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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515421/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-rimicaris-sp-reveals-novel-molecular-features-associated-with-survival-in-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent
#1
Jian Zhang, Qing-Lei Sun, Zhen-Dong Luan, Chao Lian, Li Sun
Shrimp of the family Alvinocarididae are the predominant megafauna of deep-sea hydrothermal vents. However, genome information on this family is currently unavailable. In the present study, by employing Illumina sequencing, we performed the first de novo transcriptome analysis of the gills of the shrimp Rimicaris sp. from the hydrothermal vent in Desmos, Manus Basin. The analysis was conducted in a comparative manner with the shrimp taken directly from the vent (GR samples) and the shrimp that had been maintained for ten days under normal laboratory condition (mGR samples)...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509857/microbial-diversity-in-extreme-marine-habitats-and-their-biomolecules
#2
REVIEW
Annarita Poli, Ilaria Finore, Ida Romano, Alessia Gioiello, Licia Lama, Barbara Nicolaus
Extreme marine environments have been the subject of many studies and scientific publications. For many years, these environmental niches, which are characterized by high or low temperatures, high-pressure, low pH, high salt concentrations and also two or more extreme parameters in combination, have been thought to be incompatible to any life forms. Thanks to new technologies such as metagenomics, it is now possible to detect life in most extreme environments. Starting from the discovery of deep sea hydrothermal vents up to the study of marine biodiversity, new microorganisms have been identified, and their potential uses in several applied fields have been outlined...
May 16, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503790/proton-gradients-at-the-origin-of-life
#3
REVIEW
Nick Lane
Chemiosmotic coupling - the harnessing of electrochemical ion gradients across membranes to drive metabolism - is as universally conserved as the genetic code. As argued previously in these pages, such deep conservation suggests that ion gradients arose early in evolution, and might have played a role in the origin of life. Alkaline hydrothermal vents harbour pH gradients of similar polarity and magnitude to those employed by modern cells, one of many properties that make them attractive models for life's origin...
May 15, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493148/diversity-of-bacteria-and-archaea-from-two-shallow-marine-hydrothermal-vents-from-vulcano-island
#4
Garabed Antranikian, Marcel Suleiman, Christian Schäfers, Michael W W Adams, Simonetta Bartolucci, Jenny M Blamey, Nils-Kåre Birkeland, Elizaveta Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Milton S da Costa, Don Cowan, Michael Danson, Patrick Forterre, Robert Kelly, Yoshizumi Ishino, Jennifer Littlechild, Marco Moracci, Kenneth Noll, Tairo Oshima, Frank Robb, Mosè Rossi, Helena Santos, Peter Schönheit, Reinhard Sterner, Rudolf Thauer, Michael Thomm, Jürgen Wiegel, Karl Otto Stetter
To obtain new insights into community compositions of hyperthermophilic microorganisms, defined as having optimal growth temperatures of 80 °C and above, sediment and water samples were taken from two shallow marine hydrothermal vents (I and II) with temperatures of 100 °C at Vulcano Island, Italy. A combinatorial approach of denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and metagenomic sequencing was used for microbial community analyses of the samples. In addition, enrichment cultures, growing anaerobically on selected polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose, were also analyzed by the combinatorial approach...
May 10, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493048/a-novel-%C3%AF-3-desaturase-in-the-deep-sea-giant-tubeworm-riftia-pachyptila
#5
Helu Liu, Hui Wang, Shanya Cai, Haibin Zhang
One paradox of the trophic biochemistry of the deep sea giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila, endemic to hydrothermal vent sites and nourished by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency chemolitoautotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, is the source of their PUFAs. Biosynthesis of PUFA starts with two precursors C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3, which cannot be biosynthesized by most animals due to lack of ω6- and ω3-desaturase; thus, C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 are generally essential fatty acids for animals. Here, we characterized a gene derived from the R...
