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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432382/two-distinct-periplasmic-enzymes-are-responsible-for-tellurite-tellurate-and-selenite-reduction-by-strain-er-te-48-associated-with-the-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-tube-worms-at-the-juan-de-fuca-ridge-black-smokers
#1
Chris Maltman, Lynda J Donald, Vladimir Yurkov
Strain ER-Te-48 isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent tube worm is capable of resisting and reducing extremely high levels of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite, which are used for respiration anaerobically. Tellurite and tellurate reduction is accomplished by a periplasmic enzyme of 215 kDa comprised of 3 subunits (74, 42, and 25 kDa) in a 2:1:1 ratio. The optimum pH and temperature for activity is 8.0 and 35 °C, respectively. Tellurite reduction has a V max of 5.6 µmol/min/mg protein and a K m of 3...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416684/discovery-of-chemoautotrophic-symbiosis-in-the-giant-shipworm-kuphus-polythalamia-bivalvia-teredinidae-extends-wooden-steps-theory
#2
Daniel L Distel, Marvin A Altamia, Zhenjian Lin, J Reuben Shipway, Andrew Han, Imelda Forteza, Rowena Antemano, Ma Gwen J Peñaflor Limbaco, Alison G Tebo, Rande Dechavez, Julie Albano, Gary Rosenberg, Gisela P Concepcion, Eric W Schmidt, Margo G Haygood
The "wooden-steps" hypothesis [Distel DL, et al. (2000) Nature 403:725-726] proposed that large chemosynthetic mussels found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents descend from much smaller species associated with sunken wood and other organic deposits, and that the endosymbionts of these progenitors made use of hydrogen sulfide from biogenic sources (e.g., decaying wood) rather than from vent fluids. Here, we show that wood has served not only as a stepping stone between habitats but also as a bridge between heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic symbiosis for the giant mud-boring bivalve Kuphus polythalamia This rare and enigmatic species, which achieves the greatest length of any extant bivalve, is the only described member of the wood-boring bivalve family Teredinidae (shipworms) that burrows in marine sediments rather than wood...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406193/breathing-modes-of-kolumbo-submarine-volcano-santorini-greece
#3
Evangelos Bakalis, Theo J Mertzimekis, Paraskevi Nomikou, Francesco Zerbetto
Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo's hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396923/binding-of-hg-by-bacterial-extracellular-polysaccharide-a-possible-role-in-hg-tolerance
#4
Kimberly Cruz, Jean Guézennec, Tamar Barkay
Bacteria employ adaptive mechanisms of mercury (Hg) tolerance to survive in environments containing elevated Hg concentrations. The potential of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production by bacteria as a mechanism of Hg tolerance has not been previously investigated. The objectives of this study were to determine if bacterial EPS sorb Hg, and if so does sorption provide protection against Hg toxicity. Purified EPS with different chemical compositions produced by bacterial isolates from microbial mats in French Polynesian atolls and deep-sea hydrothermal vents were assessed for Hg sorption...
