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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915088/abiotic-and-biotic-formation-of-amino-acids-in-the-enceladus-ocean
#1
Elliot L Steel, Alfonso Davila, Christopher P McKay
The active plume at Enceladus' south pole makes the indirect sampling of its global ocean possible. The partially resolved chemistry of the plume, which points to conditions that are seemingly compatible with life, has made orbital sampling missions a priority. We present a conceptual model of energy flux, hydrothermal H2 production, and both abiotic and biotic production of amino acids. Based on the energy flux observed at the south pole and the inferred internal hydrothermal activity, we estimate an H2 production of 0...
September 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880871/are-vent-crab-behavioral-preferences-adaptations-for-habitat-choice
#2
Hans-Uwe Dahms, Li-Chun Tseng, Jiang-Shiou Hwang
Hydrothermal vent organisms are adapted to their extreme and patchily distributed habitats. They are expected to have evolved mechanisms that keep them in their specific habitation. Since little is known about the recruitment or habitat selection of HV organisms such as brachyurans, we examined the properties of several hydrothermal vent-associated cues on the behavior of the hydrothermal vent (HV) crab Xenograpsus testudinatus in the laboratory that were contrasted by the offering of non-vent cues. This crab species is endemic and dominates the vent fauna of Turtle Island off the NE coast of Taiwan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878861/genome-sequence-of-the-sulfur-oxidizing-bathymodiolus-thermophilus-gill-endosymbiont
#3
Ruby Ponnudurai, Lizbeth Sayavedra, Manuel Kleiner, Stefan E Heiden, Andrea Thürmer, Horst Felbeck, Rabea Schlüter, Stefan M Sievert, Rolf Daniel, Thomas Schweder, Stephanie Markert
Bathymodiolus thermophilus, a mytilid mussel inhabiting the deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the East Pacific Rise, lives in symbiosis with chemosynthetic Gammaproteobacteria within its gills. The intracellular symbiont population synthesizes nutrients for the bivalve host using the reduced sulfur compounds emanating from the vents as energy source. As the symbiont is uncultured, comprehensive and detailed insights into its metabolism and its interactions with the host can only be obtained from culture-independent approaches such as genomics and proteomics...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878741/heat-stress-dictates-microbial-lipid-composition-along-a-thermal-gradient-in-marine-sediments
#4
Miriam Sollich, Marcos Y Yoshinaga, Stefan Häusler, Roy E Price, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Solveig I Bühring
Temperature exerts a first-order control on microbial populations, which constantly adjust the fluidity and permeability of their cell membrane lipids to minimize loss of energy by ion diffusion across the membrane. Analytical advances in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry have allowed the detection of a stunning diversity of bacterial and archaeal lipids in extreme environments such as hot springs, hydrothermal vents and deep subsurface marine sediments. Here, we investigated a thermal gradient from 18 to 101°C across a marine sediment field and tested the hypothesis that cell membrane lipids provide a major biochemical basis for the bioenergetics of archaea and bacteria under heat stress...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875241/primary-formation-path-of-formaldehyde-in-hydrothermal-vents
#5
Satoshi Inaba
Formaldehyde is abundant in the universe and one of the fundamental molecules for life. Hydrothermal vents produce a substantial amount of hydrogen molecules by serpentinization and promote reductive reactions of single carbon compounds. The abundance of formaldehyde is expected to be low due to the high Gibbs free energy in hydrothermal vents. We consider two competing formation pathways of formaldehyde: (1) the reduction of CO by H2 and (2) the reduction of HCOOH by H2 to form a methanediol, followed by the dehydration of the methanediol...
September 5, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872897/a-novel-strategy-to-seek-biosignatures-at-enceladus-and-europa
#6
Philip Judge
A laboratory experiment is suggested in which conditions similar to those in the plume ejecta from Enceladus and, perhaps, Europa are established. With the use of infrared spectroscopy and polarimetry, the experiment might identify possible biomarkers in differential measurements of water from the open ocean, hydrothermal vents, and abiotic water samples. Should the experiment succeed, large telescopes could be used to acquire sensitive infrared spectra of the plumes of Enceladus and Europa, as the satellites transit the bright planetary disks...
