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Hydrothermal vent

Wenbin Guo, Huijun Zhang, Wengen Zhou, Yuguang Wang, Hongbo Zhou, Xinhua Chen
Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY, isolated from a hydrothermal vent in the Pacific Ocean, is a moderately thermoacidophilic Gram-positive bacterium that can oxidize ferrous iron or sulfur compounds to obtain energy. In this study, comparative transcriptomic analyses of S. acidophilus TPY were performed under different redox conditions. Based on these results, pathways involved in sulfur metabolism were proposed. Additional evidence was obtained by analyzing mRNA abundance of selected genes involved in the sulfur metabolism of sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR)-overexpressed S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Li Wang, Man Kit Cheung, Rulong Liu, Chong Kim Wong, Hoi Shan Kwan, Jiang-Shiou Hwang
Shallow-water hydrothermal vents (HTVs) are an ecologically important habitat with a geographic origin similar to that of deep-sea HTVs. Studies on shallow-water HTVs have not only facilitated understanding of the influences of vents on local ecosystems but also helped to extend the knowledge on deep-sea vents. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities in the sediments of shallow-water HTVs off Kueishan Island, Taiwan, was investigated by examining the 16S ribosomal RNA gene as well as key functional genes involved in chemoautotrophic carbon fixation (aclB, cbbL and cbbM)...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Octavio García-Depraect, Claudia Guerrero-Barajas, Janet Jan-Roblero, Alberto Ordaz
Marine microorganisms that are obtained from hydrothermal vent sediments present a great metabolic potential for applications in environmental biotechnology. However, the work done regarding their applications in engineered systems is still scarce. Hence, in this work, the sulfate reduction process carried out by a marine microbial community in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated for 190 days under sequential batch mode. The effects of 1000 to 5500 mg L(-1) of SO4(-2) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD)/SO4(-2) ratio were studied along with a kinetic characterization with lactate as the electron donor...
November 23, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Reinhard Wirth
Newly erupted black smokers (hydrothermal vent chimneys) are sterile during their formation, but they house hyperthermophiles in substantial amounts in later stages. No hard data exist on the mechanisms by which hyperthermophiles colonize newly erupted black smokers. Here I propose a scenario - based on various experimental data - for how hyperthermophiles colonize black smokers. Hyperthermophiles which are present in cold sea water in minute amounts are transferred by chance to the outside of black smokers and react within seconds to the high temperature by very fast movements...
November 18, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
Jarrod J Scott, Brian T Glazer, David Emerson
Thirty kilometers south of the island of Hawai'i lies the Lō'ihi Seamount, an active submarine volcano that hosts a network of low-temperature hydrothermal vents enriched in ferrous iron that supports extensive microbial mats. These mats, which can be a half a meter deep, are composed of ferric iron bound to organic polymers-the metabolic byproduct of iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria. Though the role of Zetaproteobacteria in mat formation is well established, we have a limited understanding of how differences in diversity are related to mat morphology...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Coraline Mercier, Julien Lossouarn, Thomas Haverkamp, Nadège Bienvenu, Anne Godfroy, Valérie Cueff-Gauchard, Claire Geslin, Camilla Nesbo
Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two thermophilic Marinitoga strain members of the Thermotogales order, Marinitoga camini DV1155 and Marinitoga camini DV1197. These strains were isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
November 10, 2016: Genome Announcements
Christopher A Abin, James T Hollibaugh
Vulcanibacillus modesticaldus BR(T) was isolated from calcite-rich, metalliferous core samples collected at the Rainbow deep-sea hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Here, we report the 2.2-Mb draft genome sequence for this strain, consisting of 100 contigs with a G+C content of 33.6% and 2,227 protein-coding sequences.
