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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352137/iron-biogeochemistry-in-the-high-latitude-north-atlantic-ocean
#1
Eric P Achterberg, Sebastian Steigenberger, Chris M Marsay, Frédéric A C LeMoigne, Stuart C Painter, Alex R Baker, Douglas P Connelly, C Mark Moore, Alessandro Tagliabue, Toste Tanhua
Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for marine microbial organisms, and low supply controls productivity in large parts of the world's ocean. The high latitude North Atlantic is seasonally Fe limited, but Fe distributions and source strengths are poorly constrained. Surface ocean dissolved Fe (DFe) concentrations were low in the study region (<0.1 nM) in summer 2010, with significant perturbations during spring 2010 in the Iceland Basin as a result of an eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (up to 2...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343831/novel-hydrogenases-from-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-metagenomes-identified-by-a-recently-developed-activity-based-screen
#2
Nicole Adam, Mirjam Perner
Hydrogen is one of the most common elements on Earth. The enzymes converting molecular hydrogen into protons and electrons are the hydrogenases. Hydrogenases are ubiquitously distributed in all three domains of life where they play a central role in cell metabolism. So far, the recovery of hydrogenases has been restricted to culture-dependent and sequence-based approaches. We have recently developed the only activity-based screen for seeking H2-uptake enzymes from metagenomes without having to rely on enrichment and isolation of hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms or prior metagenomic sequencing...
January 17, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343757/the-early-conversion-of-deep-sea-wood-falls-into-chemosynthetic-hotspots-revealed-by-in-situ-monitoring
#3
D Kalenitchenko, E Péru, L Contreira Pereira, C Petetin, P E Galand, N Le Bris
Wood debris on the ocean floor harbor flourishing communities, which include invertebrate taxa thriving in sulfide-rich habitats belonging to hydrothermal vent and methane seep deep-sea lineages. The formation of sulfidic niches from digested wood material produced by woodborers has been known for a long time, but the temporal dynamics and sulfide ranges encountered on wood falls remains unknown. Here, we show that wood falls are converted into sulfidic hotpots, before the colonization by xylophagaid bivalves...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316496/native-metals-electron-bifurcation-and-co2-reduction-in-early-biochemical-evolution
#4
REVIEW
Filipa L Sousa, Martina Preiner, William F Martin
Molecular hydrogen is an ancient source of energy and electrons. Anaerobic autotrophs that harness the H2/CO2 redox couple harbour ancient biochemical traits that trace back to the universal common ancestor. Aspects of their physiology, including the abundance of transition metals, radical reaction mechanisms, and their main exergonic bioenergetic reactions, forge links between ancient microbes and geochemical reactions at hydrothermal vents. The midpoint potential of H2 however requires anaerobes that reduce CO2 with H2 to use flavin based electron bifurcation-a mechanism to conserve energy as low potential reduced ferredoxins via soluble proteins-for CO2 fixation...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308272/deepest-and-hottest-hydrothermal-activity-in-the-okinawa-trough-the-yokosuka-site-at-yaeyama-knoll
#5
Junichi Miyazaki, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Akiko Makabe, Ayu Takahashi, Kazuya Kitada, Junji Torimoto, Yohei Matsui, Eiji Tasumi, Takazo Shibuya, Kentaro Nakamura, Shunsuke Horai, Shun Sato, Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi, Hayato Kanzaki, Satoshi Nakagawa, Miho Hirai, Yoshihiro Takaki, Kyoko Okino, Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Hidenori Kumagai, Chong Chen
Since the initial discovery of hydrothermal vents in 1977, these 'extreme' chemosynthetic systems have been a focus of interdisciplinary research. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the semi-enclosed East China Sea between the Eurasian continent and the Ryukyu arc, hosts more than 20 known vent sites but all within a relatively narrow depth range (600-1880 m). Depth is a significant factor in determining fluid temperature and chemistry, as well as biological composition. However, due to the narrow depth range of known sites, the actual influence of depth here has been poorly resolved...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300784/exceptional-discovery-of-a-shallow-water-hydrothermal-site-in-the-sw-area-of-basiluzzo-islet-aeolian-archipelago-south-tyrrhenian-sea-an-environment-to-preserve
#6
Valentina Esposito, Franco Andaloro, Simonepietro Canese, Giovanni Bortoluzzi, Marzia Bo, Marcella Di Bella, Francesco Italiano, Giuseppe Sabatino, Pietro Battaglia, Pierpaolo Consoli, Patrizia Giordano, Federico Spagnoli, Violetta La Cono, Michail M Yakimov, Gianfranco Scotti, Teresa Romeo
The geological, biological and geochemical features of a particular field of hydrothermal vents, discovered in the Panarea Volcanic Complex during a research survey carried out in 2015, are described for the first time. The site, located at 70-80 m depth off the South-western coast of the islet of Basiluzzo, was named Smoking Land for the presence of a large number of wide and high active chimneys and was characterized in terms of dissolved benthic fluxes, associated macrofauna and megafauna communities and preliminary mineralogy and geochemistry of chimney structures...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298328/highly-sensitive-avoidance-plays-a-key-role-in-sensory-adaptation-to-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-environments
#7
Tetsuya Ogino, Shingo Maegawa, Shuichi Shigeno, Katsunori Fujikura, Haruhiko Toyohara
The environments around deep-sea hydrothermal vents are very harsh conditions for organisms due to the possibility of exposure to highly toxic compounds and extremely hot venting there. Despite such extreme environments, some indigenous species have thrived there. Alvinellid worms (Annelida) are among the organisms best adapted to high-temperature and oxidatively stressful venting regions. Although intensive studies of the adaptation of these worms to the environments of hydrothermal vents have been made, little is known about the worms' sensory adaptation to the severe chemical conditions there...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245523/a-new-species-of-i-raricirrus-i-annelida-cirratuliformia-from-deep-water-sunken-wood-off-california
#8
Wagner F Magalhães, Katrin Linse, Helena Wiklund
The genus Raricirrus is characterized by the absence of feeding palps, presence of filamentous branchiae, posterior segments shorter and wider than preceding ones, and by having diverse types of chaetae, including serrate capillaries, long natatory capillaries, falcate and finely pectinate, coarsely serrate chaetae and simple curved spines. A new species of Raricirrus is proposed based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA data. The K2P distance comparison of 16S and COI sequences from Raricirrus specimens collected from sunken wood in the deep-sea (3100 m) off Monterey, California, differed in less than 0...