September 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857038/thermosulfuriphilus-ammonigenes-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-thermophilic-chemolithoautotrophic-bacterium-capable-of-respiratory-ammonification-of-nitrate-with-elemental-sulfur
#7
Galina B Slobodkina, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Tatyana V Kolganova, Andrei A Novikov, Elizaveta A Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Alexander I Slobodkin
An extremely thermophilic, anaerobic, chemolithoautotrophic bacterium (strain ST65T) was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney located on the Eastern Lau Spreading Centre in the south-western Pacific Ocean, at a depth of 1870 m. Cells of strain ST65T were non-motile straight or slightly curved short rods, 0.5-0.6 µm in diameter and 0.8-1.5 µm in length. The temperature range for growth was 47-75 °C, with an optimum at 65 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.5-7.5, with an optimum at pH 6...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854673/peculiar-citric-acid-cycle-of-hydrothermal-vent-chemolithoautotroph-hydrogenovibrio-crunogenus-and-insights-into-carbon-metabolism-by-obligate-autotrophs
#8
Ishtiaque Quasem, Alexandra N Achille, Brittany A Caddick, Travis A Carter, Camille Daniels, Jennifer A Delaney, Vedad Delic, Kimberly A Denton, Martina C Duran, Marianne K Fatica, Christopher M Ference, Julie P Galkiewicz, Ana M Garcia, Jacqueline D Hendrick, Steven A Horton, Mey S Kun, Phoebe W Koch, Tien Min Lee, Christie R McCabe, Sean McHale, Lauren D McDaniel, Damian M Menning, Kristy J Menning, Hamed Mirzaei-Souderjani, Salina Mostajabian, David A Nicholson, Courtney K Nugent, Nicholas P Osman, Desiree I Pappas, Andrea M Rocha, Karyna Rosario, Haydn Rubelmann, Julie A Schwartz, Kent W Seeley, Christopher M Staley, Elizabeth M Wallace, Terianne M Wong, Brian L Zielinski, Thomas E Hanson, Kathleen M Scott
The genome sequence of the obligate chemolithoautotroph Hydrogenovibrio crunogenus paradoxically predicts a complete oxidative citric acid cycle (CAC). This prediction was tested by multiple approaches including whole cell carbon assimilation to verify obligate autotrophy, phylogenetic analysis of CAC enzyme sequences and enzyme assays. Hydrogenovibrio crunogenus did not assimilate any of the organic compounds provided (acetate, succinate, glucose, yeast extract, tryptone). Enzyme activities confirmed that its CAC is mostly uncoupled from the NADH pool...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853997/progress-in-deciphering-the-controls-on-the-geochemistry-of-fluids-in-seafloor-hydrothermal-systems
#9
Susan E Humphris, Frieder Klein
Over the last four decades, more than 500 sites of seafloor hydrothermal venting have been identified in a range of tectonic environments. These vents represent the seafloor manifestation of hydrothermal convection of seawater through the permeable oceanic basement that is driven by a subsurface heat source. Hydrothermal circulation has fundamental effects on the transfer of heat and mass from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, the composition of seawater, the physical and chemical properties of the oceanic basement, and vent ecosystems at and below the seafloor...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852590/population-structure-of-bathymodiolus-manusensis-a-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-dependent-mussel-from-manus-basin-papua-new-guinea
#10
Andrew D Thaler, William Saleu, Jens Carlsson, Thomas F Schultz, Cindy L Van Dover
