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Hydrothermal vent

Christopher Nicolai Roterman, Won-Kyung Lee, Xinming Liu, Rongcheng Lin, Xinzheng Li, Yong-Jin Won
The recent discovery of two new species of kiwaid squat lobsters on hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean and in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean has prompted a re-analysis of Kiwaid biogeographical history. Using a larger alignment with more fossil calibrated nodes than previously, we consider the precise relationship between Kiwaidae, Chirostylidae and Eumunididae within Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) to be still unresolved at present. Additionally, the placement of both new species within a new "Bristly" clade along with the seep-associated Kiwa puravida is most parsimoniously interpreted as supporting a vent origin for the family, rather than a seep-to-vent progression...
2018: PloS One
Kathleen M Scott, John Williams, Cody M B Porter, Sydney Russel, Tara L Harmer, John H Paul, Kirsten M Antonen, Megan K Bridges, Gary J Camper, Christie K Campla, Leila G Casella, Eva Chase, James W Conrad, Mercedez C Cruz, Darren S Dunlap, Laura Duran, Elizabeth M Fahsbender, Dawn B Goldsmith, Ryan F Keeley, Matthew R Kondoff, Breanna I Kussy, Marannda K Lane, Stephanie Lawler, Brittany A Leigh, Courtney Lewis, Lygia M Lostal, Devon Marking, Paola A Mancera, Evan C McClenthan, Emily A McIntyre, Jessica A Mine, Swapnil Modi, Brittney D Moore, William A Morgan, Kaleigh M Nelson, Kimmy N Nguyen, Nicholas Ogburn, David G Parrino, Anangamanjari D Pedapudi, Rebecca P Pelham, Amanda M Preece, Elizabeth A Rampersad, Jason C Richardson, Christina M Rodgers, Brent L Schaffer, Nancy E Sheridan, Michael R Solone, Zachery R Staley, Maki Tabuchi, Ramond J Waide, Pauline W Wanjugi, Suzanne Young, Alicia Clum, Chris Daum, Marcel Huntemann, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos Kyrpides, Natalia Mikhailova, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Manoj Pillay, T B K Reddy, Nicole Shapiro, Dimitrios Stamatis, Neha Varghese, Tanja Woyke, Rich Boden, Sharyn K Freyermuth, Cheryl A Kerfeld
Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria from the genera Hydrogenovibrio, Thiomicrorhabdus, and Thiomicrospira are common, sometimes dominant, isolates from sulfidic habitats including hydrothermal vents, soda and salt lakes, and marine sediments. Their genome sequences confirm their membership in a deeply branching clade of the Gammaproteobacteria. Several adaptations to heterogeneous habitats are apparent. Their genomes include large numbers of genes for sensing and responding to their environment (EAL- and GGDEF-domain proteins, and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins) despite their small sizes (2...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Xinwei Yang, Lianzuan Wu, Ying Xu, Chongrong Ke, Fangfang Hu, Xiang Xiao, Jianzhong Huang
A novel esterase gene selected from metagenomic sequences of deep-sea hydrothermal vents was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein (est-OKK), which belongs to the lipolytic enzyme family V, exhibited high activity toward pNP-esters with short acyl chains and especially p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Site-mutagenesis results confirmed that est-OKK contains the nonclassical catalytic tetrad predicted by alignment and computational modeling. The est-OKK protein is a moderately thermophilic enzyme that is relatively thermostable, and highly salt-tolerant, which remained stable in 3 mol/L NaCl for 6 hr...
March 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
F Westall, K Hickman-Lewis, N Hinman, P Gautret, K A Campbell, J G Bréhéret, F Foucher, A Hubert, S Sorieul, A V Dass, T P Kee, T Georgelin, A Brack
Critical to the origin of life are the ingredients of life, of course, but also the physical and chemical conditions in which prebiotic chemical reactions can take place. These factors place constraints on the types of Hadean environment in which life could have emerged. Many locations, ranging from hydrothermal vents and pumice rafts, through volcanic-hosted splash pools to continental springs and rivers, have been proposed for the emergence of life on Earth, each with respective advantages and certain disadvantages...
February 28, 2018: Astrobiology
Jean-Baptiste Raina, Laura Eme, F Joseph Pollock, Anja Spang, John M Archibald, Tom A Williams
The concept of symbiosis - defined in 1879 by de Bary as 'the living together of unlike organisms' - has a rich and convoluted history in biology. In part, because it questioned the concept of the individual, symbiosis fell largely outside mainstream science and has traditionally received less attention than other research disciplines. This is gradually changing. In nature organisms do not live in isolation but rather interact with, and are impacted by, diverse beings throughout their life histories. Symbiosis is now recognized as a central driver of evolution across the entire tree of life, including, for example, bacterial endosymbionts that provide insects with vital nutrients and the mitochondria that power our own cells...