November 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245398/first-columbellid-species-gastropoda-buccinoidea-from-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vents-discovered-in-okinawa-trough-japan
#9
Chong Chen, Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Juan Francisco Araya
The molluscan diversity of deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems in Japan has been in general well documented with about 80 described species, of which over half are gastropods (Sasaki et al. 2005; Fujikura et al. 2012; Sasaki et al. 2016). Recently, however, a number of novel hydrothermal vent sites were discovered in the area using multibeam echo-sounding (Nakamura et al. 2015), providing opportunities for new discoveries. As a part of ongoing studies documenting the biodiversity of such sites, we present the first record of Columbellidae from hydrothermal vents, with a new species recovered from Natsu and Aki sites, in the Iheya North hydrothermal field (for map and background on the vent field see Nakamura et al...
December 12, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242226/complete-genome-sequence-of-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-thermococcus-sp-ext12c-isolated-from-the-east-pacific-rise-9%C3%A2-n
#10
Damien Courtine, Karine Alain, Myriam Georges, Nadège Bienvenu, Hilary G Morrison, A Murat Eren, Loïs Maignien
We report the genome sequence of Thermococcus sp. EXT12c isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent at the East Pacific Rise 9°N. Microbes in the genus Thermococcus are able to grow anaerobically at high temperature, around neutral pH, and some of them under high hydrostatic pressure.
December 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238927/metal-tolerant-thermophiles-metals-as-electron-donors-and-acceptors-toxicity-tolerance-and-industrial-applications
#11
Preeti Ranawat, Seema Rawat
Metal-tolerant thermophiles are inhabitants of a wide range of extreme habitats like solfatara fields, hot springs, mud holes, hydrothermal vents oozing out from metal-rich ores, hypersaline pools and soil crusts enriched with metals and other elements. The ability to withstand adverse environmental conditions, like high temperature, high metal concentration and sometimes high pH in their niche, makes them an interesting subject for understanding mechanisms behind their ability to deal with multiple duress simultaneously...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209579/unanticipated-discovery-of-two-rare-gastropod-molluscs-from-recently-located-hydrothermally-influenced-areas-in-the-okinawa-trough
#12
Chong Chen, Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Junichi Miyazaki, Shinsuke Kawagucci
Background: The deep-sea hydrothermal vent is one of the most 'extreme' environments in the marine realm. Few species are capable of inhabiting such ecosystems, despite extremely high productivity there supported by microbial chemosynthesis, leading to high biomass and low species richness. Although gastropod molluscs are one of the main constituents of megafaunal communities at vent ecosystems, most species belong to several typical families (e.g., Provannidae, Peltospiridae, Lepetodrilidae) specialised and adapted to life at vents...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205750/spatially-distinct-temporally-stable-microbial-populations-mediate-biogeochemical-cycling-at-and-below-the-seafloor-in-hydrothermal-vent-fluids
#13
Caroline S Fortunato, Benjamin Larson, David A Butterfield, Julie A Huber
At deep-sea hydrothermal vents, microbial communities thrive across geochemical gradients above, at, and below the seafloor. In this study, we determined the gene content and transcription patterns of microbial communities and specific populations to understand the taxonomy and metabolism both spatially and temporally across geochemically different diffuse fluid hydrothermal vents. Vent fluids were examined via metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, genomic binning, and geochemical analyses from Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the NE Pacific Ocean, from 2013-2015 at three different vents: Anemone, Marker 33, and Marker 113...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189763/formation-and-stability-of-prebiotically-relevant-vesicular-systems-in-terrestrial-geothermal-environments
#14
Manesh Prakash Joshi, Anupam Samanta, Gyana Ranjan Tripathy, Sudha Rajamani
Terrestrial geothermal fields and oceanic hydrothermal vents are considered as candidate environments for the emergence of life on Earth. Nevertheless, the ionic strength and salinity of oceans present serious limitations for the self-assembly of amphiphiles, a process that is fundamental for the formation of first protocells. Consequently, we systematically characterized the efficiency of amphiphile assembly, and vesicular stability, in terrestrial geothermal environments, both, under simulated laboratory conditions and in hot spring water samples (collected from Ladakh, India, an Astrobiologically relevant site)...