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the western Pacific are increasingly being assessed for their potential mineral wealth. To anticipate the potential impacts on biodiversity and connectivity among populations at these vents, environmental baselines need to be established. Bathymodiolus manusensis is a deep-sea mussel found in close association with hydrothermal vents in Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea. Using multiple genetic markers (cytochrome C-oxidase subunit-1 sequencing and eight microsatellite markers), we examined population structure at two sites in Manus Basin separated by 40 km and near a potential mining prospect, where the species has not been observed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841315/thermoactinoamide-a-an-antibiotic-lipophilic-cyclopeptide-from-the-icelandic-thermophilic-bacterium-thermoactinomyces-vulgaris
#11
Roberta Teta, Viggó Thór Marteinsson, Arlette Longeon, Alexandra M Klonowski, René Groben, Marie-Lise Bourguet-Kondracki, Valeria Costantino, Alfonso Mangoni
The thermophilic bacterium Thermoactinomyces vulgaris strain ISCAR 2354, isolated from a coastal hydrothermal vent in Iceland, was shown to contain thermoactinoamide A (1), a new cyclic hexapeptide composed of mixed d and l amino acids, along with five minor analogues (2-6). The structure of 1 was determined by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, and advanced Marfey's analysis of 1 and of the products of its partial hydrolysis. Thermoactinoamide A inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 with an MIC value of 35 μM...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836818/experimentally-testing-hydrothermal-vent-origin-of-life-on-enceladus-and-other-icy-ocean-worlds
#12
Laura M Barge, Lauren M White
We review various laboratory strategies and methods that can be utilized to simulate prebiotic processes and origin of life in hydrothermal vent systems on icy/ocean worlds. Crucial steps that could be simulated in the laboratory include simulations of water-rock chemistry (e.g., serpentinization) to produce hydrothermal fluids, the types of mineral catalysts and energy gradients produced in vent interfaces where hydrothermal fluids interface with the surrounding seawater, and simulations of biologically relevant chemistry in flow-through gradient systems (i...
September 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835260/genomic-insights-into-potential-interdependencies-in-microbial-hydrocarbon-and-nutrient-cycling-in-hydrothermal-sediments
#13
Nina Dombrowski, Kiley W Seitz, Andreas P Teske, Brett J Baker
BACKGROUND: Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are hotspots for productivity and biodiversity. Thermal pyrolysis and circulation produce fluids rich in hydrocarbons and reduced compounds that stimulate microbial activity in surrounding sediments. Several studies have characterized the diversity of Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) sediment-inhabiting microorganisms; however, many of the identified taxa lack cultures or genomic representations. Here, we resolved the metabolic potential and community-level interactions of these diverse communities by reconstructing and analyzing microbial genomes from metagenomic sequencing data...
August 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833857/invertebrate-population-genetics-across-earth-s-largest-habitat-the-deep-sea-floor
#14
REVIEW
M L Taylor, C N Roterman
Despite the deep sea being the largest habitat on Earth, there are just 77 population genetic studies of invertebrates (115 species) inhabiting non-chemosynthetic ecosystems on the deep-sea floor (below 200 m depth). We review and synthesize the results of these papers. Studies reveal levels of genetic diversity comparable to shallow-water species. Generally, populations at similar depths were well connected over 100s-1,000s km, but studies that sampled across depth ranges reveal population structure at much smaller scales (100s-1,000s m) consistent with isolation by adaptation across environmental gradients, or the existence of physical barriers to connectivity with depth...
