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Carla R Angelani, Pablo Carabias, Karen M Cruz, José M Delfino, Marilina de Sautu, María V Espelt, Mariela S Ferreira-Gomes, Gabriela E Gómez, Irene C Mangialavori, Malena Manzi, María F Pignataro, Nicolás A Saffioti, Damiana M Salvatierra Fréchou, Javier Santos, Pablo J Schwarzbaum
Metabolic control analysis (MCA) is a promising approach in biochemistry aimed at understanding processes in a quantitative fashion. Here the contribution of enzymes and transporters to the control of a given pathway flux and metabolite concentrations is determined and expressed quantitatively by means of numerical coefficients. Metabolic flux can be influenced by a wide variety of modulators acting on one or more metabolic steps along the pathway. We describe a laboratory exercise to study metabolic regulation of human erythrocytes (RBCs)...
October 3, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Francesca Caccuri, Elena Muraro, Annunziata Gloghini, Ombretta Turriziani, Mara Riminucci, Cinzia Giagulli, Katy Mastorci, Damiana Antonia Fae', Simona Fiorentini, Antonino Carbone, Arnaldo Caruso, Riccardo Dolcetti
Despite antiretroviral therapy, HIV+ individuals still have increased risk to develop lymphomas, including marginal zone lymphomas, suggesting that factors other than HIV-related immunosuppression are probably acting as lymphomagenic factors in the HIV setting. The possible pathogenic involvement of HIV p17 protein variants was investigated in a particularly informative case of HIV-related splenic marginal zone lymphoma, who was negative for oncogenic virus infections, thus allowing us to assess the possible direct contribution of these HIV-encoded proteins to lymphomagenesis...
September 27, 2018: Hematological Oncology
Damiana Scuteri, Maria Roberta Garreffa, Stefania Esposito, Giacinto Bagetta, Maria Diana Naturale, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti
During the clinical course of dementia, beside cognitive impairment and memory loss, a very complex challenge is posed by the neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs). Accurate evaluation and treatment of pain impacts positively the agitation of demented patients aged ≥ 65 years. To gather information on the utilization of pain killers in demented patients a preliminary survey has been conducted in collaboration with the Calabrian Pharmacovigilance Territorial Service of the health district of Catanzaro (Italy). The study has taken into consideration the prescriptions of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine during the period ranging from July 2015 to June 2016 and the percentage of patients treated against pain with non steroidal antinflammatory drugs, opioids, and anticonvulsants have been monitored...
September 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Simone Scarlata, Damiana Mancini, Alice Laudisio, Augusto Benigni, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
BACKGROUND: Assessing diaphragm mobility is important to detect malfunctions or impending exhaustion and to evaluate the effects of many chest and abdominal conditions on respiratory mechanics. Amongst several imaging methods, ultrasonography represents the only noninvasive, nonionizing imaging technique widely available for the direct assessment of diaphragm excursion. OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study is to prospectively assess the supine diaphragmatic motion amplitude, intra- and inter-observer agreement, and anthropometric correlates of diaphragm motion variability, measured through M-mode ultrasonography, in a sample of healthy volunteers...
