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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812709/adaptation-to-deep-sea-chemosynthetic-environments-as-revealed-by-mussel-genomes
#1
Jin Sun, Yu Zhang, Ting Xu, Yang Zhang, Huawei Mu, Yanjie Zhang, Yi Lan, Christopher J Fields, Jerome Ho Lam Hui, Weipeng Zhang, Runsheng Li, Wenyan Nong, Fiona Ka Man Cheung, Jian-Wen Qiu, Pei-Yuan Qian
Hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme deep-sea ecosystems that support dense populations of specialized macro-benthos such as mussels. But the lack of genome information hinders the understanding of the adaptation of these animals to such inhospitable environments. Here we report the genomes of a deep-sea vent/seep mussel (Bathymodiolus platifrons) and a shallow-water mussel (Modiolus philippinarum). Phylogenetic analysis shows that these mussel species diverged approximately 110.4 million years ago...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805344/high-potential-for-temperate-viruses-to-drive-carbon-cycling-in-chemoautotrophy-dominated-shallow-water-hydrothermal-vents
#2
Eugenio Rastelli, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Michael Tangherlini, Eleonora Martorelli, Michela Ingrassia, Francesco Latino Chiocci, Marco Lo Martire, Roberto Danovaro
Viruses are the most abundant life forms in the world's oceans and they are key drivers of biogeochemical cycles, but their impact on the microbial assemblages inhabiting hydrothermal vent ecosystems is still largely unknown. Here, we analysed the viral life strategies and virus-host interactions in the sediments of a newly discovered shallow-water hydrothermal field of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study reveals that temperate viruses, once experimentally induced to replicate, can cause large mortality of vent microbes, significantly reducing the chemoautotrophic carbon production, while enhancing the metabolism of microbial heterotrophs and the re-cycling of the organic matter...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799795/could-it-be-snowing-microbes-on-enceladus-assessing-conditions-in-its-plume-and-implications-for-future-missions
#3
Carolyn C Porco, Luke Dones, Colin Mitchell
We analyzed Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images of the plume of Enceladus to derive particle number densities for the purpose of comparing our results with those obtained from other Cassini instrument investigations. Initial discrepancies in the results from different instruments, as large as factors of 10-20, can be reduced to ∼2 to 3 by accounting for the different times and geometries at which measurements were taken. We estimate the average daily ice production rate, between 2006 and 2010, to be 29 ± 7 kg/s, and a solid-to-vapor ratio, S/V > 0...
August 11, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795561/molecular-determinants-of-temperature-dependence-of-protein-volume-change-upon-unfolding
#4
Calvin R Chen, George I Makhatadze
Pressure is well known environmental stressor that can either stabilize or destabilize proteins. The volumetric change upon protein unfolding determines the effect of pressure on protein stability, where negative volume changes destabilize proteins at high pressures. High temperature often accompanies high pressure, for example in the ocean depths near hydrothermal vents or near faults, so it is important to study the effect of temperature on the volumetric change upon unfolding. We previously detailed the magnitude and sign of the molecular determinants of volumetric change, allowing us to quantitatively predict the volumetric change upon protein unfolding...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769685/differentiation-of-three-common-deep-water-hermit-crabs-crustacea-decapoda-anomura-parapaguridae-from-the-south-african-demersal-abundance-surveys-including-the-description-of-a-new-species-of-paragiopagurus-lemaitre-1996
#5
Jannes Landschoff, Rafael Lemaitre
Deep-water hermit crabs of the family Parapaguridae can be abundant (up to 20 kg or 1000 hermit crab individuals per haul) in the trawl bycatch collected during South African demersal abundance research surveys. Until recently, only two parapagurid species had been recognized in the bycatch; Parapagurus bouvieri Stebbing, 1910, and Sympagurus dimorphus (Studer, 1883). Detailed examination of numerous samples of parapagurid specimens from research surveys revealed the existence of a third, undescribed species previously confounded with S...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752088/electron-transfer-between-electrically-conductive-minerals-and-quinones
#6
Olga Taran
Long-distance electron transfer in marine environments couples physically separated redox half-reactions, impacting biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur and carbon. Bacterial bio-electrochemical systems that facilitate electron transfer via conductive filaments or across man-made electrodes are well-known, but the impact of abiotic currents across naturally occurring conductive and semiconductive minerals is poorly understood. In this paper I use cyclic voltammetry to explore electron transfer between electrodes made of common iron minerals (magnetite, hematite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, mackinawite, and greigite), and hydroquinones-a class of organic molecules found in carbon-rich sediments...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747908/unraveling-rubisco-form-i-and-form-ii-regulation-in-an-uncultured-organism-from-a-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-via-metagenomic-and-mutagenesis-studies