August 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828234/molecular-identification-of-methane-monooxygenase-and-quantitative-analysis-of-methanotrophic-endosymbionts-under-laboratory-maintenance-in-bathymodiolus-platifrons-from-the-south-china-sea
#15
Yan Sun, Minxiao Wang, Leilei Li, Li Zhou, Xiaocheng Wang, Ping Zheng, Haiyan Yu, Chaolun Li, Song Sun
Deep-sea mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus are numerically dominant macrofauna in many cold seep and hydrothermal vent ecosystems worldwide, and they depend on organic carbon produced by symbionts present in the epithelial cells of the gills. Although Bathymodiolus platifrons represents typical methanotrophic endosymbiosis, our understanding of molecular mechanisms of methane oxidization and carbon fixation is still in its infancy. Moreover, the laboratory maintenance of B. platifrons and the symbiont abundance dynamics during maintenance has not been reported...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827636/confinement-effects-on-carbon-dioxide-methanation-a-novel-mechanism-for-abiotic-methane-formation
#16
Thu Le, Alberto Striolo, C Heath Turner, David R Cole
An important scientific debate focuses on the possibility of abiotic synthesis of hydrocarbons during oceanic crust-seawater interactions. While on-site measurements near hydrothermal vents support this possibility, laboratory studies have provided data that are in some cases contradictory. At conditions relevant for sub-surface environments it has been shown that classic thermodynamics favour the production of CO2 from CH4, while abiotic methane synthesis would require the opposite. However, confinement effects are known to alter reaction equilibria...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820506/physiological-and-ecological-implications-of-an-iron-or-hydrogen-oxidizing-member-of-the-zetaproteobacteria-ghiorsea-bivora-gen-nov-sp-nov
#17
Jiro F Mori, Jarrod J Scott, Kevin W Hager, Craig L Moyer, Kirsten Küsel, David Emerson
Chemosynthetic Fe-oxidizing communities are common at diffuse-flow hydrothermal vents throughout the world's oceans. The foundational members of these communities are the Zetaproteobacteria, a class of Proteobacteria that is primarily associated with ecosystems fueled by ferrous iron, Fe(II). We report here the discovery of two new isolates of Zetaproteobacteria isolated from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG-1), and the Mariana back-arc (SV-108), that are unique in that they can utilize either Fe(II) or molecular hydrogen (H2) as sole electron donor and oxygen as terminal electron acceptor for growth...
August 18, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812709/adaptation-to-deep-sea-chemosynthetic-environments-as-revealed-by-mussel-genomes
#18
Jin Sun, Yu Zhang, Ting Xu, Yang Zhang, Huawei Mu, Yanjie Zhang, Yi Lan, Christopher J Fields, Jerome Ho Lam Hui, Weipeng Zhang, Runsheng Li, Wenyan Nong, Fiona Ka Man Cheung, Jian-Wen Qiu, Pei-Yuan Qian
Hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme deep-sea ecosystems that support dense populations of specialized macro-benthos such as mussels. But the lack of genome information hinders the understanding of the adaptation of these animals to such inhospitable environments. Here we report the genomes of a deep-sea vent/seep mussel (Bathymodiolus platifrons) and a shallow-water mussel (Modiolus philippinarum). Phylogenetic analysis shows that these mussel species diverged approximately 110.4 million years ago...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805344/high-potential-for-temperate-viruses-to-drive-carbon-cycling-in-chemoautotrophy-dominated-shallow-water-hydrothermal-vents
#19
Eugenio Rastelli, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Michael Tangherlini, Eleonora Martorelli, Michela Ingrassia, Francesco Latino Chiocci, Marco Lo Martire, Roberto Danovaro
Viruses are the most abundant life forms in the world's oceans and they are key drivers of biogeochemical cycles, but their impact on the microbial assemblages inhabiting hydrothermal vent ecosystems is still largely unknown. Here, we analysed the viral life strategies and virus-host interactions in the sediments of a newly discovered shallow-water hydrothermal field of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study reveals that temperate viruses, once experimentally induced to replicate, can cause large mortality of vent microbes, significantly reducing the chemoautotrophic carbon production, while enhancing the metabolism of microbial heterotrophs and the re-cycling of the organic matter...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799795/could-it-be-snowing-microbes-on-enceladus-assessing-conditions-in-its-plume-and-implications-for-future-missions
#20
Carolyn C Porco, Luke Dones, Colin Mitchell
We analyzed Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images of the plume of Enceladus to derive particle number densities for the purpose of comparing our results with those obtained from other Cassini instrument investigations. Initial discrepancies in the results from different instruments, as large as factors of 10-20, can be reduced to ∼2 to 3 by accounting for the different times and geometries at which measurements were taken. We estimate the average daily ice production rate, between 2006 and 2010, to be 29 ± 7 kg/s, and a solid-to-vapor ratio, S/V > 0...
September 2017: Astrobiology
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