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Cold seep

Igor Y Oshkin, Kirill K Miroshnikov, Svetlana E Belova, Aleksei A Korzhenkov, Stepan V Toshchakov, Svetlana N Dedysh
Methylovulum psychrotolerans Sph1T is an aerobic, obligate methanotroph, which was isolated from cold methane seeps in West Siberia. This bacterium possesses only a particulate methane monooxygenase and is widely distributed in low-temperature environments. Strain Sph1T has the genomic potential for biosynthesis of hopanoids required for the maintenance of intracytoplasmic membranes.
March 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Yuzhi Wu, Jian-Wen Qiu, Pei-Yuan Qian, Yong Wang
In deep-sea cold seeps, microbial communities are shaped by geochemical components in seepage solutions. In the present study, we report the composition of microbial communities and potential metabolic activities in the surface sediment of Jiaolong cold seep at the northern South China Sea. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that a majority of the microbial inhabitants of the surface layers (0-6 cm) were sulfur oxidizer bacteria Sulfurimonas and archaeal methane consumer ANME-1, while sulfate reducer bacteria SEEP-SRB1, ANME-1 and ANME-2 dominated the bottom layers (8-14 cm)...
February 13, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Matthias Winkel, Julia Mitzscherling, Pier P Overduin, Fabian Horn, Maria Winterfeld, Ruud Rijkers, Mikhail N Grigoriev, Christian Knoblauch, Kai Mangelsdorf, Dirk Wagner, Susanne Liebner
Thawing submarine permafrost is a source of methane to the subsurface biosphere. Methane oxidation in submarine permafrost sediments has been proposed, but the responsible microorganisms remain uncharacterized. We analyzed archaeal communities and identified distinct anaerobic methanotrophic assemblages of marine and terrestrial origin (ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d) both in frozen and completely thawed submarine permafrost sediments. Besides archaea potentially involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) we found a large diversity of archaea mainly belonging to Bathyarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adrien Vigneron, Eric B Alsop, Perrine Cruaud, Gwenaelle Philibert, Benjamin King, Leslie Baksmaty, David Lavallée, Bartholomeus P Lomans, Nikos C Kyrpides, Ian M Head, Nicolas Tsesmetzis
Oil and gas percolate profusely through the sediments of the Gulf of Mexico, leading to numerous seeps at the seafloor, where complex microbial, and sometimes animal communities flourish. Sediments from three areas (two cold seeps with contrasting hydrocarbon composition and a site outside any area of active seepage) of the Gulf of Mexico were investigated and compared. Consistent with the existence of a seep microbiome, a distinct microbial community was observed in seep areas compared to sediment from outside areas of active seepage...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Renata Medina-Silva, Rafael R Oliveira, Fernanda J Trindade, Luiz G A Borges, Taiz L Lopes Simão, Adolpho H Augustin, Fernanda P Valdez, Marcelo J Constant, Carolina L Simundi, Eduardo Eizirik, Claudia Groposo, Dennis J Miller, Priscila Reis da Silva, Adriano R Viana, João M M Ketzer, Adriana Giongo
As the depth increases and the light fades in oceanic cold seeps, a variety of chemosynthetic-based benthic communities arise. Previous assessments reported polychaete annelids belonging to the family Siboglinidae as part of the fauna at cold seeps, with the 'Vestimentifera' clade containing specialists that depend on microbial chemosynthetic endosymbionts for nutrition. Little information exists concerning the microbiota of the external portion of the vestimentiferan trunk wall. We employed 16S rDNA-based metabarcoding to describe the external microbiota of the chitin tubes from the vestimentiferan Escarpia collected from a chemosynthetic community in a cold seep area at the southwestern Atlantic Ocean...
November 6, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Mingyang Niu, Xibei Fan, Guangchao Zhuang, Qianyong Liang, Fengping Wang
Cold seeps are widespread chemosynthetic ecosystems in the deep-sea environment, and cold seep microbial communities of the South China Sea are poorly constrained. Here we report on the archaeal communities, particularly those involved in methane metabolization, in sediments of a newly discovered cold seep (named 'Haima') on the northwest slope of the South China Sea. Archaeal diversity, abundance and distribution were investigated in two piston cores collected from a seep area (QDN-14B) and a non-seep control site (QDN-31B)...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Yan Sun, Minxiao Wang, Leilei Li, Li Zhou, Xiaocheng Wang, Ping Zheng, Haiyan Yu, Chaolun Li, Song Sun
Deep-sea mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus are numerically dominant macrofauna in many cold seep and hydrothermal vent ecosystems worldwide, and they depend on organic carbon produced by symbionts present in the epithelial cells of the gills. Although Bathymodiolus platifrons represents typical methanotrophic endosymbiosis, our understanding of molecular mechanisms of methane oxidization and carbon fixation is still in its infancy. Moreover, the laboratory maintenance of B. platifrons and the symbiont abundance dynamics during maintenance has not been reported...