#7
Stefanie Böhnke, Mirjam Perner
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) catalyzes the first major step of carbon fixation in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. This autotrophic CO2 fixation cycle accounts for almost all the assimilated carbon on Earth. Due to the primary role that RubisCO plays in autotrophic carbon fixation, it is important to understand how its gene expression is regulated and the enzyme is activated. Since the majority of all microorganisms are currently not culturable, we used a metagenomic approach to identify genes and enzymes associated with RubisCO expression...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724734/hydrothermal-vent-fields-discovered-in-the-southern-gulf-of-california-clarify-role-of-habitat-in-augmenting-regional-diversity
#8
Shana K Goffredi, Shannon Johnson, Verena Tunnicliffe, David Caress, David Clague, Elva Escobar, Lonny Lundsten, Jennifer B Paduan, Greg Rouse, Diana L Salcedo, Luis A Soto, Ronald Spelz-Madero, Robert Zierenberg, Robert Vrijenhoek
Hydrothermal vent communities are distributed along mid-ocean spreading ridges as isolated patches. While distance is a key factor influencing connectivity among sites, habitat characteristics are also critical. The Pescadero Basin (PB) and Alarcón Rise (AR) vent fields, recently discovered in the southern Gulf of California, are bounded by previously known vent localities (e.g. Guaymas Basin and 21° N East Pacific Rise); yet, the newly discovered vents differ markedly in substrata and vent fluid attributes...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699015/sponge-prokaryote-communities-in-taiwanese-coral-reef-and-shallow-hydrothermal-vent-ecosystems
#9
F J R C Coelho, D F R Cleary, N C M Gomes, A R M Pólonia, Y M Huang, L-L Liu, N J de Voogd
Previously, it was believed that the prokaryote communities of typical 'low-microbial abundance' (LMA) or 'non-symbiont harboring' sponges were merely subsets of the prokaryote plankton community. Recent research has, however, shown that these sponges are dominated by particular clades of Proteobacteria or Cyanobacteria. Here, we expand on this research and assess the composition and putative functional profiles of prokaryotic communities from LMA sponges collected in two ecosystems (coral reef and hydrothermal vent) from vicinal islands of Taiwan with distinct physicochemical conditions...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698959/isolation-and-antibiotic-screening-of-fungi-from-a-hydrothermal-vent-site-and-characterization-of-secondary-metabolites-from-a-penicillium-isolate
#10
Chengqian Pan, Yutong Shi, Bibi Nazia Auckloo, Syed Shams Ul Hassan, Najeeb Akhter, Kuiwu Wang, Ying Ye, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Xinyi Tao, Bin Wu
Five new compounds were isolated from Penicillium sp. Y-5-2 including an austin derivative 4, four isocoumarins 9, 11, 12, and 13, together with two known isocoumarins 8 and 10, and six known austin derivatives 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 and one phenol 14. Their structures and relative configurations were established by spectroscopic means. The absolute configurations of 4, 11, and 13 were defined mainly by comparison of quantum chemical TDDFT calculated and experimental ECD spectra. The cyclization of the pentan-2-ol pendant at C-3 in compound 13 allowed the assignment of a new 2,3,4,4a,6,10b-hexahydro-1H-benzo[c]chromene isocoumarin skeleton...
July 11, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698277/deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-viruses-compensate-for-microbial-metabolism-in-virus-host-interactions
#11
Tianliang He, Hongyun Li, Xiaobo Zhang
Viruses are believed to be responsible for the mortality of host organisms. However, some recent investigations reveal that viruses may be essential for host survival. To date, it remains unclear whether viruses are beneficial or harmful to their hosts. To reveal the roles of viruses in the virus-host interactions, viromes and microbiomes of sediment samples from three deep-sea hydrothermal vents were explored in this study. To exclude the influence of exogenous DNAs on viromes, the virus particles were purified with nuclease (DNase I and RNase A) treatments and cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690052/lebetimonas-natsushimae-sp-nov-a-novel-strictly-anaerobic-moderately-thermophilic-chemoautotroph-isolated-from-a-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-polychaete-nest-in-the-mid-okinawa-trough
#12
Ryousuke Nagata, Yoshihiro Takaki, Akihiro Tame, Takuro Nunoura, Hisashi Muto, Sayaka Mino, Shigeki Sawayama, Ken Takai, Satoshi Nakagawa
A moderately thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, chemoautotrophic bacterium, designated strain HS1857(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent at the Noho site in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Strain HS1857(T) grew between 35 and 63°C (optimum 55°C), in the presence of 10-55gl(-1) NaCl (optimum 25gl(-1)), and pH 5.5-7.1 (optimum 6.4). Growth occurred with molecular hydrogen as the electron donor and elemental sulfur, nitrate, or selenate as the electron acceptors. Formate could serve as an alternative electron donor with nitrate as an electron acceptor...