2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Damiana Ravasi, Sophie De Respinis, Thomas Wahli
The molecular epidemiology of fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica is still largely unknown. We developed a multilocus sequence typing scheme based on seven housekeeping genes to characterize 77 S. parasitica strains isolated from different fish host species at different times and from different geographic areas in Switzerland between 2015 and 2017. Ten different diploid sequence types (DSTs) were identified. The majority (52%) of outbreaks in Switzerland seemed to be caused by one genotype, namely DST3, which was recovered from farm-raised and wild-caught fish in all the geographic areas and river basins included in the study...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Stefano Espinoza, Damiana Leo, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Mohammed Shahid, Tiina M Kääriäinen, Raul R Gainetdinov
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which signals through elevating intracellular cAMP levels, and expressed in most vertebrates, including rodents and humans. In recent years, several lines of evidence indicated the role of TAAR1 in the regulation of dopaminergic system and its importance in physiological processes such as locomotion, control of emotional states and cognition. In our study, we used RO5263397, a selective TAAR1 agonist, as a tool and characterized its pharmacology in vitro in HEK293 cells and its effects in vivo in tests assessing potential antidepressant and antipsychotic actions...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Silvia Damiana Visonà, Donatella Benati, Maria Cristina Monti, Mirco Galiè, Luisa Andrello, Andrea Frontini, Antonio Osculati
The aim of this post-mortem ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study is to explore the characteristics of acute myocardial ischemia in the context of sudden death, using the combination of two different methods, both more insightful than ordinary histology. Transmission electron microscope and immunohistochemistry, in addition to the traditional histology, were applied to study human heart specimens collected during forensic autopsies. The whole series was sub-grouped into cases (n=17) and controls (n=10)...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Damiana Scuteri, Michele Crudo, Laura Rombolà, Chizuko Watanabe, Hirokazu Mizoguchi, Shinobu Sakurada, Tsukasa Sakurada, Rosaria Greco, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Luigi Antonio Morrone, Giacinto Bagetta
Bergamot essential oil (BEO) has proven wide evidence of pharmacological antinociceptive effectiveness both in nociceptive and in neuropathic pain models. The antinociceptive properties of BEO for inhalation have not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the inhalation of BEO on formalin-induced nociceptive response in mice. Male ddY-strain mice (Japan SLC, Hamamatsu, Japan) of 23-25 g of weight at the time the experiments underwent the formalin test. Twenty μl of formalin (2% in saline) were administered into the plantar surface of the mice hindpaw and the time of licking/biting was observed and recorded at intervals of 5 min...
September 2018: Fitoterapia
Alexander Batista-Duharte, Damiana Téllez Martínez, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
Research over the past several decades has provided insight into the mode of action of adjuvants. However, the main focus of attention has been the efficacy in the induction of protective immunogenicity, while less effort has been devoted to the study of toxicity mechanisms. Evidences suggest that several mechanisms that are responsible for the immunostimulating effects are, at the same time, responsible of the adverse effects. In this context, it is often very difficult to establish the boundaries between immunostimulation and immunotoxicity to reach the ideal balance of efficacy/safety...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ali Nejidat, Damiana Diaz-Reck, Nedal Massalha, Adi Arbiv, Anwar Dawas, Carlos Dosoretz, Isam Sabbah
Among the factors that obstruct the application of anammox-based technology for nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater is the water's high organic loads. We hypothesized that some anammox species can adapt and grow in mainstream wastewater in which a minimal temperature of 13-15 °C is maintained. Using the AMX368F and AMX820R PCR-primers, anammox bacteria were detected in influent wastewater (COD/N ratio > 13) and in the anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic chambers of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant, reaching 107 copies/g VSS of the16S rRNA gene...
August 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Stefania Angela Di Fusco, Fabiana Lucà, Manuela Benvenuto, Annamaria Iorio, Damiana Fiscella, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Andrea Madeo, Furio Colivicchi, Andrea Di Lenarda, Michele Massimo Gulizia
Even though vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been employed for >50 years, there is still some uncertainty about the best strategy to reverse anticoagulation due to VKAs in cases of major bleeding. Furthermore, there is also scarce evidence about the most appropriate way to treat serious bleeding associated with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. This review analyses the main advantages and disadvantages of the various forthcoming therapeutic options to restore a normal coagulation status in anticoagulated patients with ongoing serious bleeding...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Alexander Batista-Duharte, Damiana Téllez-Martínez, Juliana Aparecida Jellmayer, Deivys Leandro Portuondo Fuentes, Marisa Campos Polesi, Amanda Martins Baviera, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that has re-emerged in several tropical and subtropical regions over the last decades. Growing findings suggest that the interplay of host, pathogen, and environment has a determinant effect on the diversity, local distribution, and virulence of Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato , the etiologic agent. Among the environmental factors, we have studied the potential role of repeated exposures to mercury (Hg), a known immunotoxic xenobiotic that is widely used in gold mining regions where sporotrichosis outbreaks are frequently reported...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Damiana Vulturar, Alexandru Fărcăşanu, Flaviu Turcu, Dan Boitor, Carmen Crivii
Background and aims: The cerebellum ("little brain"), the largest part of hind brain, lies in the posterior cranial fossa, beneath the occipital lobe and dorsal to the brainstem. It develops over a long period: it is one of the first structures in the brain to begin to differentiate, but one of the last to mature. The use of ultrasonography has significantly improved the evaluation of fetal growth and development and has permitted prenatal diagnosis of a variety of congenital malformations...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Matteo Moretti, Silvia Damiana Visonà, Francesca Freni, Ilaria Tomaciello, Claudia Vignali, Angelo Groppi, Luca Tajana, Antonio Marco Maria Osculati, Luca Morini
The aims of this study were (1) to identify and quantify cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and cocaethylene (CE) in DBS; (2) to compare dried blood spots (DBSs) analytical results with the routine blood analyses; (3) to monitor analytes stability on DBS within a 3-month period. Eighty-five μL of blood from postmortem cases were put on a card for DBS analysis and kept in the dark, at room temperature. Samples were extracted through solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and injected in the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system...