2017: PeerJ
Alanna Durkin, Charles R Fisher, Erik E Cordes
The deep sea is home to many species that have longer life spans than their shallow-water counterparts. This trend is primarily related to the decline in metabolic rates with temperature as depth increases. However, at bathyal depths, the cold-seep vestimentiferan tubeworm species Lamellibrachia luymesi and Seepiophila jonesi reach extremely old ages beyond what is predicted by the simple scaling of life span with body size and temperature. Here, we use individual-based models based on in situ growth rates to show that another species of cold-seep tubeworm found in the Gulf of Mexico, Escarpia laminata, also has an extraordinarily long life span, regularly achieving ages of 100-200 years with some individuals older than 300 years...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Annelies De Groote, Freija Hauquier, Ann Vanreusel, Sofie Derycke
BACKGROUND: There is a general lack of information on the dispersal and genetic structuring for populations of small-sized deep-water taxa, including free-living nematodes which inhabit and dominate the seafloor sediments. This is also true for unique and scattered deep-sea habitats such as cold seeps. Given the limited dispersal capacity of marine nematodes, genetic differentiation between such geographically isolated habitat patches is expected to be high. Against this background, we examined genetic variation in both mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (18S and 28S ribosomal) DNA markers of 333 individuals of the genus Sabatieria, abundantly present in reduced cold-seep sediments...
July 1, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Susana Vázquez, Patrick Monien, Roberto Pepino Minetti, Jutta Jürgens, Antonio Curtosi, Julia Villalba Primitz, Stephan Frickenhaus, Doris Abele, Walter Mac Cormack, Elisabeth Helmke
A diesel spill occurring at Carlini Station (King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo), South Shetland Islands) in 2009 started the study of the fate of the hydrocarbons and their effect on the bacterial communities of the Potter Cove ecosystem. Soils and sediments were sampled across the 200-meter long diesel plume towards Potter Cove four and 15months after the spill. The sampling revealed a second fuel leakage from an underground pipeline at the spill site. The hydrocarbon fraction spilt over frozen and snow-covered ground reached the sea and dispersed with the currents...
December 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jixing Sui, Xinzheng Li
A new species of scale-worm, Lepidonotopodium okinawae sp. nov. from the Okinawa Trough is described. The new species differs from the other species of Lepidonotopodium by having 24 segments and numerous foveolae on the surface of elytra with one globular micropapilla in every foveola. A new record of the mussel commensal Branchipolynoe pettiboneae Miura & Hashimoto, 1991 is reported and described from the northern South China Sea, where for the first time the scale-worm is noted as occurring at a cold-seep...
March 6, 2017: Zootaxa
Carolina Doya, Damianos Chatzievangelou, Nixon Bahamon, Autun Purser, Fabio C De Leo, S Kim Juniper, Laurenz Thomsen, Jacopo Aguzzi
Knowledge of the processes shaping deep-sea benthic communities at seasonal scales in cold-seep environments is incomplete. Cold seeps within highly dynamic regions, such as submarine canyons, where variable current regimes may occur, are particularly understudied. Novel Internet Operated Vehicles (IOVs), such as tracked crawlers, provide new techniques for investigating these ecosystems over prolonged periods. In this study a benthic crawler connected to the NEPTUNE cabled infrastructure operated by Ocean Networks Canada was used to monitor community changes across 60 m2 of a cold-seep area of the Barkley Canyon, North East Pacific, at ~890 m depth within an Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ)...
