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Elvira Prusaczyk, Becky L Choma
Consistent with objectification theory, many studies have shown that self-objectification (and body surveillance) is associated with depression and dissatisfaction with life. Critically, however, much of this research has been conducted with White women attending university in North America. To extend this literature, we investigated whether greater skin tone surveillance - a group-specific manifestation of self-objectification among women of colour - is linked to higher depression and lower life satisfaction among Indian women...
October 10, 2018: Body Image
Richard L Wiener, Trace C Vardsveen
In Title VII sexual harassment jurisprudence, U.S. courts use a 2-prong subjective-objective test to determine the viability of a sexual harassment claim: The complainant must show that the employer's conduct was unwelcome and sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter the conditions of employment and create an abusive working environment because of the complainant's sex from both the complainant's perspective (subjective prong) and a reasonable person's perspective (objective prong). This online study used a diverse national sample (361 MTurk Community Members) to investigate whether people apply the objective prong in a uniform manner, as the law assumes, or show predictable differences...
October 1, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Petal Grower, L Monique Ward
Although numerous studies demonstrate links between negative body image and sexual well-being, recent research has emphasized studying the positive aspects of these constructs. The current study built upon this prior research by examining the association between body appreciation and sexual agency among a US community sample of 355 heterosexual women aged 18-40. This study also examined whether body appreciation is uniquely associated with sexual agency above and beyond levels of self-objectification. Regression analyses demonstrated that women who reported greater body appreciation also reported greater condom use self-efficacy, sexual satisfaction, sexual assertiveness, and feelings of entitlement to sexual pleasure, and lower levels of body self-consciousness during intimacy...
September 21, 2018: Body Image
Caryn Du Plooy, Heleen Coetzee, Esmé van Rensburg
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically review available literature pertaining to the psychological effects of multimedia-induced sexualisation of girls in middle childhood (between the ages of 6 and 12 years old). METHOD: A systematic review was conducted through a comprehensive electronic search. Nineteen studies were included in the review and the data was analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Two themes were identified, namely: 1) detrimental psychological effects of sexualisation; and 2) beneficial psychological effects of sexualisation...
August 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
M A Green, A Kroska, A Herrick, B Bryant, E Sage, L Miles, M Ravet, M Powers, W Whitegoat, R Linkhart, B King
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a controlled randomized preliminary trial of an expanded online version of the Body Project (n = 46) compared to an assessment-only control condition (n = 36) via a longitudinal design (baseline, postintervention, 2-month follow-up) in a community sample of women (N = 82) with clinical (n = 53) and subclinical (n = 29) eating disorder symptoms. METHOD: The traditional content of the Body Project was modified to include verbal, written, and behavioral exercises designed to dissuade objectification and maladaptive social comparison and adapted to an online format...
September 4, 2018: Eating Behaviors
N E Manturova, V A Stupin, G O Smirnova, E V Silina
The main aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness and safety of lifting operations in women with varying degrees of involuntary changes of facial skin, in particular when applying pharmacological conditioning, with the objectification of the role of the latter. Materials and methods: A research and surgical treatment were conducted to eliminate involutional changes of various degrees in the facial skin of 461 women aged 35-75 years. Surface lifting was performed in 20.2% of patients, SMAS-lifting - 49...
August 2018: Heliyon
Rotem Kahalon, Nurit Shnabel, Julia C Becker
This paper provides an organizing framework for the experimental research on the effects of state self-objectification on women. We explain why this body of work, which had grown rapidly in the last 20 years, departs from the original formulation of objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts, 1997). We compare the different operationalizations of state self-objectification and examine how they map onto its theoretical definition, concluding that the operationalizations have focused mostly on one component of this construct (concerns about one's physical appearance) while neglecting others (adopting a third-person perspective and treating oneself as a dehumanized object)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sarah L Trinh, Sophia Choukas-Bradley
The current study provided an exploratory mixed methods investigation of the messages undergraduate men received about sex and relationships from their male and female friends. Participants included 310 undergraduate men who provided written responses regarding the specific messages they had received from male and female friends. Descriptive codes included: Just Do It, Meaningful Intimacy, Gentlemen, Postpone Sex, Women's Sexual Desire, and Objectification of Women. Reports of sexual communications were typically consistent with the Heterosexual Script and congruent with the friend's gender...
July 2018: Psychology of Men & Masculinity
Marika Tiggemann, Isabella Barbato
Instagram is an increasingly popular social networking site where users post and share photos. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the effect of viewing appearance-related comments accompanying Instagram images on women's body image. Participants were 128 female undergraduate students who viewed a set of attractive images paired with a brief positive comment. For half the participants, comments were related to appearance; the other half viewed the same images with place-related comments...
August 20, 2018: Body Image
Meghan Gestos, Jennifer Smith-Merry, Andrew Campbell
This study aims to provide a comprehensive systematic review of the literature relating to the representation of women within video games in consideration of adult female wellbeing. The research question of the study assessed whether the representation of women in video games leads to female self-objectification and negative body image in adult women. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) review method was used; comprising a thorough keyword database search, followed by literature screening and data extraction...
September 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Sarah J Gervais, Jill Allen, Abigail R Riemer, Marco Gullickson
In this work, we introduced and tested the balanced objectification hypothesis (BOH). Derived from an integration of balance theory and objectification research, the BOH suggests that people seek psychological balance during objectifying interactions with others. Corresponding with the BOH, men and women perceived objectification sources as higher in warmth and intended to approach the objectification source more when they experienced complimentary objectification in conjunction with positive body sentiment (vs...
