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Hydrothermal vent

Katsunori Yanagawa, Akira Ijiri, Anja Breuker, Sanae Sakai, Youko Miyoshi, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Takuroh Noguchi, Miho Hirai, Axel Schippers, Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi, Yoshihiro Takaki, Michinari Sunamura, Tetsuro Urabe, Takuro Nunoura, Ken Takai
Subseafloor microbes beneath active hydrothermal vents are thought to live near the upper temperature limit for life on Earth. We drilled and cored the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, and examined the phylogenetic compositions and the products of metabolic functions of sub-vent microbial communities. We detected microbial cells, metabolic activities and molecular signatures only in the shallow sediments down to 15.8 m below the seafloor at a moderately distant drilling site from the active hydrothermal vents (450 m)...
October 18, 2016: ISME Journal
Sabine Gollner, Heiko Stuckas, Terue C Kihara, Stefan Laurent, Sahar Kodami, Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Communities in spatially fragmented deep-sea hydrothermal vents rich in polymetallic sulfides could soon face major disturbance events due to deep-sea mineral mining, such that unraveling patterns of gene flow between hydrothermal vent populations will be an important step in the development of conservation policies. Indeed, the time required by deep-sea populations to recover following habitat perturbations depends both on the direction of gene flow and the number of migrants available for re-colonization after disturbance...
2016: PloS One
Yutong Shi, Chengqian Pan, Bibi Nazia Auckloo, Xuegang Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Kuiwu Wang, Xiaodan Wu, Ying Ye, Bin Wu
Marine hydrothermal microorganisms respond rapidly to the changes in the concentrations and availability of metals within hydrothermal vent microbial habitats which are strongly influenced by elevated levels of heavy metals. Most hydrothermal vent actinomycetes possess a remarkable capability for the synthesis of a broad variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. Major challenges in the screening of these microorganisms are to activate the expression of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters and the development of technologies for efficient dereplication of known compounds...
October 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hayato Tanaka, Moriaki Yasuhara
Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are among the most extreme habitats on Earth. Major research interests in these ecosystems have focused on the anomalous macrofauna, which are nourished by chemoautotrophic bacterial endosymbionts. In contrast, the meiofauna is largely overlooked in this chemosynthetic environment. The present study describes a new species, Thomontocypris shimanagai sp. nov. (Crustacea: Ostracoda), which was collected from the surface of colonies of neoverrucid barnacles and paralvinellid worms on the chimneys at the Myojin-sho submarine caldera...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Marie Portail, Karine Olu, Stanislas F Dubois, Elva Escobar-Briones, Yves Gelinas, Lénaick Menot, Jozée Sarrazin
In the Guaymas Basin, the presence of cold seeps and hydrothermal vents in close proximity, similar sedimentary settings and comparable depths offers a unique opportunity to assess and compare the functioning of these deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems. The food webs of five seep and four vent assemblages were studied using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses. Although the two ecosystems shared similar potential basal sources, their food webs differed: seeps relied predominantly on methanotrophy and thiotrophy via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and vents on petroleum-derived organic matter and thiotrophy via the CBB and reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles...
2016: PloS One
Xianlong Zhang, Ge Tian, Jing Gao, Mei Han, Rui Su, Yanxiang Wang, Shouhua Feng
Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition...
September 23, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Cécile Dalmasso, Philippe Oger, Gwendoline Selva, Damien Courtine, Stéphane L'Haridon, Alexandre Garlaschelli, Erwan Roussel, Junichi Miyazaki, Julie Reveillaud, Mohamed Jebbar, Ken Takai, Lois Maignien, Karine Alain
A novel strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaeon, designated strain CDGS(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent in the Cayman Trough at 4964m water depth. The novel isolate is obligate anaerobe and grows chemoorganoheterotrophically with stimulation of growth by sulphur containing compounds. Its growth is optimal at 75°C, pH 6.0 and under a pressure of 50MPa. It possesses the broadest hydrostatic pressure range for growth that has ever been described for a microorganism. Its genomic DNA G+C content is 51...
October 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Fereshteh Samiee, Federico N Pedron, Dario A Estrin, Liliana Trevani
UV-visible spectroscopic studies of aqueous hydroquinone (HQ) and 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) have been carried out along with classical molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum calculations. The experimental results confirmed that HQ is stable in hot compressed water up to at least 523 K at 70 bar, but BQ decomposes at temperatures lower than 373 K, leading to the formation of HQ and other nonabsorbing products. Even though benzoquinone is not stable, our study significantly extended the temperature range of other spectroscopic studies, and the spectra of HQ up to 523 K can still be useful for other studies, particularly those related to organic species in deep ocean hydrothermal vents...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Ramla Rehman, Maliha Ahmed, Aisha Siddique, Fariha Hasan, Abdul Hameed, Asif Jamal
Proteases with characteristic stabilities are considered attractive candidates for industrial catalysis. In the present study, a potent bacterial strain KT004404, an inhabitant of hydrothermal vents, was isolated and characterized for protease production. Initial screening indicated that this strain produced a hydrolytic zone of 30 mm 16S rRNA-based identification revealed that our isolate was a strain of Bacillus subtilis. Optimum reaction condition for maximum protease production was determined as 55 °C, pH 6, 1 % inoculum size and malt extract as primary growth substrate supplemented with 1 % dextrose...
September 7, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Bjørn O Steinsbu, Victoria Røyseth, Ingunn H Thorseth, Ida H Steen
A thermophilic, anaerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, designated 2PyrY55-1T, was isolated from the wall of an active hydrothermal white-smoker chimney in the Soria Moria vent field (71 °N) at the Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Cells of the strain were Gram-negative, motile rods that possessed a polar flagellum and a sheath-like outer structure ('toga'). Growth was observed at 45-70 °C (optimum 65 °C), pH 5.0-7.5 (optimum pH 5.5) and in 1.5-5.5 % NaCl (optimum 2.5 %). The strain grew on pyruvate, complex proteinaceous substrates, and various sugars...
