Read by QxMD icon Read

Hydrothermal vent

Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Chong Chen, Daniel P Marie, Ken Takai, Katsunori Fujikura, Benny K K Chan
Phylogeography of animals provides clues to processes governing their evolution and diversification. The Indian Ocean has been hypothesized as a 'dispersal corridor' connecting hydrothermal vent fauna of Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Stalked barnacles of the family Eolepadidae are common associates of deep-sea vents in Southern, Pacific and Indian oceans, and the family is an ideal group for testing this hypothesis. Here, we describe Neolepas marisindica sp. nov. from the Indian Ocean, distinguished from N. zevinae and N...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Chris Mehta, Anthony Perez, Glenn Thompson, Matthew A Pasek
A hypothesis in prebiotic chemistry argues that organics were delivered to the early Earth in abundance by meteoritic sources. This study tests that hypothesis by measuring how the transfer of organic matter to the surface of Earth is affected by energy-dissipation processes such as ablation and airbursts. Exogenous delivery has been relied upon as a source of primordial material, but it must stand to reason that other avenues (i.e., hydrothermal vents, electric discharge) played a bigger role in the formation of life as we know it on Earth if exogenous material was unable to deliver significant quantities of organics...
May 12, 2018: Life
Min Hui, Jiao Cheng, Zhongli Sha
BACKGROUND: Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are unique chemoautotrophic ecosystems with harsh conditions. Alvinocaris longirostris is one of the dominant crustacean species inhabiting in these extreme environments. It is significant to clarify mechanisms in their adaptation to the vents. Lysine acetylation has been known to play critical roles in the regulation of many cellular processes. However, its function in A. longirostris and even marine invertebrates remains elusive. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, to comprehensively investigate lysine acetylome in A...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
Lucy C Stewart, Valerie K Stucker, Matthew B Stott, Cornel E J de Ronde
Raoul Island is a subaerial island volcano approximately 1000 km northwest of New Zealand. Its caldera contains a circumneutral closed-basin volcanic lake and several associated pools, as well as intertidal coastal hot springs, all fed by a hydrothermal system sourced from both meteoric water and seawater. Here, we report on the geochemistry, prokaryotic community diversity, and cultivatable abundance of thermophilic microorganisms of four terrestrial features and one coastal feature on Raoul. Hydrothermal fluid contributions to the volcanic lake and pools make them brackish, and consequently support unusual microbial communities dominated by Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, Alphaproteobacteria, and Thaumarchaeota, as well as up to 3% of the rare sister phylum to Cyanobacteria, Candidatus Melainabacteria...
April 30, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Arpitha Chikkanna, Devanita Ghosh, Abhinoy Kishore
The halophilic bacterial strain WB1 isolated from a hydrothermal vent was taxonomically characterized using multiple proxies, as Halomonas nitroreducens strain WB1. When grown on malt extract/yeast extract (MY) medium, it produced large quantities of exopolysaccharide (EPS). The polymer was synthesized at a higher rate during the log and early stationary phases. The anionic polysaccharide is primarily composed of glucose, mannose, and galactose. The studied EPS was highly viscous and had pseudoplastic nature...
2018: PeerJ
Qian-Wen Jin, Qing-Lei Sun, Jian Zhang, Li Sun
C-type lectins (CTLs) play an important role in innate immune defense. In this study, we identified and characterized two CTLs (Lec1 and Lec2) from the tubeworm Alaysia sp. collected from a hydrothermal vent in Pacmanus. Lec1 and Lec2 possess the typical CTL domain but share low sequence identities (10.8%-20.4%) with known CTLs. Recombinant (r) of Lec1 and Lec2 bound to various PAMPs and a wide arrange of bacteria from neritic and deep-sea environments in a Ca2+ -independent manner, but only rLec1 caused agglutination of the bound bacteria...
April 24, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Petra Pjevac, Dimitri V Meier, Stephanie Markert, Christian Hentschker, Thomas Schweder, Dörte Becher, Harald R Gruber-Vodicka, Michael Richter, Wolfgang Bach, Rudolf Amann, Anke Meyerdierks
At hydrothermal vent sites, chimneys consisting of sulfides, sulfates, and oxides are formed upon contact of reduced hydrothermal fluids with oxygenated seawater. The walls and surfaces of these chimneys are an important habitat for vent-associated microorganisms. We used community proteogenomics to investigate and compare the composition, metabolic potential and relative in situ protein abundance of microbial communities colonizing two actively venting hydrothermal chimneys from the Manus Basin back-arc spreading center (Papua New Guinea)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xuwen Wu, Kuidong Xu
A new species belonging to the subfamily Macellicephalinae (Annelida: Polynoidae), Levensteiniella manusensis sp. nov., is described based on material collected from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Manus Back-Arc Basin. The new species is readily distinguished from the congeners by having two pairs of ventral papillae on segments 11 and 12, the first pair of which is distally dichotomous. Levensteiniella manusensis is also characterized by the combination of the notochaetae which are smooth or serrated on the curved side, and the elytra with micro- and macropapillae on the surface and thickened bulbous projections on the posterior border...