July 4, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682665/can-life-begin-on-enceladus-a-perspective-from-hydrothermal-chemistry
#13
David Deamer, Bruce Damer
Enceladus is a target of future missions designed to search for existing life or its precursors. Recent flybys of Enceladus by the Cassini probe have confirmed the existence of a long-lived global ocean laced with organic compounds and biologically available nitrogen. This immediately suggests the possibility that life could have begun and may still exist on Enceladus. Here we will compare the properties of two proposed sites for the origin of life on Earth-hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor and hydrothermal volcanic fields at the surface-and ask whether similar conditions could have fostered the origin of life on Enceladus...
July 6, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672882/a-novel-benzoquinone-compound-isolated-from-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-triggers-apoptosis-of-tumor-cells
#14
Chenxi Xu, Xumei Sun, Min Jin, Xiaobo Zhang
Microorganisms are important sources for screening bioactive natural products. However, natural products from deep-sea microbes have not been extensively explored. In this study, the metabolites of bacteriophage GVE2 -infected (Geobacillus sp. E263 virus) thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus sp. E263, which was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, were characterized. A novel quinoid compound, which had anti-tumor activity, was isolated from the phage-challenged thermophile. The chemical structure analysis showed that this novel quinoid compound was 2-amino-6-hydroxy-[1,4]-benzoquinone...
June 26, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659879/co-registered-geochemistry-and-metatranscriptomics-reveal-unexpected-distributions-of-microbial-activity-within-a-hydrothermal-vent-field
#15
Heather C Olins, Daniel R Rogers, Christina Preston, William Ussler, Douglas Pargett, Scott Jensen, Brent Roman, James M Birch, Christopher A Scholin, M Fauzi Haroon, Peter R Girguis
Despite years of research into microbial activity at diffuse flow hydrothermal vents, the extent of microbial niche diversity in these settings is not known. To better understand the relationship between microbial activity and the associated physical and geochemical conditions, we obtained co-registered metatranscriptomic and geochemical data from a variety of different fluid regimes within the ASHES vent field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Microbial activity in the majority of the cool and warm fluids sampled was dominated by a population of Gammaproteobacteria (likely sulfur oxidizers) that appear to thrive in a variety of chemically distinct fluids...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659873/microbial-community-structure-of-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vents-on-the-ultraslow-spreading-southwest-indian-ridge
#16
Jian Ding, Yu Zhang, Han Wang, Huahua Jian, Hao Leng, Xiang Xiao
Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is a typical oceanic ultraslow spreading ridge with intensive hydrothermal activities. The microbial communities in hydrothermal fields including primary producers to support the entire ecosystem by utilizing geochemical energy generated from rock-seawater interactions. Here we have examined the microbial community structures on four hydrothermal vents from SWIR, representing distinct characteristics in terms of temperature, pH and metal compositions, by using Illumina sequencing of the 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, to correlate bacterial and archaeal populations with the nature of the vents influenced by ultraslow spreading features...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646448/purification-of-the-exopolysaccharide-produced-by-alteromonas-infernus-identification-of-endotoxins-and-effective-process-to-remove-them
#17
Alicia Grivaud-Le Du, Agata Zykwinska, Corinne Sinquin, Jacqueline Ratiskol, Pierre Weiss, Claire Vinatier, Jérôme Guicheux, Christine Delbarre-Ladrat, Sylvia Colliec-Jouault
Alteromonas infernus bacterium isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents can produce by fermentation a high molecular weight exopolysaccharide (EPS) called GY785. This EPS described as a new source of glycosaminoglycan-like molecule presents a great potential for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. However, this unusual EPS is secreted by a Gram-negative bacterium and can be therefore contaminated by endotoxins, in particular the lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Biochemical and chemical analyses of the LPS extracted from A...
June 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603518/microbial-extracellular-polymeric-substances-epss-in-ocean-systems
#18
REVIEW
Alan W Decho, Tony Gutierrez
Microbial cells (i.e., bacteria, archaea, microeukaryotes) in oceans secrete a diverse array of large molecules, collectively called extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) or simply exopolymers. These secretions facilitate attachment to surfaces that lead to the formation of structured 'biofilm' communities. In open-water environments, they also lead to formation of organic colloids, and larger aggregations of cells, called 'marine snow.' Secretion of EPS is now recognized as a fundamental microbial adaptation, occurring under many environmental conditions, and one that influences many ocean processes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596393/genome-sequence-of-geothermobacter-sp-strain-epr-m-a-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-iron-reducer
#19
Benjamin Tully, Pratixaben Savalia, Karla Abuyen, Christina Baughan, Eric Romero, Cynthia Ronkowski, Brandon Torres, Jason Tremblay, Anthony Trujillo, Madeline Tyler, Ileana Pérez-Rodríguez, Jan Amend
Geothermobacter sp. strain EPR-M was isolated from a hydrothermal vent on the East Pacific Rise and has been shown to participate in the reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Here, we report its 3.73-Mb draft genome sequence.
June 8, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586676/hydrothermal-vents
#20
William Brazelton
William Brazelton introduces deep sea hydrothermal vents and the unusual life forms they host.
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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