April 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388834/epsilonproteobacterial-hydroxylamine-oxidoreductase-%C3%AE%C2%B5hao-characterization-of-a-missing-link-in-the-multihaem-cytochrome-c-family
#5
Doreen Haase, Bianca Hermann, Oliver Einsle, Jorg Simon
Members of the multihaem cytochrome c (MCC) family such as pentahaem cytochrome c nitrite reductase (NrfA) or octahaem hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (Hao) are involved in various microbial respiratory electron transport chains. Some members of the Hao subfamily, here called εHao proteins, have been predicted from the genomes of nitrate/nitrite-ammonifying bacteria that usually lack NrfA. Here, εHao proteins from the host-associated Epsilonproteobacteria Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter curvus and the deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria Caminibacter mediatlanticus and Nautilia profundicola were purified as εHao-maltose binding protein fusions produced in Wolinella succinogenes...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386731/comparative-metagenomics-reveals-insights-into-the-deep-sea-adaptation-mechanism-of-the-microorganisms-in-iheya-hydrothermal-fields
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hai-Liang Wang, Li Sun
In this study, comparative metagenomic analysis was performed to investigate the genetic profiles of the microbial communities inhabiting the sediments surrounding Iheya North and Iheya Ridge hydrothermal fields. Four samples were used, which differed in their distances from hydrothermal vents. The results showed that genes involved in cell surface structure synthesis, polyamine metabolism and homeostasis, osmoadaptation, pH and Na(+) homeostasis, and heavy-metal transport were abundant. Pathways for putrescine and spermidine synthesis and transport were identified in the four metagenomes, which possibly participate in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383164/ferrous-iron-and-ammonium-rich-diffuse-vents-support-habitat-specific-communities-in-a-shallow-hydrothermal-field-off-the-basiluzzo-islet-aeolian-volcanic-archipelago
#7
G Bortoluzzi, T Romeo, V La Cono, G La Spada, F Smedile, V Esposito, G Sabatino, M Di Bella, S Canese, G Scotti, M Bo, L Giuliano, D Jones, P N Golyshin, M M Yakimov, F Andaloro
Ammonium- and Fe(II)-rich fluid flows, known from deep-sea hydrothermal systems, have been extensively studied in the last decades and are considered as sites with high microbial diversity and activity. Their shallow-submarine counterparts, despite their easier accessibility, have so far been under-investigated, and as a consequence, much less is known about microbial communities inhabiting these ecosystems. A field of shallow expulsion of hydrothermal fluids has been discovered at depths of 170-400 meters off the base of the Basiluzzo Islet (Aeolian Volcanic Archipelago, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)...
April 6, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381618/astronomical-and-atmospheric-impacts-on-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-invertebrates
#8
Yann Lelièvre, Pierre Legendre, Marjolaine Matabos, Steve Mihály, Raymond W Lee, Pierre-Marie Sarradin, Claudia P Arango, Jozée Sarrazin
Ocean tides and winter surface storms are among the main factors driving the dynamics and spatial structure of marine coastal species, but the understanding of their impact on deep-sea and hydrothermal vent communities is still limited. Multidisciplinary deep-sea observatories offer an essential tool to study behavioural rhythms and interactions between hydrothermal community dynamics and environmental fluctuations. Here, we investigated whether species associated with a Ridgeia piscesae tubeworm vent assemblage respond to local ocean dynamics...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378459/spontaneous-and-widespread-electricity-generation-in-natural-deep-sea-hydrothermal-fields
#9
Masahiro Yamamoto, Ryuhei Nakamura, Takafumi Kasaya, Hidenori Kumagai, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Ken Takai
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents discharge abundant reductive energy into oxidative seawater. Herein, we demonstrated that in situ measurements of redox potentials on the surfaces of active hydrothermal mineral deposits were more negative than the surrounding seawater potential, driving electrical current generation. We also demonstrated that negative potentials in the surface of minerals were widespread in the hydrothermal fields, regardless of the proximity to hydrothermal fluid discharges. Lab experiments verified that the negative potential of the mineral surface was induced by a distant electron transfer from the hydrothermal fluid through the metallic and catalytic properties of minerals...
April 5, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375213/niche-partitioning-of-diverse-sulfur-oxidizing-bacteria-at-hydrothermal-vents
#10
Dimitri V Meier, Petra Pjevac, Wolfgang Bach, Stephane Hourdez, Peter R Girguis, Charles Vidoudez, Rudolf Amann, Anke Meyerdierks
At deep-sea hydrothermal vents, primary production is carried out by chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, with the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds being a major driver for microbial carbon fixation. Dense and highly diverse assemblies of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are observed, yet the principles of niche differentiation between the different SOB across geochemical gradients remain poorly understood. In this study niche differentiation of the key SOB was addressed by extensive sampling of active sulfidic vents at six different hydrothermal venting sites in the Manus Basin, off Papua New Guinea...