February 28, 2018: Zootaxa
Benny K K Chan, Yen-Wei Chang
The present study describes a new species of Vulcanolepas from the Lau Basin in the South Pacific. The basal angle of the tergum of Vulcanolepas buckeridgei sp. nov. is elevated from the capitular-peduncular margin at ~1/6 of the capitular height. The mandibles of V. buckeridgei sp. nov. are tridentoid; the cutting margins of the second and third teeth are long and each tooth possesses 18-20 sharp spines. The proximal segments of the anterior and posterior rami of cirrus I are protuberant and with dense, simple setae...
April 9, 2018: Zootaxa
Folmer Fredslund, Martin S Borchert, Jens-Christian N Poulsen, Steen Bennike Mortensen, Mirjam Perner, Wolfgang R Streit, Leila Lo Leggio
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are extremely fast enzymes, which have attracted much interest in the past due to their medical relevance and their biotechnological potential. An α-type CA gene was isolated from DNA derived from an active hydrothermal vent chimney, in an effort to identify novel CAs with suitable properties for CO2 capture. The gene product was recombinantly produced and characterized, revealing remarkable thermostability, also in the presence of high ionic strength alkaline conditions, which are used in some CO2 capture applications...
July 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Reinhard Wirth, Manja Luckner, Gerhard Wanner
Newly erupted black smokers (hydrothermal vent chimneys) are sterile during their formation, but house hyperthermophilic microorganisms in substantial amounts in later stages. No direct experimental data exist by which mechanisms hyperthermophiles colonize newly erupted black smokers, but a scenario was proposed recently how this might happen. Here we combine high temperature light microscopy with electron microscopy to show that two hyperthermophilic Archaea, namely Pyrococcus furiosus and Methanocaldococcus villosus are able to adhere onto authentic black smoker material (BSM)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nathaniel W Fortney, Shaomei He, Ajinkya Kulkarni, Michael W Friedrich, Charlotte Holz, Eric S Boyd, Eric E Roden
Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) is a circumneutral pH, Fe-rich geothermal feature located in Yellowstone National Park. Previous Fe(III)-reducing enrichment culture studies with CP sediments identified close relatives of known dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterial (FeRB) taxa, including Geobacter and Melioribacter However, the abundance and activity of such organisms in the native microbial community is unknown. Here we used stable isotope probing experiments combined with 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to gain an understanding of the in situ Fe(III)-reducing microbial community at CP...
March 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Corinna Bang, Tal Dagan, Peter Deines, Nicole Dubilier, Wolfgang J Duschl, Sebastian Fraune, Ute Hentschel, Heribert Hirt, Nils Hülter, Tim Lachnit, Devani Picazo, Lucia Pita, Claudia Pogoreutz, Nils Rädecker, Maged M Saad, Ruth A Schmitz, Hinrich Schulenburg, Christian R Voolstra, Nancy Weiland-Bräuer, Maren Ziegler, Thomas C G Bosch
From protists to humans, all animals and plants are inhabited by microbial organisms. There is an increasing appreciation that these resident microbes influence the fitness of their plant and animal hosts, ultimately forming a metaorganism consisting of a uni- or multicellular host and a community of associated microorganisms. Research on host-microbe interactions has become an emerging cross-disciplinary field. In both vertebrates and invertebrates a complex microbiome confers immunological, metabolic and behavioural benefits; conversely, its disturbance can contribute to the development of disease states...
February 15, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Guillaume Pillot, Eléonore Frouin, Emilie Pasero, Anne Godfroy, Yannick Combet-Blanc, Sylvain Davidson, Pierre-Pol Liebgott
While more and more investigations are done to study hyperthermophilic exoelectrogenic communities from environments, none have been performed yet on deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Samples of black smoker chimney from Rainbow site on the Atlantic mid-oceanic ridge have been harvested for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells under hyperthermophilic (80 °C) condition. Two enrichments were performed in a BioElectrochemical System specially designed: one from direct inoculation of crushed chimney and the other one from inoculation of a pre-cultivation on iron (III) oxide...
March 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Han-Jie Gu, Qing-Lei Sun, Shuai Jiang, Jian Zhang, Li Sun
Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a type of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with a vital role in antimicrobial defense. Although a large amount of ALFs have been identified from neritic and fresh water crustacean species, no functional investigation of ALFs from deep-sea animals have been documented. In the present study, we characterized the immune function of an ALF molecule (named RspALF1) from the shrimp Rimicaris sp. residing in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent in Desmos, Manus Basin. RspALF1 shares 51...
