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Tom Edward Mallinson
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October 12, 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
R M Klaebe, M J Kennedy, A J M Jarrett, J J Brocks
Large magnitude (>10‰) carbon-isotope (δ(13) C) excursions recorded in carbonate-bearing sediments are increasingly used to monitor environmental change and constrain the chronology of the critical interval in the Neoproterozoic stratigraphic record that is timed with the first appearance and radiation of metazoan life. The ~10‰ Bitter Springs Anomaly preserved in Tonian-aged (1000-720 Ma) carbonate rocks in the Amadeus Basin of central Australia has been offered as one of the best preserved examples of a primary marine δ(13) C excursion because it is regionally reproducible and δ(13) C values covary in organic and carbonate carbon arguing against diagenetic exchange...
October 8, 2016: Geobiology
Stephen Cioccio, Yamini Gopalapillai, Tereza Dan, Beverley Hale
Remediation of soils elevated in trace metals so that they may provide ecosystems services is typically achieved through pH adjustment or addition of sorbents. The present study aimed to generate higher-tier in situ toxicity data for elevated Ni in soils with and without lime addition, and explore the effect of liming on soil chemistry and bioavailability of Ni to plants. A multi-year study of agronomic yield of field-grown oat and soybean occurred in three adjacent fields that had received air emissions from a Ni refinery for 66 years...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Guoqing Jian, Maura C Puerto, Anna Wehowsky, Pengfei Dong, Keith P Johnston, George J Hirasaki, Sibani Lisa Biswal
The static adsorption of C12-14E22, which is a highly ethoxylated nonionic surfactant, was studied on different minerals using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). Of particular interest is the surfactant adsorption in the presence of CO2 because it can be used for foam flooding in enhanced oil recovery applications. The effects of the mineral type, impurities, salinity, and temperature were investigated. The adsorption of C12-14E22 on pure calcite was as low as 0...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Beatrix Udvardi, István J Kovács, Tamás Fancsik, Péter Kónya, Miklósné Bátori, Ferenc Stercel, György Falus, Zoltán Szalai
This study focuses on particle size effect on monomineralic powders recorded using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. Six particle size fractions of quartz, feldspar, calcite, and dolomite were prepared (<2, 2-4, 4-8, 8-16, 16-32, and 32-63 µm). It is found that the width, intensity, and area of bands in the ATR FT-IR spectra of minerals have explicit dependence on the particle size. As particle size increases, the intensity and area of IR bands usually decrease while the width of bands increases...
September 26, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Xiaomin Fang, Minghui Li, Zhengrong Wang, Jiuyi Wang, Jiao Li, Xiaoming Liu, Jinbo Zan
Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau since the Late Miocene has greatly affected the nature of sediments deposited in the Qaidam Basin. However, due to the scarcity of continuously dated sediment records, we know little about how minerals responded to this uplift. In order to understand this response, we here present results from the high-resolution mineral profile from a borehole (7.3-1.6 Ma) in the Basin, which shows systematic oscillations of various evaporite and clay minerals that can be linked to the variation of regional climate and tectonic history...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jorge L Martinez, Matthias Raiber, Dioni I Cendón
The influence of mountain front recharge on the water balance of alluvial valley aquifers located in upland catchments of the Condamine River basin in Queensland, Australia, is investigated through the development of an integrated hydrogeological framework. A combination of three-dimensional (3D) geological modelling, hydraulic gradient maps, multivariate statistical analyses and hydrochemical mixing calculations is proposed for the identification of hydrochemical end-members and quantification of the relative contributions of each end-member to alluvial aquifer recharge...
September 9, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Peter P Siska, Pierre Goovaerts, I-K Hung
Dolines or sinkholes are earth depressions that develop in soluble rocks complexes such as limestone, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, and halite; dolines appear in a variety of shapes from nearly circular to complex structures with highly curved perimeters. The occurrence of dolines in the studied karst area is not random; they are the results of geomorphic, hydrologic, and chemical processes that have caused partial subsidence, even the total collapse of the land surface when voids and caves are present in the bedrock and the regolith arch overbridging these voids is unstable...