May 10, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488795/the-novel-bacterial-phylum-calditrichaeota-is-diverse-widespread-and-abundant-in-marine-sediments-and-has-the-capacity-to-degrade-detrital-proteins
#6
Ian P G Marshall, Piotr Starnawski, Carina Cupit, Eva Fernández Cáceres, Thijs J G Ettema, Andreas Schramm, Kasper U Kjeldsen
Calditrichaeota is a recently recognised bacterial phylum with three cultured representatives, isolated from hydrothermal vents. Here we expand the phylogeny and ecology of this novel phylum with metagenome-derived and single-cell genomes from six uncultivated bacteria previously not recognised as members of Calditrichaeota. Using 16S rRNA gene sequences from these genomes, we then identified 322 16S rRNA gene sequences from cultivation-independent studies that can now be classified as Calditrichaeota for the first time...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487755/conjecture-and-hypothesis-the-importance-of-reality-checks
#7
David Deamer
In origins of life research, it is important to understand the difference between conjecture and hypothesis. This commentary explores the difference and recommends alternative hypotheses as a way to advance our understanding of how life can begin on the Earth and other habitable planets. As an example of how this approach can be used, two conditions have been proposed for sites conducive to the origin of life: hydrothermal vents in salty seawater, and fresh water hydrothermal fields associated with volcanic landmasses...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487161/resilience-of-benthic-deep-sea-fauna-to-mining-activities
#8
REVIEW
Sabine Gollner, Stefanie Kaiser, Lena Menzel, Daniel O B Jones, Alastair Brown, Nelia C Mestre, Dick van Oevelen, Lenaick Menot, Ana Colaço, Miquel Canals, Daphne Cuvelier, Jennifer M Durden, Andrey Gebruk, Great A Egho, Matthias Haeckel, Yann Marcon, Lisa Mevenkamp, Telmo Morato, Christopher K Pham, Autun Purser, Anna Sanchez-Vidal, Ann Vanreusel, Annemiek Vink, Pedro Martinez Arbizu
With increasing demand for mineral resources, extraction of polymetallic sulphides at hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts at seamounts, and polymetallic nodules on abyssal plains may be imminent. Here, we shortly introduce ecosystem characteristics of mining areas, report on recent mining developments, and identify potential stress and disturbances created by mining. We analyze species' potential resistance to future mining and perform meta-analyses on population density and diversity recovery after disturbances most similar to mining: volcanic eruptions at vents, fisheries on seamounts, and experiments that mimic nodule mining on abyssal plains...
April 13, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486437/earliest-signs-of-life-on-land-preserved-in-ca-3-5-ga-hot-spring-deposits
#9
Tara Djokic, Martin J Van Kranendonk, Kathleen A Campbell, Malcolm R Walter, Colin R Ward
The ca. 3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is well known for hosting some of Earth's earliest convincing evidence of life (stromatolites, fractionated sulfur/carbon isotopes, microfossils) within a dynamic, low-eruptive volcanic caldera affected by voluminous hydrothermal fluid circulation. However, missing from the caldera model were surface manifestations of the volcanic-hydrothermal system (hot springs, geysers) and their unequivocal link with life. Here we present new discoveries of hot spring deposits including geyserite, sinter terracettes and mineralized remnants of hot spring pools/vents, all of which preserve a suite of microbial biosignatures indicative of the earliest life on land...
May 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484604/cutting-through-the-smoke-the-diversity-of-microorganisms-in-deep-sea-hydrothermal-plumes
#10
Anni Djurhuus, Svein-Ole Mikalsen, Helge-Ansgar Giebel, Alex D Rogers
There are still notable gaps regarding the detailed distribution of microorganisms between and within insular habitats such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents. This study investigates the community composition of black smoker vent microorganisms in the Southern Hemisphere, and changes thereof along a spatial and chemical gradient ranging from the vent plume to surrounding waters. We sampled two hydrothermal vent fields, one at the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR), the other at the East Scotia Ridge (ESR). Samples were collected across vent fields at varying vertical distances from the origin of the plumes...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484442/relative-importance-of-chemoautotrophy-for-primary-production-in-a-light-exposed-marine-shallow-hydrothermal-system
#11
Gonzalo V Gomez-Saez, Petra Pop Ristova, Stefan M Sievert, Marcus Elvert, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Solveig I Bühring
The unique geochemistry of marine shallow-water hydrothermal systems promotes the establishment of diverse microbial communities with a range of metabolic pathways. In contrast to deep-sea vents, shallow-water vents not only support chemosynthesis, but also phototrophic primary production due to the availability of light. However, comprehensive studies targeting the predominant biogeochemical processes are rare, and consequently a holistic understanding of the functioning of these ecosystems is currently lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484436/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-class-epsilonproteobacteria-and-proposed-reclassification-to-epsilonbacteraeota-phyl-nov
#12
David W Waite, Inka Vanwonterghem, Christian Rinke, Donovan H Parks, Ying Zhang, Ken Takai, Stefan M Sievert, Jörg Simon, Barbara J Campbell, Thomas E Hanson, Tanja Woyke, Martin G Klotz, Philip Hugenholtz
The Epsilonproteobacteria is the fifth validly described class of the phylum Proteobacteria, known primarily for clinical relevance and for chemolithotrophy in various terrestrial and marine environments, including deep-sea hydrothermal vents. As 16S rRNA gene repositories have expanded and protein marker analysis become more common, the phylogenetic placement of this class has become less certain. A number of recent analyses of the bacterial tree of life using both 16S rRNA and concatenated marker gene analyses have failed to recover the Epsilonproteobacteria as monophyletic with all other classes of Proteobacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470848/iron-catalysis-at-the-origin-of-life
#13
Eloi Camprubi, Sean F Jordan, Rafaela Vasiliadou, Nick Lane
Iron-sulphur proteins are ancient and drive fundamental processes in cells, notably electron transfer and CO2 fixation. Iron-sulphur minerals with equivalent structures could have played a key role in the origin of life. However, the 'iron-sulphur world' hypothesis has had a mixed reception, with questions raised especially about the feasibility of a pyrites-pulled reverse Krebs cycle. Phylogenetics suggests that the earliest cells drove carbon and energy metabolism via the acetyl CoA pathway, which is also replete in Fe(Ni)S proteins...
