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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699015/sponge-prokaryote-communities-in-taiwanese-coral-reef-and-shallow-hydrothermal-vent-ecosystems
#1
F J R C Coelho, D F R Cleary, N C M Gomes, A R M Pólonia, Y M Huang, L-L Liu, N J de Voogd
Previously, it was believed that the prokaryote communities of typical 'low-microbial abundance' (LMA) or 'non-symbiont harboring' sponges were merely subsets of the prokaryote plankton community. Recent research has, however, shown that these sponges are dominated by particular clades of Proteobacteria or Cyanobacteria. Here, we expand on this research and assess the composition and putative functional profiles of prokaryotic communities from LMA sponges collected in two ecosystems (coral reef and hydrothermal vent) from vicinal islands of Taiwan with distinct physicochemical conditions...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698959/isolation-and-antibiotic-screening-of-fungi-from-a-hydrothermal-vent-site-and-characterization-of-secondary-metabolites-from-a-penicillium-isolate
#2
Chengqian Pan, Yutong Shi, Bibi Nazia Auckloo, Syed Shams Ul Hassan, Najeeb Akhter, Kuiwu Wang, Ying Ye, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Xinyi Tao, Bin Wu
Five new compounds were isolated from Penicillium sp. Y-5-2 including an austin derivative 4, four isocoumarins 9, 11, 12, and 13, together with two known isocoumarins 8 and 10, and six known austin derivatives 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 and one phenol 14. Their structures and relative configurations were established by spectroscopic means. The absolute configurations of 4, 11, and 13 were defined mainly by comparison of quantum chemical TDDFT calculated and experimental ECD spectra. The cyclization of the pentan-2-ol pendant at C-3 in compound 13 allowed the assignment of a new 2,3,4,4a,6,10b-hexahydro-1H-benzo[c]chromene isocoumarin skeleton...
July 11, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698277/deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-viruses-compensate-for-microbial-metabolism-in-virus-host-interactions
#3
Tianliang He, Hongyun Li, Xiaobo Zhang
Viruses are believed to be responsible for the mortality of host organisms. However, some recent investigations reveal that viruses may be essential for host survival. To date, it remains unclear whether viruses are beneficial or harmful to their hosts. To reveal the roles of viruses in the virus-host interactions, viromes and microbiomes of sediment samples from three deep-sea hydrothermal vents were explored in this study. To exclude the influence of exogenous DNAs on viromes, the virus particles were purified with nuclease (DNase I and RNase A) treatments and cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690052/lebetimonas-natsushimae-sp-nov-a-novel-strictly-anaerobic-moderately-thermophilic-chemoautotroph-isolated-from-a-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-polychaete-nest-in-the-mid-okinawa-trough
#4
Ryousuke Nagata, Yoshihiro Takaki, Akihiro Tame, Takuro Nunoura, Hisashi Muto, Sayaka Mino, Shigeki Sawayama, Ken Takai, Satoshi Nakagawa
A moderately thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, chemoautotrophic bacterium, designated strain HS1857(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent at the Noho site in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Strain HS1857(T) grew between 35 and 63°C (optimum 55°C), in the presence of 10-55gl(-1) NaCl (optimum 25gl(-1)), and pH 5.5-7.1 (optimum 6.4). Growth occurred with molecular hydrogen as the electron donor and elemental sulfur, nitrate, or selenate as the electron acceptors. Formate could serve as an alternative electron donor with nitrate as an electron acceptor...
July 4, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682665/can-life-begin-on-enceladus-a-perspective-from-hydrothermal-chemistry
#5
David Deamer, Bruce Damer
Enceladus is a target of future missions designed to search for existing life or its precursors. Recent flybys of Enceladus by the Cassini probe have confirmed the existence of a long-lived global ocean laced with organic compounds and biologically available nitrogen. This immediately suggests the possibility that life could have begun and may still exist on Enceladus. Here we will compare the properties of two proposed sites for the origin of life on Earth-hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor and hydrothermal volcanic fields at the surface-and ask whether similar conditions could have fostered the origin of life on Enceladus...
July 6, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672882/a-novel-benzoquinone-compound-isolated-from-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-triggers-apoptosis-of-tumor-cells
#6
Chenxi Xu, Xumei Sun, Min Jin, Xiaobo Zhang
Microorganisms are important sources for screening bioactive natural products. However, natural products from deep-sea microbes have not been extensively explored. In this study, the metabolites of bacteriophage GVE2 -infected (Geobacillus sp. E263 virus) thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus sp. E263, which was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, were characterized. A novel quinoid compound, which had anti-tumor activity, was isolated from the phage-challenged thermophile. The chemical structure analysis showed that this novel quinoid compound was 2-amino-6-hydroxy-[1,4]-benzoquinone...