August 2016: Progress in Physical Geography
Xiaoyun Yi, Sha Qiao, Lifeng Ma, Jie Wang, Jianyun Ruan
Drinking teas containing high fluoride (F) imposes fluorosis risk. The soil F bioavailability is an important factor influencing its uptake and contents in teas. The present work was conducted to investigate F fractions in soil and their bioavailability to tea plants. Tea seedlings were cultivated on 6 typical soils treated with a mixture consisting of dolomite, lime, peat and KCl at variable rates in the pot experiment. Soils and young shoots were collected in pairs from 63 sites of 21 plantations in a field experiment...
September 3, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
M K Pavićević, V Cvetković, S Niedermann, V Pejović, G Amthauer, B Boev, F Bosch, I Aničin, W F Henning
This paper focuses on constraining the erosion rate in the area of the Allchar Sb-As-Tl-Au deposit (Macedonia). It contains the largest known reserves of lorandite (TlAsS2), which is essential for the LORanditeEXperiment (LOREX), aimed at determining the long-term solar neutrino flux. Because the erosion history of the Allchar area is crucial for the success of LOREX, we applied terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides including both radioactive ((26)Al and (36)Cl) and stable ((3)He and (21)Ne) nuclides in quartz, dolomite/calcite, sanidine, and diopside...
February 2016: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G³
Shiyang Yin, Wenyong Wu, Honglu Liu, Zhe Bao
Reclaimed water reuse is an effective method of alleviating agricultural water shortages, which entails some potential risks for groundwater. In this study, the impacts of wastewater reuse on groundwater were evaluated by combination of groundwater chemistry and isotopes. In reclaimed water infiltration, salt composition was affected not only by ion exchange and dissolution equilibrium but also by carbonic acid equilibrium. The dissolution and precipitation of calcites and dolomites as well as exchange and adsorption between Na and Ca/Mg were simultaneous, leading to significant changes in Na/Cl, (Ca+Mg)/Cl, electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR)...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Leon Prozesky, Johan Neser, Heinz Meissner, Kenneth Botha, Lubbe Jacobs, Craig Shepstone, Hannes Viljoen, Hinner Köster, Chris De Brouwer, Jan Van Zyl, Gerjan Van der Veen
The north-western part of South Africa, in particular, is well known for mineral imbalances. Aphosphorosis, resulting in rickets and osteomalacia, received a lot of attention at the turn of the nineteenth century (1882-1912). This was followed in 1997 by research on Vryburg hepatosis, another area-specific mineral imbalance-related disease in young calves reared on manganese-rich soil derived from the weathering of dolomitic (carbonate) rock formations. In 1982, a totally new syndrome (osteochondrosis) manifested in, amongst others, areas in South Africa where aphosphorosis was rife...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
V Sricharoenchaikul, D Atong, P Sornkade, J Nisamaneenate
Thermal conversion of cassava rhizome was performed using a modular downdraft gasifier with the addition of Ni-based catalysts as promising tar eliminating and produced gas upgrading techniques. The activities of a synthesized 5% Ni/dolomite pellet catalyst prepared by impregnation method were investigated in a secondary reactor downstream of the gasifier. High reforming activity of the Ni/dolomite pellet catalyst on tar reduction was achieved. The conversion to H2 and CO was improved via steam reforming of methane and char reaction with CO2...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Technology
Aurélie Pace, Raphaël Bourillot, Anthony Bouton, Emmanuelle Vennin, Serge Galaup, Irina Bundeleva, Patricia Patrier, Christophe Dupraz, Christophe Thomazo, Pierre Sansjofre, Yusuke Yokoyama, Michel Franceschi, Yannick Anguy, Léa Pigot, Aurélien Virgone, Pieter T Visscher
Microbialites are widespread in modern and fossil hypersaline environments, where they provide a unique sedimentary archive. Authigenic mineral precipitation in modern microbialites results from a complex interplay between microbial metabolisms, organic matrices and environmental parameters. Here, we combined mineralogical and microscopic analyses with measurements of metabolic activity in order to characterise the mineralisation of microbial mats forming microbialites in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA). Our results show that the mineralisation process takes place in three steps progressing along geochemical gradients produced through microbial activity...