November 10, 2016: Genome Announcements
Ruby Ponnudurai, Manuel Kleiner, Lizbeth Sayavedra, Jillian M Petersen, Martin Moche, Andreas Otto, Dörte Becher, Takeshi Takeuchi, Noriyuki Satoh, Nicole Dubilier, Thomas Schweder, Stephanie Markert
The hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus lives in an intimate symbiosis with two types of chemosynthetic Gammaproteobacteria in its gills: a sulfur oxidizer and a methane oxidizer. Despite numerous investigations over the last decades, the degree of interdependence between the three symbiotic partners, their individual metabolic contributions, as well as the mechanism of carbon transfer from the symbionts to the host are poorly understood. We used a combination of proteomics and genomics to investigate the physiology and metabolism of the individual symbiotic partners...
November 1, 2016: ISME Journal
Sook-Jin Jang, Eunji Park, Won-Kyung Lee, Shannon B Johnson, Robert C Vrijenhoek, Yong-Jin Won
BACKGROUND: The Equator and Easter Microplate regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean exhibit geomorphological and hydrological features that create barriers to dispersal for a number of animals associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitats. This study examined effects of these boundaries on geographical subdivision of the vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana. DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and eleven nuclear genes were examined in samples collected from ten vent localities that comprise the species' known range from 23°N latitude on the East Pacific Rise to 38°S latitude on the Pacific Antarctic Ridge...
October 28, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Joost Frieling, Henrik H Svensen, Sverre Planke, Margot J Cramwinckel, Haavard Selnes, Appy Sluijs
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (∼56 Ma) was a ∼170,000-y (∼170-kyr) period of global warming associated with rapid and massive injections of (13)C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, reflected in sedimentary components as a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Carbon cycle modeling has indicated that the shape and magnitude of this CIE are generally explained by a large and rapid initial pulse, followed by ∼50 kyr of (13)C-depleted carbon injection. Suggested sources include submarine methane hydrates, terrigenous organic matter, and thermogenic methane and CO2 from hydrothermal vent complexes...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Katsunori Yanagawa, Akira Ijiri, Anja Breuker, Sanae Sakai, Youko Miyoshi, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Takuroh Noguchi, Miho Hirai, Axel Schippers, Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi, Yoshihiro Takaki, Michinari Sunamura, Tetsuro Urabe, Takuro Nunoura, Ken Takai
Subseafloor microbes beneath active hydrothermal vents are thought to live near the upper temperature limit for life on Earth. We drilled and cored the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, and examined the phylogenetic compositions and the products of metabolic functions of sub-vent microbial communities. We detected microbial cells, metabolic activities and molecular signatures only in the shallow sediments down to 15.8 m below the seafloor at a moderately distant drilling site from the active hydrothermal vents (450 m)...
October 18, 2016: ISME Journal
Sabine Gollner, Heiko Stuckas, Terue C Kihara, Stefan Laurent, Sahar Kodami, Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Communities in spatially fragmented deep-sea hydrothermal vents rich in polymetallic sulfides could soon face major disturbance events due to deep-sea mineral mining, such that unraveling patterns of gene flow between hydrothermal vent populations will be an important step in the development of conservation policies. Indeed, the time required by deep-sea populations to recover following habitat perturbations depends both on the direction of gene flow and the number of migrants available for re-colonization after disturbance...
2016: PloS One
Yutong Shi, Chengqian Pan, Bibi Nazia Auckloo, Xuegang Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Kuiwu Wang, Xiaodan Wu, Ying Ye, Bin Wu
Marine hydrothermal microorganisms respond rapidly to the changes in the concentrations and availability of metals within hydrothermal vent microbial habitats which are strongly influenced by elevated levels of heavy metals. Most hydrothermal vent actinomycetes possess a remarkable capability for the synthesis of a broad variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. Major challenges in the screening of these microorganisms are to activate the expression of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters and the development of technologies for efficient dereplication of known compounds...