April 4, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372053/the-relative-effect-of-particles-and-turbulence-on-acoustic-scattering-from-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-plumes-revisited
#11
Guangyu Xu, Darrell R Jackson, Karen G Bemis
The relative importance of suspended particles and turbulence as backscattering mechanisms within a hydrothermal plume located on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is determined by comparing acoustic backscatter measured by the Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) with model calculations based on in situ samples of particles suspended within the plume. Analysis of plume samples yields estimates of the mass concentration and size distribution of particles, which are used to quantify their contribution to acoustic backscatter...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362721/hidden-diversity-revealed-by-genome-resolved-metagenomics-of-iron-oxidizing-microbial-mats-from-l%C3%A5-ihi-seamount-hawai-i
#12
Heather Fullerton, Kevin W Hager, Sean M McAllister, Craig L Moyer
The Zetaproteobacteria are ubiquitous in marine environments, yet this class of Proteobacteria is only represented by a few closely-related cultured isolates. In high-iron environments, such as diffuse hydrothermal vents, the Zetaproteobacteria are important members of the community driving its structure. Biogeography of Zetaproteobacteria has shown two ubiquitous operational taxonomic units (OTUs), yet much is unknown about their genomic diversity. Genome-resolved metagenomics allows for the specific binning of microbial genomes based on genomic signatures present in composite metagenome assemblies...
March 31, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361301/anoxic-and-oxic-oxidation-of-rocks-containing-fe-ii-mg-silicates-and-fe-ii-monosulfides-as-source-of-fe-iii-minerals-and-hydrogen-geobiotropy
#13
Marie-Paule Bassez
In this article, anoxic and oxic hydrolyses of rocks containing Fe (II) Mg-silicates and Fe (II)-monosulfides are analyzed at 25 °C and 250-350 °C. A table of the products is drawn. It is shown that magnetite and hydrogen can be produced during low-temperature (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous silicates and during high-temperature (250 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous monosulfides. The high-T (350 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous silicates leads mainly to ferric oxides/hydroxides such as the hydroxide ferric trihydroxide, the oxide hydroxide goethite/lepidocrocite and the oxide hematite, and to Fe(III)-phyllosilicates...
March 31, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346388/thermal-condensation-of-glycine-and-alanine-on-metal-ferrite-surface-primitive-peptide-bond-formation-scenario
#14
Md Asif Iqubal, Rachana Sharma, Sohan Jheeta, Kamaluddin
The amino acid condensation reaction on a heterogeneous mineral surface has been regarded as one of the important pathways for peptide bond formation. Keeping this in view, we have studied the oligomerization of the simple amino acids, glycine and alanine, on nickel ferrite (NiFe₂O₄), cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂O₄), copper ferrite (CuFe₂O₄), zinc ferrite (ZnFe₂O₄), and manganese ferrite (MnFe₂O₄) nanoparticles surfaces, in the temperature range from 50-120 °C for 1-35 days, without applying any wetting/drying cycles...