September 5, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Weipeng Zhang, Jin Sun, Huiluo Cao, Renmao Tian, Lin Cai, Wei Ding, Pei-Yuan Qian
BACKGROUND: Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is one important strategy employed by bacteria for environmental adaptation. However, PTM profiles in deep-sea microbes remain largely unexplored. RESULTS: We provide here insight into PTMs in a hydrothermal vent microbial community through integration of metagenomics and metaproteomics. In total, 2919 unique proteins and 1306 unique PTMs were identified, whereas the latter included acetylation, deamination, hydroxylation, methylation, nitrosylation, oxidation, and phosphorylation...
2016: Microbiome
Mustafa Adel, Ali H A Elbehery, Sherry K Aziz, Ramy K Aziz, Hans-Peter Grossart, Rania Siam
The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jack W Szostak
The origin of life is a very rich field, filled with possibilities and ripe for discovery. RNA replication requires chemical energy and vesicle division is easy to do with mechanical energy. These requirements point to a surface lake, perhaps at some time following the period of concentrated cyanide chemistry that gave rise to nucleotides, amino acids and (maybe) fatty acids. A second requirement follows specifically from the nature of the RNA replication cycle, which requires generally cool to moderate temperatures for the copying chemistry, punctuated by brief periods of high temperature for strand separation...
2016: Medicina
Giorgio Gonnella, Stefanie Böhnke, Daniela Indenbirken, Dieter Garbe-Schönberg, Richard Seifert, Christian Mertens, Stefan Kurtz, Mirjam Perner
Hydrothermal vent systems host microbial communities among which several microorganisms have been considered endemic to this type of habitat. It is still unclear how these organisms colonize geographically distant hydrothermal environments. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, we compare the bacterial communities of sixteen Atlantic hydrothermal vent samples with our own and publicly available global open ocean samples. Analysing sequences obtained from 63 million 16S rRNA genes, the genera we could identify in the open ocean waters contained 99...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Huan Zhang, Rui Liu, Mengqiang Wang, Hao Wang, Qiang Gao, Zhanhui Hou, Zhi Zhou, Dahai Gao, Lingling Wang
This report describes the draft genome sequences of two strains, Pseudoalteromonas telluritireducens DSM 16098 and P. spiralis DSM 16099, which were isolated from hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The reads generated by an Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs with total sizes of 4.4 Mb and 4.1 Mb for DSM 16098 and DSM 16099, respectively.
2016: Genome Announcements
Chengqian Pan, Yutong Shi, Bibi Nazia Auckloo, Xuegang Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Xinyi Tao, Bin Wu
A new verrucosidin derivative, methyl isoverrucosidinol (1), was isolated from the marine fungus Penicillium sp. Y-50-10, dwelling in sulfur rich sediment in the Kueishantao hydrothermal vents off Taiwan. The structure was established by spectroscopic means including HRMS and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration was defined mainly by comparison of quantum chemical TDDFT calculated and experimental ECD spectra. Among hitherto known compounds with a verrucosidine backbone isolated from natural resource, compound 1 represents the first example of a new conformational isomer of its skeleton, exhibiting antibiotic activity against Bacillus subtilis with MIC value 32 μg/mL...
2016: Marine Drugs
Begüm D Topçuoğlu, Lucy C Stewart, Hilary G Morrison, David A Butterfield, Julie A Huber, James F Holden
Thermophilic methanogens are common autotrophs at hydrothermal vents, but their growth constraints and dependence on H2 syntrophy in situ are poorly understood. Between 2012 and 2015, methanogens and H2-producing heterotrophs were detected by growth at 80°C and 55°C at most diffuse (7-40°C) hydrothermal vent sites at Axial Seamount. Microcosm incubations of diffuse hydrothermal fluids at 80°C and 55°C demonstrated that growth of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic methanogens is primarily limited by H2 availability...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
J Baz Jackson
The hypothesis that a natural pH gradient across inorganic membranes lying between the ocean and fluid issuing from hydrothermal alkali vents provided energy to drive chemical reactions during the origin of life has an attractive parallel with chemiosmotic ATP synthesis in present-day organisms. However, arguments raised in this review suggest that such natural pH gradients are unlikely to have played a part in life's origin. There is as yet no evidence for thin inorganic membranes holding sharp pH gradients in modern hydrothermal alkali vents at Lost City near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge...
August 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Priscilla J Miranda, Nathan K McLain, Roland Hatzenpichler, Victoria J Orphan, Jesse G Dillon
The shallow-sea hydrothermal vents at White Point (WP) in Palos Verdes on the southern California coast support microbial mats and provide easily accessed settings in which to study chemolithoautotrophic sulfur cycling. Previous studies have cultured sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the WP mats; however, almost nothing is known about the in situ diversity and activity of the microorganisms in these habitats. We studied the diversity, micron-scale spatial associations and metabolic activity of the mat community via sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and aprA genes, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) microscopy and sulfate reduction rate (SRR) measurements...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Meng Li, Sunit Jain, Gregory J Dick
Microbial chemosynthesis within deep-sea hydrothermal vent plumes is a regionally important source of organic carbon to the deep ocean. Although chemolithoautotrophs within hydrothermal plumes have attracted much attention, a gap remains in understanding the fate of organic carbon produced via chemosynthesis. In the present study, we conducted shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing on samples from deep-sea hydrothermal vent plumes and surrounding background seawaters at Guaymas Basin (GB) in the Gulf of California...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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