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Hydrothermal vent

Shao'e Sun, Ming Hui, Minxiao Wang, Zhongli Sha
Deep-sea hydrothermal vent is one of the most extreme environments on Earth with low oxygen and high levels of toxins. Decapod species from the family Alvinocarididae have colonized and successfully adapted to this extremely harsh environment. Mitochondria plays a vital role in oxygen usage and energy metabolism, thus it may be under selection in the adaptive evolution of the hydrothermal vent shrimps. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Kikuchi & Hashimoto, 2000) was determined through Illumina sequencing...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Sarah Maurer
One of the key steps in the origins of life was the formation of a membrane to separate protocells from their environment. These membranes are proposed to have been formed out of single chain amphiphiles, which are less stable than the dialkyl lipids used to form modern membranes. This lack of stability, specifically for decanoate, is often used to refute ocean locations for the origins of life. This review addresses the formation of membranes in hydrothermal-vent like conditions, as well as other environmental constraints...
November 14, 2017: Life
Na Zhang, Chengwen Song, Minxiao Wang, Yuan Liu, Min Hui, Zhaoxia Cui
For deep-sea hydrothermal vent crabs, recent investigations have revealed some epibiotic bacteria, but no study has described the bacterial community associated with the gill and intestine. In this study, the microbiota attached to the gill and intestine of the hydrothermal vent crab Austinograea sp. and two shallow-water crab species (Eriocheir sinensis and Portunus trituberculatus) were compared by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA genes. The highest and lowest diversity in bacterial communities were observed in the gill and intestine of Austinograea sp...
2017: PloS One
Xiuping Lin, Kunlong Li, Lilin Yang, Xiaoying Peng, Wei Fang, Xinpeng Tian, Yonghong Liu, Xuefeng Zhou
Marine micro-organisms in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems are considered as potential sources of bioactive natural products. Sixteen bacterial strains were isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field and screened for bioactive metabolism studies. After the strains were subjected to bioactive testing at different culture media, chemical dereplication by HPLC coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometer was performed to analyse or determine the main secondary metabolisms in those strains. Strain 06204 was large-scale fermented with relative optimal media, for isolating the desired sulphur compound...
November 9, 2017: Natural Product Research
Dong-Sheng Zhang, Ya-Dong Zhou, Chun-Sheng Wang, Greg W Rouse
Dorvilleids were collected from hydrothermal vents on the Southwest Indian Ridge by manned submersible Jiaolong. These represent a new species of Ophryotrocha that is here described as Ophryotrocha jiaolongisp. n. This is the first dorvilleid described from vents on the Southwest Indian Ridge. It most closely resembles another vent species, Ophryotrocha akessoni Blake, 1985 from the Galapagos Rift, but can be distinguished by its antennae, palps, jaw structure. The new species has particularly distinctive mandibles, which allow it to be easily identified...
2017: ZooKeys
Michael A Antonelli, Nicholas J Pester, Shaun T Brown, Donald J DePaolo
Variations in the Mg, Ca, Sr, and SO4 concentrations of paleoseawater can affect the chemical exchange between seawater and oceanic basalt in hydrothermal systems at midocean ridges (MOR). We present a model for evaluating the nature and magnitude of these previously unappreciated effects, using available estimates of paleoseawater composition over Phanerozoic time as inputs and (87)Sr/(86)Sr of ophiolite epidosites and epidote-quartz veins as constraints. The results suggest that modern hydrothermal fluids are not typical due to low Ca and Sr relative to Mg and SO4 in modern seawater...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J Projecto-Garcia, A-S Le Port, T Govindji, D Jollivet, S W Schaeffer, S Hourdez
Hypoxia at deep-sea hydrothermal vents represents one of the most basic challenges for metazoans, which then requires specific adaptations to acquire oxygen to meet their metabolic needs. Hydrothermal vent scale-worms (Polychaeta; Polynoidae) express large amounts of extracellular single- and multi-domain hemoglobins, in contrast with their shallow-water relatives that only possess intracellular globins in their nervous system (neuroglobins). We sequenced the gene encoding the single-domain (SD) globin from nine species of polynoids found in various vent and deep-sea reduced microhabitats (and associated constraints) to determine if the Polynoidae SD globins have been the targets of diversifying selection...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Valerie De Anda, Icoquih Zapata-Peñasco, Augusto Cesar Poot-Hernandez, Luis E Eguiarte, Bruno Contreras-Moreira, Valeria Souza
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of metagenomic and genomic sequences has dramatically improved our understanding of microbial diversity, yet our ability to infer metabolic capabilities in such datasets remains challenging. FINDINGS: We describe the Multigenomic Entropy Based Score pipeline (MEBS), a software platform designed to evaluate, compare and infer complex metabolic pathways in large "omic" datasets, including entire biogeochemical cycles. MEBS is open source and available through https://github...