February 22, 2018: Biology Open
Yan Liu, Min Yu, Xiao-Hua Zhang
A Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, motile and strictly aerobic strain, designated T3-209T , was isolated from sediment sampled at a water depth of 1206 m of the southern Okinawa Trough at station T1 (25.07° N, 122.58° E) near the Tangyin hydrothermal vent during an expedition on the R/V Kexue in May 2014. The strain was able to grow at a temperature range of 10-42 °C (optimum 28 °C). Growth was observed at NaCl concentrations (w/v) of 0-6 % (optimum 0 %). The pH range for growth was 7...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Angela Casillo, Rosa Lanzetta, Michelangelo Parrilli, Maria Michela Corsaro
The marine environment is the largest aquatic ecosystem on Earth and it harbours microorganisms responsible for more than 50% of total biomass of prokaryotes in the world. All these microorganisms produce extracellular polymers that constitute a substantial part of the dissolved organic carbon, often in the form of exopolysaccharides (EPS). In addition, the production of these polymers is often correlated to the establishment of the biofilm growth mode, during which they are important matrix components. Their functions include adhesion and colonization of surfaces, protection of the bacterial cells and support for biochemical interactions between the bacteria and the surrounding environment...
February 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Julia Endresen Storesund, Anders Lanzèn, Antonio García-Moyano, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Lise Øvreås
The microbial diversity associated with diffuse venting deep-sea hydrothermal deposits is tightly coupled to the geochemistry of the hydrothermal fluids. Previous 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (metabarcoding) of marine iron-hydroxide deposits along the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge, revealed the presence of diverse bacterial communities associated with these deposits (Storesund and Øvreås in Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 104:569-584, 2013). One of the most abundant and diverse phyla detected was the enigmatic Planctomycetes...
February 8, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Pelayo Salinas-de-León, Brennan Phillips, David Ebert, Mahmood Shivji, Florencia Cerutti-Pereyra, Cassandra Ruck, Charles R Fisher, Leigh Marsh
The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 challenged our views of ecosystem functioning and yet, the research conducted at these extreme and logistically challenging environments still continues to reveal unique biological processes. Here, we report for the first time, a unique behavior where the deep-sea skate, Bathyraja spinosissima, appears to be actively using the elevated temperature of a hydrothermal vent environment to naturally "incubate" developing egg-cases. We hypothesize that this behavior is directly targeted to accelerate embryo development time given that deep-sea skates have some of the longest egg incubation times reported for the animal kingdom...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria João Bebianno, Cátia Cardoso, Tânia Gomes, Julian Blasco, Ricardo Serrão Santos, Ana Colaço
The vent blood-red commensal polynoid polychaete Branchipolynoe seepensis is commonly found in the pallial cavity of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus, the dominant bivalve species along the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge (MAR) and is known to be kleptoparasitic. Mussels were collected from three hydrothermal vent fields in the MAR: Menez Gwen (850 m depth, MG2, MG3 and MG4), Lucky Strike (1700 m depth, Montségur-MS and Eiffel Tower-ET) and Rainbow (2300 m depth). Polychaetes were absent in all Menez Gwen vent mussels, while the highest percentage was detected in mussels from Lucky Strike, where more than 70% of the mussels had at least one polychaete in their mantle cavity, followed by Rainbow with 33% of mussels with polychaetes...
January 31, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Julie Reveillaud, Rika Anderson, Sintra Reves-Sohn, Colleen Cavanaugh, Julie A Huber
BACKGROUND: The microbial endosymbionts of two species of vestimentiferan tubeworms (Escarpia sp. and Lamellibrachia sp.2) collected from an area of low-temperature hydrothermal diffuse vent flow at the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) in the Caribbean Sea were characterized using microscopy, phylogenetic analyses, and a metagenomic approach. RESULTS: Bacteria, with a typical Gram negative cell envelope contained within membrane-bound vacuoles, were observed within the trophosome of both tubeworm species...
January 27, 2018: Microbiome
Teresa Cerqueira, Cristina Barroso, Hugo Froufe, Conceição Egas, Raul Bettencourt
The organisms inhabiting the deep-seafloor are known to play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. Chemolithoautotrophic prokaryotes, which produce biomass from single carbon molecules, constitute the primary source of nutrition for the higher organisms, being critical for the sustainability of food webs and overall life in the deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. The present study investigates the metabolic profiles of chemolithoautotrophs inhabiting the sediments of Menez Gwen and Rainbow deep-sea vent fields, in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge...