May 4, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Barbara Ravara, Valerio Gobbo, Damiana Incendi, Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro, Dario Coletti, Tiziana Martinello, Marco Patruno
The sternomastoid (SM) muscle in rodents is known to have a peculiar distribution of fiber types with a steep gradient from surface to deep region. We here further characterize this peculiar regional distribution by quantitative histochemical morphometrys. In Hematoxylin-Eosin (H-E) stained transverse cryosections harvested in the medial portion of the muscle we counted around 10.000 myofibers with a mean diameter of 51.3±12.6 (μm). Cryisections of the SM stained by SDH reaction clearly show two distinct regions, toward the deep surface of the muscle a 40% area that contains packed SDH-positive myofibers, while the remaining area of the SM toward the external surface presents a more checker-board appearance...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Translational Myology
Cosima Damiana Calvano, Antonio Monopoli, Tommaso R I Cataldi, Francesco Palmisano
Since its introduction in the 1980s, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) has gained a prominent role in the analysis of high molecular weight biomolecules such as proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides, and polysaccharides. Its application to low molecular weight compounds has remained for long time challenging due to the spectral interferences produced by conventional organic matrices in the low m/z window. To overcome this problem, specific sample preparation such as analyte/matrix derivatization, addition of dopants, or sophisticated deposition technique especially useful for imaging experiments, have been proposed...
July 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Damiana Ravasi, Valeria Guidi, Eleonora Flacio, Peter Lüthy, Karl Perron, Samuel Lüdin, Mauro Tonolla
BACKGROUND: In Switzerland, the invasive Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is firmly established in the Canton of Ticino, south of the Alps. According to a large-scale distribution model developed in 2013, suitable climatic conditions for the establishment of Ae. albopictus north of the Alps are found in Basel and Geneva while Zurich appears to be characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival of diapausing eggs. However, the spatial resolution of large-scale distribution models might not be sufficient to detect particular climatic conditions existing in urban settings, such as the presence of microclimatic temperatures, which may positively influence the probability of diapausing eggs to overwinter...
March 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Damiana Scuteri, Laura Rombola, Laura Tridico, Hirokazu Mizoguchi, Chizuko Watanabe, Tsukasa Sakurada, Shinobu Sakurada, Maria TIziana Corasaniti, Giacinto Bagetta, Luigi Antonio Morrone
1.1. BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) accounts for approximately 50% of all cases of dementia and, in spite of the great effort for the development of disease-modifying drugs, a definitive treatment of cognitive impairment is not available yet. A perfect adherence to the current therapy of cognitive decline is needed for a better control of the disease and this is proven to reduce, though not completely abolish, the associated Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) from occurring...
March 6, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Stefano Cinque, Francesca Zoratto, Anna Poleggi, Damiana Leo, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Enrico Alleva, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET) mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Cosima Damiana Calvano, Marco Glaciale, Francesco Palmisano, Tommaso R I Cataldi
Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray linear ion-trap multiple-stage MS (HILIC-ESI-MSn , n = 2,3) was used to characterize polar lipids occurring in donkey milk. Besides the detection of abundant phospholipids, the structural characterization and content evaluation of minor glycosphingolipids (GSLs) were assessed. We report an unprecedented characterization of 11 hexosyl-ceramides (HexCer), 10 Hex2 Cer, and 4 Hex3 Cer. CID-MS/MS spectra in negative ion mode mainly afford information on the monosaccharide number and ceramide constitution (i...
July 2018: Electrophoresis
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