March 20, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Christopher Nicolai Roterman, Won-Kyung Lee, Xinming Liu, Rongcheng Lin, Xinzheng Li, Yong-Jin Won
The recent discovery of two new species of kiwaid squat lobsters on hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean and in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean has prompted a re-analysis of Kiwaid biogeographical history. Using a larger alignment with more fossil calibrated nodes than previously, we consider the precise relationship between Kiwaidae, Chirostylidae and Eumunididae within Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) to be still unresolved at present. Additionally, the placement of both new species within a new "Bristly" clade along with the seep-associated Kiwa puravida is most parsimoniously interpreted as supporting a vent origin for the family, rather than a seep-to-vent progression...
2018: PloS One
Kathleen M Scott, John Williams, Cody M B Porter, Sydney Russel, Tara L Harmer, John H Paul, Kirsten M Antonen, Megan K Bridges, Gary J Camper, Christie K Campla, Leila G Casella, Eva Chase, James W Conrad, Mercedez C Cruz, Darren S Dunlap, Laura Duran, Elizabeth M Fahsbender, Dawn B Goldsmith, Ryan F Keeley, Matthew R Kondoff, Breanna I Kussy, Marannda K Lane, Stephanie Lawler, Brittany A Leigh, Courtney Lewis, Lygia M Lostal, Devon Marking, Paola A Mancera, Evan C McClenthan, Emily A McIntyre, Jessica A Mine, Swapnil Modi, Brittney D Moore, William A Morgan, Kaleigh M Nelson, Kimmy N Nguyen, Nicholas Ogburn, David G Parrino, Anangamanjari D Pedapudi, Rebecca P Pelham, Amanda M Preece, Elizabeth A Rampersad, Jason C Richardson, Christina M Rodgers, Brent L Schaffer, Nancy E Sheridan, Michael R Solone, Zachery R Staley, Maki Tabuchi, Ramond J Waide, Pauline W Wanjugi, Suzanne Young, Alicia Clum, Chris Daum, Marcel Huntemann, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos Kyrpides, Natalia Mikhailova, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Manoj Pillay, T B K Reddy, Nicole Shapiro, Dimitrios Stamatis, Neha Varghese, Tanja Woyke, Rich Boden, Sharyn K Freyermuth, Cheryl A Kerfeld
Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria from the genera Hydrogenovibrio, Thiomicrorhabdus and Thiomicrospira are common, sometimes dominant, isolates from sulfidic habitats including hydrothermal vents, soda and salt lakes and marine sediments. Their genome sequences confirm their membership in a deeply branching clade of the Gammaproteobacteria. Several adaptations to heterogeneous habitats are apparent. Their genomes include large numbers of genes for sensing and responding to their environment (EAL- and GGDEF-domain proteins and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins) despite their small sizes (2...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Xinwei Yang, Lianzuan Wu, Ying Xu, Chongrong Ke, Fangfang Hu, Xiang Xiao, Jianzhong Huang
A novel esterase gene selected from metagenomic sequences of deep-sea hydrothermal vents was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein (est-OKK), which belongs to the lipolytic enzyme family V, exhibited high activity toward pNP-esters with short acyl chains and especially p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Site-mutagenesis results confirmed that est-OKK contains the nonclassical catalytic tetrad predicted by alignment and computational modeling. The est-OKK protein is a moderately thermophilic enzyme that is relatively thermostable, and highly salt-tolerant, which remained stable in 3 mol/L NaCl for 6 hr...
March 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
F Westall, K Hickman-Lewis, N Hinman, P Gautret, K A Campbell, J G Bréhéret, F Foucher, A Hubert, S Sorieul, A V Dass, T P Kee, T Georgelin, A Brack
Critical to the origin of life are the ingredients of life, of course, but also the physical and chemical conditions in which prebiotic chemical reactions can take place. These factors place constraints on the types of Hadean environment in which life could have emerged. Many locations, ranging from hydrothermal vents and pumice rafts, through volcanic-hosted splash pools to continental springs and rivers, have been proposed for the emergence of life on Earth, each with respective advantages and certain disadvantages...
March 2018: Astrobiology
Jean-Baptiste Raina, Laura Eme, F Joseph Pollock, Anja Spang, John M Archibald, Tom A Williams
The concept of symbiosis - defined in 1879 by de Bary as 'the living together of unlike organisms' - has a rich and convoluted history in biology. In part, because it questioned the concept of the individual, symbiosis fell largely outside mainstream science and has traditionally received less attention than other research disciplines. This is gradually changing. In nature organisms do not live in isolation but rather interact with, and are impacted by, diverse beings throughout their life histories. Symbiosis is now recognized as a central driver of evolution across the entire tree of life, including, for example, bacterial endosymbionts that provide insects with vital nutrients and the mitochondria that power our own cells...
February 22, 2018: Biology Open
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"