January 21, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Eric P Achterberg, Sebastian Steigenberger, Chris M Marsay, Frédéric A C LeMoigne, Stuart C Painter, Alex R Baker, Douglas P Connelly, C Mark Moore, Alessandro Tagliabue, Toste Tanhua
Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for marine microbial organisms, and low supply controls productivity in large parts of the world's ocean. The high latitude North Atlantic is seasonally Fe limited, but Fe distributions and source strengths are poorly constrained. Surface ocean dissolved Fe (DFe) concentrations were low in the study region (<0.1 nM) in summer 2010, with significant perturbations during spring 2010 in the Iceland Basin as a result of an eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (up to 2...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicole Adam, Mirjam Perner
Hydrogen is one of the most common elements on Earth. The enzymes converting molecular hydrogen into protons and electrons are the hydrogenases. Hydrogenases are ubiquitously distributed in all three domains of life where they play a central role in cell metabolism. So far, the recovery of hydrogenases has been restricted to culture-dependent and sequence-based approaches. We have recently developed the only activity-based screen for seeking H2-uptake enzymes from metagenomes without having to rely on enrichment and isolation of hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms or prior metagenomic sequencing...
January 17, 2018: ISME Journal
D Kalenitchenko, E Péru, L Contreira Pereira, C Petetin, P E Galand, N Le Bris
Wood debris on the ocean floor harbor flourishing communities, which include invertebrate taxa thriving in sulfide-rich habitats belonging to hydrothermal vent and methane seep deep-sea lineages. The formation of sulfidic niches from digested wood material produced by woodborers has been known for a long time, but the temporal dynamics and sulfide ranges encountered on wood falls remains unknown. Here, we show that wood falls are converted into sulfidic hotpots, before the colonization by xylophagaid bivalves...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Filipa L Sousa, Martina Preiner, William F Martin
Molecular hydrogen is an ancient source of energy and electrons. Anaerobic autotrophs that harness the H2/CO2 redox couple harbour ancient biochemical traits that trace back to the universal common ancestor. Aspects of their physiology, including the abundance of transition metals, radical reaction mechanisms, and their main exergonic bioenergetic reactions, forge links between ancient microbes and geochemical reactions at hydrothermal vents. The midpoint potential of H2 however requires anaerobes that reduce CO2 with H2 to use flavin based electron bifurcation-a mechanism to conserve energy as low potential reduced ferredoxins via soluble proteins-for CO2 fixation...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Junichi Miyazaki, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Akiko Makabe, Ayu Takahashi, Kazuya Kitada, Junji Torimoto, Yohei Matsui, Eiji Tasumi, Takazo Shibuya, Kentaro Nakamura, Shunsuke Horai, Shun Sato, Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi, Hayato Kanzaki, Satoshi Nakagawa, Miho Hirai, Yoshihiro Takaki, Kyoko Okino, Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Hidenori Kumagai, Chong Chen
Since the initial discovery of hydrothermal vents in 1977, these 'extreme' chemosynthetic systems have been a focus of interdisciplinary research. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the semi-enclosed East China Sea between the Eurasian continent and the Ryukyu arc, hosts more than 20 known vent sites but all within a relatively narrow depth range (600-1880 m). Depth is a significant factor in determining fluid temperature and chemistry, as well as biological composition. However, due to the narrow depth range of known sites, the actual influence of depth here has been poorly resolved...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Valentina Esposito, Franco Andaloro, Simonepietro Canese, Giovanni Bortoluzzi, Marzia Bo, Marcella Di Bella, Francesco Italiano, Giuseppe Sabatino, Pietro Battaglia, Pierpaolo Consoli, Patrizia Giordano, Federico Spagnoli, Violetta La Cono, Michail M Yakimov, Gianfranco Scotti, Teresa Romeo
The geological, biological and geochemical features of a particular field of hydrothermal vents, discovered in the Panarea Volcanic Complex during a research survey carried out in 2015, are described for the first time. The site, located at 70-80 m depth off the South-western coast of the islet of Basiluzzo, was named Smoking Land for the presence of a large number of wide and high active chimneys and was characterized in terms of dissolved benthic fluxes, associated macrofauna and megafauna communities and preliminary mineralogy and geochemistry of chimney structures...
2018: PloS One
Tetsuya Ogino, Shingo Maegawa, Shuichi Shigeno, Katsunori Fujikura, Haruhiko Toyohara
The environments around deep-sea hydrothermal vents are very harsh conditions for organisms due to the possibility of exposure to highly toxic compounds and extremely hot venting there. Despite such extreme environments, some indigenous species have thrived there. Alvinellid worms (Annelida) are among the organisms best adapted to high-temperature and oxidatively stressful venting regions. Although intensive studies of the adaptation of these worms to the environments of hydrothermal vents have been made, little is known about the worms' sensory adaptation to the severe chemical conditions there...
2018: PloS One
Wagner F Magalhães, Katrin Linse, Helena Wiklund
The genus Raricirrus is characterized by the absence of feeding palps, presence of filamentous branchiae, posterior segments shorter and wider than preceding ones, and by having diverse types of chaetae, including serrate capillaries, long natatory capillaries, falcate and finely pectinate, coarsely serrate chaetae and simple curved spines. A new species of Raricirrus is proposed based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA data. The K2P distance comparison of 16S and COI sequences from Raricirrus specimens collected from sunken wood in the deep-sea (3100 m) off Monterey, California, differed in less than 0...
November 22, 2017: Zootaxa
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