August 21, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Philipp Aichinger, Jean Schoentgen
OBJECTIVES: Diplophonia is a common symptom of voice disorder that is in need of objectification. We investigated whether diplophonia can be detected from audio recordings of text readings by means of dedicated audio signal processing, ie, a descendant of a formerly published "Diplophonia Diagram." STUDY DESIGN: Diagnostic study. METHODS: Forty subjects were included who had been clinically rated in the past as diplophonic. For each subject, the audio signal of the German standard text "Der Nordwind und die Sonne" was recorded...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Geneviève Rail, Luisa Molino, Caroline Fusco, Moss Edward Norman, LeAnne Petherick, Jessica Polzer, Fiona Moola, Mary Bryson
RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: L'objectif était d'étudier le déploiement des discours sur la vaccination contre les VPH (VVPH) et leur impact sur les filles, les parents, les infirmiers/infirmières et les médecins canadiens. MéTHODES: Des entrevues ont été réalisées avec des participant(e)s (n = 146) de quatre provinces canadiennes. Une analyse poststructuraliste du discours a permis d'examiner les campagnes de VVPH et les transcriptions d'entrevues pour documenter la façon dont les participant(e)s interprètent les VVPH et se positionnent comme sujets au sein des discours de l'industrie ou des agences de santé publique...
August 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Tetsuya Asakawa, Kenji Sugiyama, Takao Nozaki, Tetsuro Sameshima, Susumu Kobayashi, Liang Wang, Zhen Hong, Shu-Jiao Chen, Can-Dong Li, Ding Ding, Hiroki Namba
Pediatric movement disorders (PMDs) are common and have recently received increasing attention. As these disorders have special clinical features, the selection of appropriate behavioral assessment tools that can clearly distinguish movement disorders from other diseases (eg, epilepsy and neuromuscular disorders) is crucial for achieving an accurate diagnosis and treatment. However, few studies have focused on behavioral assessments in children. The present report attempts to provide a critical review of the available subjective and objective assessment tests for common PMDs...
October 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Michelle Haikalis, Ruschelle M Leone, Dominic J Parrott, David DiLillo
Examination of situations in which bystanders missed intervention opportunities to prevent sexual assault can advance our understanding of how bystanders can prevent sexual assault. The present study utilized an incident-specific approach based on reports from 427 female sexual assault victims (ages 18-25 years) recruited via Mechanical Turk. Results indicate that bystanders had an opportunity to intervene before 23% of sexual assaults, alcohol use in settings with bystanders was widespread (by perpetrators, victims, and bystanders), and several factors were more common in situations involving missed intervention opportunity...
August 2018: Violence Against Women
Beth T Bell, Jennifer A Cassarly, Lucy Dunbar
The present study is the first to examine the extent to which young adult women post objectifying self-images on social media, and whether the frequency of posting such content can be predicted by self-objectification and positive feedback (likes). Eighty-six young adult women from the UK (Age M = 19.88; SD = 1.34, Range = 18-24) completed self-report measures of self-objectification and social media use. The 20 most recent images they had posted on their personal Instagram accounts were downloaded (Image N = 1720) and content analysed for self-objectifying content...
September 2018: Body Image
James Rupert Fletcher
The dyad is increasingly recognised as a key site of experiences of dementia, yet theoretical accounts of the dyad remain poor; 21st-century political developments regarding dementia have changed the ways in which the dyad is perceived, from the carer as victim to the person with dementia as victim. Across both approaches, a problematic dichotomy of two individuals remains. The concept of 'joint career', developed from Goffman's 'moral career', offers an alternative approach to shared dyadic experiences of dementia...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Jay Sibara
I argue that Ann Petry in her novel The Street (1946) portrays chronic illness, disfigurement, and disability as embodied effects of racism resulting from labor exploitation, crowded and unsafe housing conditions, and lack of access to nourishing food and respectful, thorough, and effective health care. Further, Petry conveys that Western medicine (as practiced in the United States) reproduces and maintains white supremacy through mechanisms including how treatment resources are allocated, how medical institutions collaborate with law enforcement officials and institutions, and how medical professionals and spaces authorize the objectification of Black bodies...
2018: Literature and Medicine
Casey L Bevens, Amy L Brown, Steve Loughnan
Sexual aggression is prevalent and damaging in our culture, and sources of support or blame following an attack of this kind can be important influences on the recovery process. This pair of studies investigate the nature of women's blame reactions towards survivors of sexual aggression, as well as the potential for provision of sympathy and support. Specifically, we focused on the previously neglected role of female self-objectification. It was expected that increased self-objectification would lead to decreased sympathy and support, and more rape victim blame...
2018: PloS One
Qing Zhang, Ling-Ling Yu, Shi-Qin Liu, Guang-Ying Huang, Sha-Bei Xu, Wei Wang
The objectification of " Deqi " of acupuncture is a hot topic in acupuncture research at present, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most frequently-used techniques for revealing its brain responses. We searched literature about " Deqi " from PubMed in recent 10 years by using key words " Deqi "acupuncture sensation"needling sensation" and fMRI, trying to expound the central mechanism of " Deqi " and to put forward our understandings...
May 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
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