May 3, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470425/radiation-resistance-in-thermophiles-mechanisms-and-applications
#14
REVIEW
Preeti Ranawat, Seema Rawat
The study of prokaryotic life in high temperature environments viz., geothermal areas, hot, acidic geysers and undersea hydrothermal vents has revealed the existence of thermophiles (or hyperthermophiles). These microorganisms possess various stress adaptation mechanisms which enable them to bypass multiple physical and chemical barriers for survival. The discovery of radiation resistant thermophile Deinococcus geothermalis has given new insights into the field of radiation microbiology. The ability of radiation resistant thermophiles to deal with the lethal effects of ionizing radiations like DNA damage, oxidative bursts and protein damage has made them a model system for exobiology and interplanetary transmission of life...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450519/draft-genome-sequence-of-exiguobacterium-sp-hvesp1-a-thermophilic-bacterium-isolated-from-a-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-in-the-okinawa-trough
#15
Chen Chen, Li Sun
We report here the draft genome sequence of Exiguobacterium sp. HVEsp1, a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. The estimated genome size of this strain is 2,838,499 bp with a G+C content of 48.2%. The genome sequence data provide valuable information that will facilitate studies on the adaptation mechanisms of bacteria living in deep-sea hydrothermal vents.
April 27, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432382/two-distinct-periplasmic-enzymes-are-responsible-for-tellurite-tellurate-and-selenite-reduction-by-strain-er-te-48-associated-with-the-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-tube-worms-at-the-juan-de-fuca-ridge-black-smokers
#16
Chris Maltman, Lynda J Donald, Vladimir Yurkov
Strain ER-Te-48 isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent tube worm is capable of resisting and reducing extremely high levels of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite, which are used for respiration anaerobically. Tellurite and tellurate reduction is accomplished by a periplasmic enzyme of 215 kDa comprised of 3 subunits (74, 42, and 25 kDa) in a 2:1:1 ratio. The optimum pH and temperature for activity is 8.0 and 35 °C, respectively. Tellurite reduction has a V max of 5.6 µmol/min/mg protein and a K m of 3...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416684/discovery-of-chemoautotrophic-symbiosis-in-the-giant-shipworm-kuphus-polythalamia-bivalvia-teredinidae-extends-wooden-steps-theory
#17
Daniel L Distel, Marvin A Altamia, Zhenjian Lin, J Reuben Shipway, Andrew Han, Imelda Forteza, Rowena Antemano, Ma Gwen J Peñaflor Limbaco, Alison G Tebo, Rande Dechavez, Julie Albano, Gary Rosenberg, Gisela P Concepcion, Eric W Schmidt, Margo G Haygood
The "wooden-steps" hypothesis [Distel DL, et al. (2000) Nature 403:725-726] proposed that large chemosynthetic mussels found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents descend from much smaller species associated with sunken wood and other organic deposits, and that the endosymbionts of these progenitors made use of hydrogen sulfide from biogenic sources (e.g., decaying wood) rather than from vent fluids. Here, we show that wood has served not only as a stepping stone between habitats but also as a bridge between heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic symbiosis for the giant mud-boring bivalve Kuphus polythalamia This rare and enigmatic species, which achieves the greatest length of any extant bivalve, is the only described member of the wood-boring bivalve family Teredinidae (shipworms) that burrows in marine sediments rather than wood...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406193/breathing-modes-of-kolumbo-submarine-volcano-santorini-greece
#18
Evangelos Bakalis, Theo J Mertzimekis, Paraskevi Nomikou, Francesco Zerbetto
Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo's hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396923/binding-of-hg-by-bacterial-extracellular-polysaccharide-a-possible-role-in-hg-tolerance
#19
Kimberly Cruz, Jean Guézennec, Tamar Barkay
Bacteria employ adaptive mechanisms of mercury (Hg) tolerance to survive in environments containing elevated Hg concentrations. The potential of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production by bacteria as a mechanism of Hg tolerance has not been previously investigated. The objectives of this study were to determine if bacterial EPS sorb Hg, and if so does sorption provide protection against Hg toxicity. Purified EPS with different chemical compositions produced by bacterial isolates from microbial mats in French Polynesian atolls and deep-sea hydrothermal vents were assessed for Hg sorption...
April 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388834/epsilonproteobacterial-hydroxylamine-oxidoreductase-%C3%AE%C2%B5hao-characterization-of-a-missing-link-in-the-multihaem-cytochrome-c-family
#20
Doreen Haase, Bianca Hermann, Oliver Einsle, Jorg Simon
Members of the multihaem cytochrome c (MCC) family such as pentahaem cytochrome c nitrite reductase (NrfA) or octahaem hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (Hao) are involved in various microbial respiratory electron transport chains. Some members of the Hao subfamily, here called εHao proteins, have been predicted from the genomes of nitrate/nitrite-ammonifying bacteria that usually lack NrfA. Here, εHao proteins from the host-associated Epsilonproteobacteria Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter curvus and the deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria Caminibacter mediatlanticus and Nautilia profundicola were purified as εHao-maltose binding protein fusions produced in Wolinella succinogenes...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
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