinical outcome, and review of the relevant literature are discussed. STUDY DESIGN: This is a case report and a literature review...
July 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Corine J Verhoeven, Chelly Nuij, Christel R M Janssen-Rolf, Ewoud Schuit, Joke M J Bais, S Guid Oei, Ben Willem J Mol
OBJECTIVE: To identify potential predictors for failed vacuum-assisted delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study conducted in two perinatal centers in the Netherlands. Cases were women who underwent a failed vacuum-assisted delivery between 1997 and 2011. A failed vacuum extraction was defined as a delivery that was started as vacuum extraction but was converted to a cesarean section because of failure to progress. As controls we studied two successful vacuum extractions that were performed before the failed one...
May 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Sae Kyung Choi, Yong Gyu Park, Da Hye Lee, Hyun Sun Ko, In Yang Park, Jong Chul Shin
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the occiput posterior (OP) position on dystocia and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 162 primiparous women. We performed intrapartum sonography, and fetal occiput positions were recorded. The relationships between the position of the occiput and the course of labor and perinatal outcomes were investigated. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.2. RESULTS: Fifty-six of 162 fetuses were found to be in the OP position during the first stage of labor...
December 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Anna Palatnik, William A Grobman, Madeline G Hellendag, Timothy M Janetos, Dana R Gossett, Emily S Miller
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with failed operative vaginal delivery in contemporary parturients and evaluate whether these factors can be used to accurately predict failed operative vaginal delivery. METHODS: This was a case-control study of women undergoing a trial of operative vaginal delivery from a low or outlet station between 2005 and 2014. Women in the case group were defined as women who had an attempted operative vaginal delivery but ultimately required cesarean delivery...
March 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
M J Guittier, V Othenin-Girard, B de Gasquet, O Irion, M Boulvain
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the hands and knees position during the first stage of labour to facilitate the rotation of the fetal head to the occiput anterior position. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland. POPULATION: A total of 439 women with a fetus in the occiput posterior position during the first stage of labour. METHODS: The women in the intervention group were invited to take a hands and knees position for at least for 10 minutes...
January 24, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Yoongul Oh, Seok Tae Lee, Ju Seok Ryu
Many reports of changes in cervical alignment after posterior occipitocervical (O-C) fusion causing dysphagia are available. The clinical course can range from mild discomfort to severe aspiration. However, the underlying pathogenesis is not well known. We report an 80-year-old female with videofluoroscopic swallowing study evidence of aspiration that developed after occiput-C3/4 posterior fusion. Pharyngeal pressure was analyzed using high resolution manometry (HRM). Impaired upper esophageal sphincter opening along with diminished peristalsis and pharyngeal pressure gradient were revealed by HRM to be the main characteristics in such patients...
December 2015: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
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