November 30, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187693/-a-simple-and-efficient-rna-extraction-method-from-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-chimney-structures
#15
Hisashi Muto, Yoshihiro Takaki, Miho Hirai, Sayaka Mino, Shigeki Sawayama, Ken Takai, Satoshi Nakagawa
RNA-based microbiological analyses, e.g., transcriptome and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, require a relatively large amount of high quality RNA. RNA-based analyses on microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal environments often encounter methodological difficulties with RNA extraction due to the presence of unique minerals in and the low biomass of samples. In the present study, we assessed RNA extraction methods for deep-sea vent chimneys that had complex mineral compositions. Mineral-RNA adsorption experiments were conducted using mock chimney minerals and Escherichia coli total RNA solution, and showed that detectable RNA significantly decreased possibly due to adsorption onto minerals...
November 30, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177446/a-physiological-perspective-on-the-origin-and-evolution-of-photosynthesis
#16
William F Martin, Donald A Bryant, J Thomas Beatty
The origin and early evolution of photosynthesis are reviewed from an ecophysiological perspective. Earth's first ecosystems were chemotrophic, fueled by geological H2 at hydrothermal vents, and required flavin-based electron bifurcation to reduce ferredoxin for CO2 fixation. Chlorophyll-based phototrophy (chlorophototrophy) allowed autotrophs to generate reduced ferredoxin without electron bifurcation, providing them access to reductants other than H2. Because high-intensity, short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation at Earth's surface would have been damaging for the first chlorophyll (Chl)-containing cells, photosynthesis probably arose at hydrothermal vents under low-intensity, long-wavelength geothermal light...
November 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160003/two-new-viruses-mcv1-and-mcv2-which-infect-marinitoga-bacteria-isolated-from-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vents-functional-and-genomic-analysis
#17
C Mercier, J Lossouarn, C L Nesbø, T H A Haverkamp, A C Baudoux, M Jebbar, N Bienvenu, S Thiroux, S Dupont, C Geslin
Viruses represent a driving force in the evolution of microorganisms including those thriving in extreme environments. However, our knowledge of the viral diversity associated to microorganisms inhabiting the deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. The phylum of Thermotogae, including thermophilic bacteria, is well represented in this environment. Only one virus was described in this phylum, MPV1 carried by Marinitoga piezophila. In this study, we report on the functional and genomic characterization of two new bacterioviruses that infect bacteria from the Marinitoga genus...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159878/arsenobetaine-an-ecophysiologically-important-organoarsenical-confers-cytoprotection-against-osmotic-stress-and-growth-temperature-extremes
#18
Tamara Hoffmann, Bianca Warmbold, Sander H J Smits, Britta Tschapek, Stefanie Ronzheimer, Abdallah Bashir, Chiliang Chen, Anne Rolbetzki, Marco Pittelkow, Mohamed Jebbar, Andreas Seubert, Lutz Schmitt, Erhard Bremer
Arsenic, a highly cytotoxic and cancerogenic metalloid, is brought into the biosphere through geochemical sources and anthropogenic activities. A global biogeochemical arsenic biotransformation cycle exists in which inorganic arsenic species are transformed into organoarsenicals, which are subsequently mineralized again into inorganic arsenic compounds. Microorganisms contribute to this biotransformation process greatly and one of the organoarsenicals synthesized and degraded in this cycle is arsenobetaine...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145028/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-alvinocaridid-shrimp-shinkaicaris-leurokolos-decapoda-caridea-insight-into-the-mitochondrial-genetic-basis-of-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-adaptation-in-the-shrimp
#19
Shao'e Sun, Ming Hui, Minxiao Wang, Zhongli Sha
Deep-sea hydrothermal vent is one of the most extreme environments on Earth with low oxygen and high levels of toxins. Decapod species from the family Alvinocarididae have colonized and successfully adapted to this extremely harsh environment. Mitochondria plays a vital role in oxygen usage and energy metabolism, thus it may be under selection in the adaptive evolution of the hydrothermal vent shrimps. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Kikuchi & Hashimoto, 2000) was determined through Illumina sequencing...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135960/the-impact-of-salts-on-single-chain-amphiphile-membranes-and-implications-for-the-location-of-the-origin-of-life
#20
REVIEW
Sarah Maurer
One of the key steps in the origins of life was the formation of a membrane to separate protocells from their environment. These membranes are proposed to have been formed out of single chain amphiphiles, which are less stable than the dialkyl lipids used to form modern membranes. This lack of stability, specifically for decanoate, is often used to refute ocean locations for the origins of life. This review addresses the formation of membranes in hydrothermal-vent like conditions, as well as other environmental constraints...
November 14, 2017: Life
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