2017: PloS One
Sandrine Bessette, Yann Moalic, Sébastien Gautey, Françoise Lesongeur, Anne Godfroy, Laurent Toffin
Sitting at ∼5,000 m water depth on the Congo-Angola margin and ∼760 km offshore of the West African coast, the recent lobe complex of the Congo deep-sea fan receives large amounts of fluvial sediments (3-5% organic carbon). This organic-rich sedimentation area harbors habitats with chemosynthetic communities similar to those of cold seeps. In this study, we investigated relative abundance, diversity and distribution of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) communities at the oxic-anoxic interface of sedimentary habitats by using fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative sequence analysis of particulate mono-oxygenase (pmoA) genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
John W Pohlman, Jens Greinert, Carolyn Ruppel, Anna Silyakova, Lisa Vielstädte, Michael Casso, Jürgen Mienert, Stefan Bünz
Continued warming of the Arctic Ocean in coming decades is projected to trigger the release of teragrams (1 Tg = 10(6) tons) of methane from thawing subsea permafrost on shallow continental shelves and dissociation of methane hydrate on upper continental slopes. On the shallow shelves (<100 m water depth), methane released from the seafloor may reach the atmosphere and potentially amplify global warming. On the other hand, biological uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) has the potential to offset the positive warming potential of emitted methane, a process that has not received detailed consideration for these settings...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M Kouduka, A S Tanabe, S Yamamoto, K Yanagawa, Y Nakamura, F Akiba, H Tomaru, H Toju, Y Suzuki
Marine sediments contain eukaryotic DNA deposited from overlying water columns. However, a large proportion of deposited eukaryotic DNA is aerobically biodegraded in shallow marine sediments. Cold seep sediments are often anaerobic near the sediment-water interface, so eukaryotic DNA in such sediments is expected to be preserved. We investigated deeply buried marine sediments in the Japan Sea, where a methane hydrate deposit is associated with cold seeps. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed the reproducible recovery of eukaryotic DNA in marine sediments at depths up to 31...
September 2017: Geobiology
Ren-Mao Tian, Weipeng Zhang, Lin Cai, Yue-Him Wong, Wei Ding, Pei-Yuan Qian
As the most ancient metazoan, sponges have established close relationships with particular microbial symbionts. However, the characteristics and physiology of thioautotrophic symbionts in deep-sea sponges are largely unknown. Using a tailored "differential coverage binning" method on 22-Gb metagenomic sequences, we recovered the nearly complete genome of a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) that dominates the microbiota of the cold seep sponge Suberites sp. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that this bacterium (an unclassified gammaproteobacterium termed "Gsub") may represent a new deep-sea SOB group...
March 2017: MSystems
Petra Pop Ristova, Christina Bienhold, Frank Wenzhöfer, Pamela E Rossel, Antje Boetius
Sinking of large organic food falls i.e. kelp, wood and whale carcasses to the oligotrophic deep-sea floor promotes the establishment of locally highly productive and diverse ecosystems, often with specifically adapted benthic communities. However, the fragmented spatial distribution and small area poses challenges for the dispersal of their microbial and faunal communities. Our study focused on the temporal dynamics and spatial distributions of sunken wood bacterial communities, which were deployed in the vicinity of different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Norwegian deep-seas...
2017: PloS One
Xinzheng Li
This paper reviews the taxonomic and biodiversity studies of deep-sea invertebrates in the South China Sea based on the samples collected by the Chinese manned deep-sea submersible Jiaolong. To date, 6 new species have been described, including the sponges Lophophysema eversa, Saccocalyx microhexactin and Semperella jiaolongae as well as the crustaceans Uroptychus jiaolongae, Uroptychus spinulosus and Globospongicola jiaolongi; some newly recorded species from the South China Sea have also been reported. The Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri deep-sea cold seep community has been reported by Li (2015), as has the mitochondrial genome of the glass sponge L...
July 2017: Integrative Zoology
Weipeng Zhang, Wei Ding, Bo Yang, Renmao Tian, Shuo Gu, Haiwei Luo, Pei-Yuan Qian
The detailed lifestyle of microorganisms in deep-sea brine environments remains largely unexplored. Using a carefully calibrated genome binning approach, we reconstructed partial to nearly-complete genomes of 51 microorganisms in biofilms from the Thuwal cold seep brine pool of the Red Sea. The recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belong to six different phyla: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Candidatus Cloacimonetes, Candidatus Marinimicrobia, Bathyarchaeota, and Thaumarchaeota. By comparison with close relatives of these microorganisms, we identified a number of unique genes associated with organic carbon metabolism and energy generation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rokas Kubilius, Geir Pedersen
There is an increased need to detect, identify, and monitor natural and manmade seabed gas leaks. Fisheries echosounders are well suited to monitor large volumes of water and acoustic frequency response [normalized acoustic backscatter, when a measure at one selected frequency is used as a denominator, r(f)] is commonly used to identify echoes from fish and zooplankton species. Information on gas plume r(f) would be valuable for automatic detection of subsea leaks and for separating bubble plumes from natural targets such as swimbladder-bearing fish...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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