June 26, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659879/co-registered-geochemistry-and-metatranscriptomics-reveal-unexpected-distributions-of-microbial-activity-within-a-hydrothermal-vent-field
#7
Heather C Olins, Daniel R Rogers, Christina Preston, William Ussler, Douglas Pargett, Scott Jensen, Brent Roman, James M Birch, Christopher A Scholin, M Fauzi Haroon, Peter R Girguis
Despite years of research into microbial activity at diffuse flow hydrothermal vents, the extent of microbial niche diversity in these settings is not known. To better understand the relationship between microbial activity and the associated physical and geochemical conditions, we obtained co-registered metatranscriptomic and geochemical data from a variety of different fluid regimes within the ASHES vent field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Microbial activity in the majority of the cool and warm fluids sampled was dominated by a population of Gammaproteobacteria (likely sulfur oxidizers) that appear to thrive in a variety of chemically distinct fluids...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659873/microbial-community-structure-of-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vents-on-the-ultraslow-spreading-southwest-indian-ridge
#8
Jian Ding, Yu Zhang, Han Wang, Huahua Jian, Hao Leng, Xiang Xiao
Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is a typical oceanic ultraslow spreading ridge with intensive hydrothermal activities. The microbial communities in hydrothermal fields including primary producers to support the entire ecosystem by utilizing geochemical energy generated from rock-seawater interactions. Here we have examined the microbial community structures on four hydrothermal vents from SWIR, representing distinct characteristics in terms of temperature, pH and metal compositions, by using Illumina sequencing of the 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, to correlate bacterial and archaeal populations with the nature of the vents influenced by ultraslow spreading features...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646448/purification-of-the-exopolysaccharide-produced-by-alteromonas-infernus-identification-of-endotoxins-and-effective-process-to-remove-them
#9
Alicia Grivaud-Le Du, Agata Zykwinska, Corinne Sinquin, Jacqueline Ratiskol, Pierre Weiss, Claire Vinatier, Jérôme Guicheux, Christine Delbarre-Ladrat, Sylvia Colliec-Jouault
Alteromonas infernus bacterium isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents can produce by fermentation a high molecular weight exopolysaccharide (EPS) called GY785. This EPS described as a new source of glycosaminoglycan-like molecule presents a great potential for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. However, this unusual EPS is secreted by a Gram-negative bacterium and can be therefore contaminated by endotoxins, in particular the lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Biochemical and chemical analyses of the LPS extracted from A...
June 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603518/microbial-extracellular-polymeric-substances-epss-in-ocean-systems
#10
REVIEW
Alan W Decho, Tony Gutierrez
Microbial cells (i.e., bacteria, archaea, microeukaryotes) in oceans secrete a diverse array of large molecules, collectively called extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) or simply exopolymers. These secretions facilitate attachment to surfaces that lead to the formation of structured 'biofilm' communities. In open-water environments, they also lead to formation of organic colloids, and larger aggregations of cells, called 'marine snow.' Secretion of EPS is now recognized as a fundamental microbial adaptation, occurring under many environmental conditions, and one that influences many ocean processes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596393/genome-sequence-of-geothermobacter-sp-strain-epr-m-a-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-iron-reducer
#11
Benjamin Tully, Pratixaben Savalia, Karla Abuyen, Christina Baughan, Eric Romero, Cynthia Ronkowski, Brandon Torres, Jason Tremblay, Anthony Trujillo, Madeline Tyler, Ileana Pérez-Rodríguez, Jan Amend
Geothermobacter sp. strain EPR-M was isolated from a hydrothermal vent on the East Pacific Rise and has been shown to participate in the reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Here, we report its 3.73-Mb draft genome sequence.
June 8, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586676/hydrothermal-vents
#12
William Brazelton
William Brazelton introduces deep sea hydrothermal vents and the unusual life forms they host.
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558648/geographical-structure-of-endosymbiotic-bacteria-hosted-by-bathymodiolus-mussels-at-eastern-pacific-hydrothermal-vents
#13
Phuong-Thao Ho, Eunji Park, Soon Gyu Hong, Eun-Hye Kim, Kangchon Kim, Sook-Jin Jang, Robert C Vrijenhoek, Yong-Jin Won
BACKGROUND: Chemolithoautotrophic primary production sustains dense invertebrate communities at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and hydrocarbon seeps. Symbiotic bacteria that oxidize dissolved sulfur, methane, and hydrogen gases nourish bathymodiolin mussels that thrive in these environments worldwide. The mussel symbionts are newly acquired in each generation via infection by free-living forms. This study examined geographical subdivision of the thiotrophic endosymbionts hosted by Bathymodiolus mussels living along the eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents...