October 23, 2017: GigaScience
Rika E Anderson, Julie Reveillaud, Emily Reddington, Tom O Delmont, A Murat Eren, Jill M McDermott, Jeff S Seewald, Julie A Huber
Little is known about evolutionary drivers of microbial populations in the warm subseafloor of deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Here we reconstruct 73 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from two geochemically distinct vent fields in the Mid-Cayman Rise to investigate patterns of genomic variation within subseafloor populations. Low-abundance populations with high intra-population diversity coexist alongside high-abundance populations with low genomic diversity, with taxonomic differences in patterns of genomic variation between the mafic Piccard and ultramafic Von Damm vent fields...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
Yoshifumi Kawada, Takafumi Kasaya
We conducted a self-potential survey at an active hydrothermal field, the Izena hole in the mid-Okinawa Trough, southern Japan. This field is known to contain Kuroko-type massive sulphide deposits. This survey measured the self-potential continuously in ambient seawater using a deep-tow array, which comprises an electrode array with a 30-m-long elastic rod and a stand-alone data acquisition unit. We observed negative self-potential signals not only above active hydrothermal vents and visible sulphide mounds but also above the flat seafloor without such structures...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jinjia Guo, Yuan Lu, Kai Cheng, Jiaojian Song, Wangquan Ye, Nan Li, Ronger Zheng
The exploitation and research of deep-sea hydrothermal vent has been an issue of great interest in ocean research in recent years. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has great potential for ocean application due to the capabilities of stand-off, multiphase, and multielement analysis. In this work, a newly developed compact 4000 m rated LIBS system (LIBSea) is introduced with preliminary results of sea trials. The underwater system consists of an Nd:YAG single-pulsed laser operating at 1064 nm, an optical fiber spectrometer, an optics module, and an electronic controller module...
October 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Marta Di Carlo, Donato Giovannelli, Daniele Fattorini, Nadine Le Bris, Costantino Vetriani, Francesco Regoli
Hydrothermal vent systems are inhabited by dense benthic communities adapted to extreme conditions such as high temperature, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and elevated fluxes of metals. In the present work, a wide range of trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were measured in tissues of three tube dwelling annelids, Alvinella pompejana, Alvinella caudata and Riftia pachyptila, which colonize distinct habitats of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 2500 m depth. Metals concentrations in alvinellids were often 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than those commonly found in marine organisms, while much lower values were observed in the vestimentiferan polychaete...
October 5, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
C R German, K A Casciotti, J-C Dutay, L E Heimbürger, W J Jenkins, C I Measures, R A Mills, H Obata, R Schlitzer, A Tagliabue, D R Turner, H Whitby
Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Inês Martins, Joana Goulart, Eva Martins, Rosa Morales-Román, Sergio Marín, Virginie Riou, Ana Colaço, Raul Bettencourt
Over the past years, several studies have been dedicated to understanding the physiological ability of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus to overcome the high metal concentrations present in their surrounding hydrothermal environment. Potential deep-sea mining activities at Azores Triple junction hydrothermal vent deposits would inevitably lead to the emergence of new fluid sources close to mussel beds, with consequent emission of high metal concentrations and potential resolubilization of Cu from minerals formed during the active phase of the vent field...
October 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Michael L Wong, Benjamin D Charnay, Peter Gao, Yuk L Yung, Michael J Russell
We quantify the amount of nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced through lightning and photochemical processes in the Hadean atmosphere to be available in the Hadean ocean for the emergence of life. Atmospherically generated nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) are the most attractive high-potential electron acceptors for pulling and enabling crucial redox reactions of autotrophic metabolic pathways at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents. The Hadean atmosphere, dominated by CO2 and N2, will produce nitric oxide (NO) when shocked by lightning...
October 12, 2017: Astrobiology
Silvana S S Cardoso, Julyan H E Cartwright
Black smokers and Lost City-type springs are varieties of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floors that emit hot, acidic water and cool, alkaline water, respectively. While both produce precipitation structures as the issuing fluid encounters oceanic water, Lost City-type hydrothermal vents in particular have been implicated in the origin of life on the Earth. We present a parallel-velocity flow model for the radius and flow rate of a cylindrical jet of fluid that forms the template for the growth of a tube precipitated about itself and we compare the solution with previous laboratory experimental results from growth of silicate chemical gardens...
September 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Yuguang Wang, Qian Liu, Hongbo Zhou, Xinhua Chen
The cysteine desulfurase (SufS) gene of Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY, a Gram-positive bacterium isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vent, was cloned and over-expressed in E. coli BL21. The recombinant SufS protein was purified by one-step affinity chromatography. The TPY SufS contained a well conserved motif RXGHHCA as found in that of other microorganisms, suggesting that it belonged to group II of cysteine desulfurase family. The recombinant TPY SufS could catalyze the conversion of l-cysteine to l-alanine and produce persulfide, and the enzyme activity was 95 μ/μL of sulfur ion per minute...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
Kevin W Hager, Heather Fullerton, David A Butterfield, Craig L Moyer
The Mariana region exhibits a rich array of hydrothermal venting conditions in a complex geological setting, which provides a natural laboratory to study the influence of local environmental conditions on microbial community structure as well as large-scale patterns in microbial biogeography. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the bacterial small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene from 22 microbial mats collected from four hydrothermally active locations along the Mariana Arc and back-arc to explore the structure of lithotrophically-based microbial mat communities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
A A Venancio-Landeros, E Rudiño-Piñera, C S Cardona-Félix
Thermococcus gammatolerans is a strictly anaerobic; hyperthermophilicarchaeon belongs to the order Thermococcales in the phylum Euryarchaeota. It was extracted from a hydrothermal vent from the Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California, Mexico). Different studies show that T. gammatolerans is one of the most radioresistant organisms known amongst the archaea. This makes it a unique model to study adaptations to the environment and to study DNA repair mechanisms in an organism able to tolerate harsh conditions. A key protein in these mechanisms is the Proliferation Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA)...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Michael J Russell, Wolfgang Nitschke
As many of the methanogens first encountered at hydrothermal vents were thermophilic to hyperthermophilic and comprised one of the lower roots of the evolutionary tree, it has been assumed that methanogenesis was one of the earliest, if not the earliest, pathway to life. It being well known that hydrothermal springs associated with serpentinization also bore abiotic methane, it had been further assumed that emergent biochemistry merely adopted and quickened this supposed serpentinization reaction. Yet, recent hydrothermal experiments simulating serpentinization have failed to generate methane so far, thus casting doubt on this assumption...
October 2017: Astrobiology
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