2016: Scientific Reports
Elena Pavoni, Elisa Petranich, Gianpiero Adami, Elena Baracchini, Matteo Crosera, Andrea Emili, Davide Lenaz, Pablo Higueras, Stefano Covelli
The mineral body exploited in Salafossa (Eastern Dolomites) was one of the largest lead/zinc-containing mineral deposits in Europe. Both metals were mainly present as sulphides (sphalerite, ZnS and galena, PbS). Mining activity started around 1550, but it was only around 1960 that the richest veins of the minerals were discovered. The mine closed in 1985, and concentrations of several trace metals, such as thallium (Tl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), were detected in the soils and plant samples (Biscutella laevigata L...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Cheng Peng, Benaiah U Anabaraonye, John P Crawshaw, Geoffrey C Maitland, J P Martin Trusler
We report experimental measurements of the dissolution rate of several carbonate minerals in CO2-saturated water or brine at temperatures between 323 K and 373 K and at pressures up to 15 MPa. The dissolution kinetics of pure calcite were studied in CO2-saturated NaCl brines with molalities of up to 5 mol kg(-1). The results of these experiments were found to depend only weakly on the brine molality and to conform reasonably well with a kinetic model involving two parallel first-order reactions: one involving reactions with protons and the other involving reaction with carbonic acid...
October 20, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Nikos Charizopoulos, Eleni Zagana, Georgios Stamatis
In Xynias drained Lake Basin's area, central Greece, a hydrogeochemical research took place including groundwater sampling from 30 sampling sites, chemical analysis, and statistical analysis. Groundwaters present Ca-Mg-HCO3 as the dominant hydrochemical type, while their majority is mixed waters with non-dominant ion. They are classified as moderately hard to hard and are characterized by oxidizing conditions. They are undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, siderite, and magnesite and oversaturated in respect to calcite, aragonite, and dolomite...
August 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Dagmara I Strumińska-Parulska
The idea behind this study was to investigate the most popular magnesium dietary supplements as a potential additional source of (210)Pb in the human diet. The paper presents the results of (210)Pb activities determined in different magnesium supplements, as well as an estimation of the annual effective radiation doses from (210)Pb decay. The results showed that the highest value of (210)Pb activity was found in a magnesium supplement of natural origin (dolomite) with a value of 2.97 ± 0.18 mBq g(-1). The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Pb obtained from the magnesium daily recommended value (0...
July 18, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Maximilian Huber, Harald Hilbig, Sophia C Badenberg, Julius Fassnacht, Jörg E Drewes, Brigitte Helmreich
The objective of this research study was to elucidate the removal and remobilization behaviors of five heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) that had been fixed onto sorptive filter materials used in decentralized stormwater treatment systems receiving traffic area runoff. Six filter materials (i.e., granular activated carbon, a mixture of granular activated alumina and porous concrete, granular activated lignite, half-burnt dolomite, and two granular ferric hydroxides) were evaluated in column experiments...
October 1, 2016: Water Research
Justin A Clark, Randy L Stotler, Shaun K Frape, Walter A Illman
The potential for trichloroethene (TCE) biodegradation in a fractured dolomite aquifer at a former chemical disposal site in Smithville, Ontario, Canada, is assessed using chemical analysis and TCE and cis-DCE compound-specific isotope analysis of carbon and chlorine collected over a 16-month period. Groundwater redox conditions change from suboxic to much more reducing environments within and around the plume, indicating that oxidation of organic contaminants and degradation products is occurring at the study site...
July 5, 2016: Ground Water
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