May 30, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552991/exploring-the-molecular-basis-of-adaptive-evolution-in-hydrothermal-vent-crab-austinograea-alayseae-by-transcriptome-analysis
#14
Min Hui, Chengwen Song, Yuan Liu, Chaolun Li, Zhaoxia Cui
Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of adaptation to the hydrothermal vent in organisms at genomic level is significant for understanding the adaptive evolution process in the extreme environment. We performed RNA-seq on four different tissues of a vent crab species, Austinograea alayseae, producing 725,461 unigenes and 134,489 annotated genes. Genes related to sensory, circadian rhythm, hormone, hypoxia stress, metal detoxification and immunity were identified. It was noted that in the degenerated eyestalk, transcription of phototransduction related genes which are important for retinal function was greatly reduced; three crucial neuropeptide hormones, one molt-inhibiting and two crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursors were characterized with conserved domains; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and two novel isoforms of metallothioneins in the vent crabs were discovered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536498/catalytic-intermediate-crystal-structures-of-cysteine-desulfurase-from-the-archaeon-thermococcus-onnurineus-na1
#15
Thien-Hoang Ho, Kim-Hung Huynh, Diem Quynh Nguyen, Hyunjae Park, Kyoungho Jung, Bookyo Sur, Yeh-Jin Ahn, Sun-Shin Cha, Lin-Woo Kang
Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 is an anaerobic archaeon usually found in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent area, which can use elemental sulfur (S(0)) as a terminal electron acceptor for energy. Sulfur, essential to many biomolecules such as sulfur-containing amino acids and cofactors including iron-sulfur cluster, is usually mobilized from cysteine by the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate- (PLP-) dependent enzyme of cysteine desulfurase (CDS). We determined the crystal structures of CDS from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 (ToCDS), which include native internal aldimine (NAT), gem-diamine (GD) with alanine, internal aldimine structure with existing alanine (IAA), and internal aldimine with persulfide-bound Cys356 (PSF) structures...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515421/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-rimicaris-sp-reveals-novel-molecular-features-associated-with-survival-in-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent
#16
Jian Zhang, Qing-Lei Sun, Zhen-Dong Luan, Chao Lian, Li Sun
Shrimp of the family Alvinocarididae are the predominant megafauna of deep-sea hydrothermal vents. However, genome information on this family is currently unavailable. In the present study, by employing Illumina sequencing, we performed the first de novo transcriptome analysis of the gills of the shrimp Rimicaris sp. from the hydrothermal vent in Desmos, Manus Basin. The analysis was conducted in a comparative manner with the shrimp taken directly from the vent (GR samples) and the shrimp that had been maintained for ten days under normal laboratory condition (mGR samples)...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509857/microbial-diversity-in-extreme-marine-habitats-and-their-biomolecules
#17
REVIEW
Annarita Poli, Ilaria Finore, Ida Romano, Alessia Gioiello, Licia Lama, Barbara Nicolaus
Extreme marine environments have been the subject of many studies and scientific publications. For many years, these environmental niches, which are characterized by high or low temperatures, high-pressure, low pH, high salt concentrations and also two or more extreme parameters in combination, have been thought to be incompatible to any life forms. Thanks to new technologies such as metagenomics, it is now possible to detect life in most extreme environments. Starting from the discovery of deep sea hydrothermal vents up to the study of marine biodiversity, new microorganisms have been identified, and their potential uses in several applied fields have been outlined...
May 16, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503790/proton-gradients-at-the-origin-of-life
#18
REVIEW
Nick Lane
Chemiosmotic coupling - the harnessing of electrochemical ion gradients across membranes to drive metabolism - is as universally conserved as the genetic code. As argued previously in these pages, such deep conservation suggests that ion gradients arose early in evolution, and might have played a role in the origin of life. Alkaline hydrothermal vents harbour pH gradients of similar polarity and magnitude to those employed by modern cells, one of many properties that make them attractive models for life's origin...
June 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493148/diversity-of-bacteria-and-archaea-from-two-shallow-marine-hydrothermal-vents-from-vulcano-island
#19
Garabed Antranikian, Marcel Suleiman, Christian Schäfers, Michael W W Adams, Simonetta Bartolucci, Jenny M Blamey, Nils-Kåre Birkeland, Elizaveta Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Milton S da Costa, Don Cowan, Michael Danson, Patrick Forterre, Robert Kelly, Yoshizumi Ishino, Jennifer Littlechild, Marco Moracci, Kenneth Noll, Tairo Oshima, Frank Robb, Mosè Rossi, Helena Santos, Peter Schönheit, Reinhard Sterner, Rudolf Thauer, Michael Thomm, Jürgen Wiegel, Karl Otto Stetter
To obtain new insights into community compositions of hyperthermophilic microorganisms, defined as having optimal growth temperatures of 80 °C and above, sediment and water samples were taken from two shallow marine hydrothermal vents (I and II) with temperatures of 100 °C at Vulcano Island, Italy. A combinatorial approach of denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and metagenomic sequencing was used for microbial community analyses of the samples. In addition, enrichment cultures, growing anaerobically on selected polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose, were also analyzed by the combinatorial approach...
July 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493048/a-novel-%C3%AF-3-desaturase-in-the-deep-sea-giant-tubeworm-riftia-pachyptila
#20
Helu Liu, Hui Wang, Shanya Cai, Haibin Zhang
One paradox of the trophic biochemistry of the deep sea giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila, endemic to hydrothermal vent sites and nourished by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency chemolitoautotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, is the source of their PUFAs. Biosynthesis of PUFA starts with two precursors C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3, which cannot be biosynthesized by most animals due to lack of ω6- and ω3-desaturase; thus, C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 are generally essential fatty acids for animals. Here, we characterized a gene derived from the R...
May 10, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
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