October 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hayato Tanaka, Moriaki Yasuhara
Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are among the most extreme habitats on Earth. Major research interests in these ecosystems have focused on the anomalous macrofauna, which are nourished by chemoautotrophic bacterial endosymbionts. In contrast, the meiofauna is largely overlooked in this chemosynthetic environment. The present study describes a new species, Thomontocypris shimanagai sp. nov. (Crustacea: Ostracoda), which was collected from the surface of colonies of neoverrucid barnacles and paralvinellid worms on the chimneys at the Myojin-sho submarine caldera...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Marie Portail, Karine Olu, Stanislas F Dubois, Elva Escobar-Briones, Yves Gelinas, Lénaick Menot, Jozée Sarrazin
In the Guaymas Basin, the presence of cold seeps and hydrothermal vents in close proximity, similar sedimentary settings and comparable depths offers a unique opportunity to assess and compare the functioning of these deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems. The food webs of five seep and four vent assemblages were studied using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses. Although the two ecosystems shared similar potential basal sources, their food webs differed: seeps relied predominantly on methanotrophy and thiotrophy via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and vents on petroleum-derived organic matter and thiotrophy via the CBB and reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles...
2016: PloS One
Xianlong Zhang, Ge Tian, Jing Gao, Mei Han, Rui Su, Yanxiang Wang, Shouhua Feng
Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition...
September 23, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Cécile Dalmasso, Philippe Oger, Gwendoline Selva, Damien Courtine, Stéphane L'Haridon, Alexandre Garlaschelli, Erwan Roussel, Junichi Miyazaki, Julie Reveillaud, Mohamed Jebbar, Ken Takai, Lois Maignien, Karine Alain
A novel strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaeon, designated strain CDGS(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent in the Cayman Trough at 4964m water depth. The novel isolate is obligate anaerobe and grows chemoorganoheterotrophically with stimulation of growth by sulphur containing compounds. Its growth is optimal at 75°C, pH 6.0 and under a pressure of 50MPa. It possesses the broadest hydrostatic pressure range for growth that has ever been described for a microorganism. Its genomic DNA G+C content is 51...
October 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Fereshteh Samiee, Federico N Pedron, Dario A Estrin, Liliana Trevani
UV-visible spectroscopic studies of aqueous hydroquinone (HQ) and 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) have been carried out along with classical molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum calculations. The experimental results confirmed that HQ is stable in hot compressed water up to at least 523 K at 70 bar, but BQ decomposes at temperatures lower than 373 K, leading to the formation of HQ and other nonabsorbing products. Even though benzoquinone is not stable, our study significantly extended the temperature range of other spectroscopic studies, and the spectra of HQ up to 523 K can still be useful for other studies, particularly those related to organic species in deep ocean hydrothermal vents...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Ramla Rehman, Maliha Ahmed, Aisha Siddique, Fariha Hasan, Abdul Hameed, Asif Jamal
Proteases with characteristic stabilities are considered attractive candidates for industrial catalysis. In the present study, a potent bacterial strain KT004404, an inhabitant of hydrothermal vents, was isolated and characterized for protease production. Initial screening indicated that this strain produced a hydrolytic zone of 30 mm 16S rRNA-based identification revealed that our isolate was a strain of Bacillus subtilis. Optimum reaction condition for maximum protease production was determined as 55 °C, pH 6, 1 % inoculum size and malt extract as primary growth substrate supplemented with 1 % dextrose...
September 7, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Bjørn O Steinsbu, Victoria Røyseth, Ingunn H Thorseth, Ida H Steen
A thermophilic, anaerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, designated 2PyrY55-1T, was isolated from the wall of an active hydrothermal white-smoker chimney in the Soria Moria vent field (71 °N) at the Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Cells of the strain were Gram-negative, motile rods that possessed a polar flagellum and a sheath-like outer structure ('toga'). Growth was observed at 45-70 °C (optimum 65 °C), pH 5.0-7.5 (optimum pH 5.5) and in 1.5-5.5 % NaCl (optimum 2.5 %). The strain grew on pyruvate, complex proteinaceous substrates, and various sugars...
September 5, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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