March 27, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334209/comparative-study-of-chemosensory-organs-of-shrimp-from-hydrothermal-vent-and-coastal-environments
#15
Magali Zbinden, Camille Berthod, Nicolas Montagné, Julia Machon, Nelly Léger, Thomas Chertemps, Nicolas Rabet, Bruce Shillito, Juliette Ravaux
The detection of chemical signals is involved in a variety of crustacean behaviors, such as social interactions, search and evaluation of food and navigation in the environment. At hydrothermal vents, endemic shrimp may use the chemical signature of vent fluids to locate active edifices, however little is known on their sensory perception in these remote deep-sea habitats. Here, we present the first comparative description of the sensilla on the antennules and antennae of 4 hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata, Mirocaris fortunata, Chorocaris chacei, and Alvinocaris markensis) and of a closely related coastal shrimp (Palaemon elegans)...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328982/highlighting-of-quorum-sensing-lux-genes-and-their-expression-in-the-hydrothermal-vent-shrimp-rimicaris-exoculata-ectosymbiontic-community-possible-use-as-biogeographic-markers
#16
Simon Le Bloa, Lucile Durand, Valérie Cueff-Gauchard, Josiane Le Bars, Laure Taupin, Charlotte Marteau, Alexis Bazire, Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita
Rimicaris exoculata is a caridean shrimp that dominates the fauna at several hydrothermal vent sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It has two distinct and stable microbial communities. One of these epibiontic bacterial communities is located in the shrimp gut and has a distribution and role that are poorly understood. The second colonizes its enlarged gill chamber and is involved in host nutrition. It is eliminated after each molt, and has colonization processes reminiscent of those of a biofilm. The presence and expression of genes usually involved in quorum sensing (QS) were then studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296889/investigation-of-bacterial-communities-within-the-digestive-organs-of-the-hydrothermal-vent-shrimp-rimicaris-exoculata-provide-insights-into-holobiont-geographic-clustering
#17
Dominique A Cowart, Lucile Durand, Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita, Sophie Arnaud-Haond
Prokaryotic communities forming symbiotic relationships with the vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, are well studied components of hydrothermal ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Despite the tight link between host and symbiont, the observed lack of spatial genetic structure seen in R. exoculata contrasts with the geographic differentiation detected in specific bacterial ectosymbionts. The geographic clustering of bacterial lineages within a seemingly panmictic host suggests either the presence of finer scale restriction to gene flow not yet detected in the host, horizontal transmission (environmental selection) of its endosymbionts as a consequence of unique vent geochemistry, or vertically transmitted endosymbionts that exhibit genetic differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276199/new-insights-into-a-hot-environment-for-early-life
#18
REVIEW
Jianghong Dai
Investigating the physical-chemical setting of early life is a challenging task. In this contribution, the author attempted to introduce a provocative concept from cosmology - cosmic microwave background (CMB), which is the residual thermal radiation from a hot early Universe - to the field. For this purpose, the author revisited a recently deduced biomarker, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars in bacteria. In vitro, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars reflects and captures residual thermal radiation in thermochemical processes and therefore is somewhat analogous to CMB...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273353/do-larvae-from-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vents-disperse-in-surface-waters
#19
Takuya Yahagi, Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Shigeaki Kojima, Yasunori Kano
Larval dispersal significantly contributes to the geographic distribution, population dynamics and evolutionary processes of animals endemic to deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Little is known as to the extent that their larvae migrate vertically to shallower waters and experience stronger currents and richer food supplies. Here, we first provide evidence from early life-history traits and population genetics for the surface dispersal of a vent species. Planktotrophic larvae of a red blood limpet, Shinkailepas myojinensis (Gastropoda: Neritimorpha: Phenacolepadidae), were cultured to observe their swimming behavior and to evaluate the effects of temperature on survival and growth...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252057/evidence-for-early-life-in-earth-s-oldest-hydrothermal-vent-precipitates
#20
Matthew S Dodd, Dominic Papineau, Tor Grenne, John F Slack, Martin Rittner, Franco Pirajno, Jonathan O'Neil, Crispin T S Little
Although it is not known when or where life on Earth began, some of the earliest habitable environments may have been submarine-hydrothermal vents. Here we describe putative fossilized microorganisms that are at least 3,770 million and possibly 4,280 million years old in ferruginous sedimentary rocks, interpreted as seafloor-hydrothermal vent-related precipitates, from the Nuvvuagittuq belt in Quebec, Canada. These structures occur as micrometre-scale haematite tubes and filaments with morphologies and mineral assemblages similar to those of filamentous microorganisms from modern hydrothermal vent precipitates and analogous microfossils in younger rocks...
March 1, 2017: Nature
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