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Is Inflammatory bowel disease reversible

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120722/acute-mesenteric-ischaemia-a-pictorial-review
#1
REVIEW
S Florim, A Almeida, D Rocha, P Portugal
Acute mesenteric ischaemia (AMI) is an uncommon cause of acute hospital admission with high mortality rates (50-90%) that requires early diagnosis and treatment. With the increase in average life expectancy, AMI represents one of the most threatening abdominal conditions in elderly patients. Untreated, AMI will cause mesenteric infarction, intestinal necrosis, an overwhelming inflammatory response and death. Early intervention can reverse this process leading to a full recovery, but the diagnosis of AMI is difficult...
August 17, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095298/ground-flaxseed-reverses-protection-of-a-reduced-fat-diet-against-citrobacter-rodentium-induced-colitis
#2
Pekka Määttänen, Eberhard Lurz, Steven R Botts, Richard Y Wu, Chiu William Yeung, Bo Li, Sumayyah Abiff, Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Dion Lepp, Krista A Power, Agostino Pierro, Marc E Surette, Philip M Sherman
Flaxseed is high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber and lignans known to lower cholesterol levels. However, its use for prevention or treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases has yielded mixed results, perhaps related to dietary interactions. In this study, we evaluated the impact of ground flaxseed supplementation on the severity of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis in the setting of either a high fat (HF; ~36 %kcal) or reduced fat (RF; ~12 %kcal) diet. After weaning, C57BL/6 mice (n=8-15/treatment) were fed ground flaxseed (7g/100g diet) with either HF (HF Flx) or RF (RF Flx) diets for four weeks prior to infection with C...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073476/the-surgical-treatment-of-acute-and-severe-diversion-colitis-mimicking-ulcerative-colitis-a-case-report
#3
Nao Kakizawa, Shingo Tsujinaka, Yasuyuki Miyakura, Rina Kikugawa, Fumi Hasegawa, Hideki Ishikawa, Sawako Tamaki, Jun Takahashi, Toshiki Rikiyama
BACKGROUND: Diversion colitis (DC) is characterized by nonspecific inflammation in the remaining colon or rectum, and loss of the fecal stream plays a major role in the disease's development. Although the majority of patients are asymptomatic, medical and/or surgical treatment is required for those who are symptomatic. There is a particular interest on how to manage patients with acute and severe clinical presentations, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We report the rare case of a man with acute and severe DC mimicking ulcerative colitis (UC) with extra-intestinal manifestations that was successfully managed with surgical treatment...
August 2, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060937/biosimilars-in-ulcerative-colitis-when-and-for-who
#4
REVIEW
Akos Ilias, Lorant Gonczi, Zuszsanna Kurti, Peter L Lakatos
The introduction of biological agents has revolutionized the management of ulcerative colitis (UC). Biosimilars are considered to be equivalent to the reference biologic products in terms of pharmacokinetic properties, clinical effectiveness and safety and have now been approved in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). CT-P13 was the first biosimilar to infliximab that obtained regulatory approval by the EMA and US FDA. Accumulating data on biosimilars led to an increased acceptance amongst practicing gastroenterologists and their use can be associated with a potential reduction in healthcare costs...
February 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026316/biallelic-ripk1-mutations-in-humans-cause-severe-immunodeficiency-arthritis-and-intestinal-inflammation
#5
Delphine Cuchet-Lourenço, Davide Eletto, Changxin Wu, Vincent Plagnol, Olivier Papapietro, James Curtis, Lourdes Ceron-Gutierrez, Chris M Bacon, Scott Hackett, Badr Alsaleem, Mailis Maes, Miguel Gaspar, Ali Alisaac, Emma Goss, Eman AlIdrissi, Daniela Siegmund, Harald Wajant, Dinakantha Kumararatne, Mofareh S AlZahrani, Peter D Arkwright, Mario Abinun, Rainer Doffinger, Sergey Nejentsev
Receptor Interacting Serine/Threonine Kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a master regulator of signaling pathways leading to inflammation and cell death and is of medical interest as a drug target. Here, we report four patients from three unrelated families with complete RIPK1 deficiency caused by rare homozygous mutations. The patients suffered from recurrent infections, early-onset inflammatory bowel disease and progressive polyarthritis. They had immunodeficiency with lymphopenia and altered production of various cytokines revealed by whole-blood assays...
July 19, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012671/a-ripk3-pge2-circuit-mediates-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-potentiated-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#6
Guifang Yan, Huakan Zhao, Qi Zhang, Yu Zhou, Lei Wu, Juan Lei, Xiang Wang, Jiangang Zhang, Xiao Zhang, Lu Zheng, Guangsheng Du, Weidong Xiao, Bo Tang, Hongming Miao, Yongsheng Li
Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) is essential for mucosal repair in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its role in tumor immunity is unknown. Here we report that decreased RIPK3 in CRC correlates with the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Deficiency of RIPK3 boosted tumorigenesis via accumulation and immunosuppressive activity of MDSC. Reduction of RIPK3 in MDSC and CRC cells elicited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-transcribed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which catalyzed the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)...
July 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923651/hepcidin-in-newly-diagnosed-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-children
#7
Eva Karaskova, Jana Volejnikova, Dusan Holub, Maria Velganova-Veghova, Lucie Sulovska, Vladimír Mihal, Monika Horvathova, Dagmar Pospisilova
AIM: Hepcidin is a central regulator of iron homeostasis. Its production is also influenced by systemic inflammation. The aims of this study were to compare hepcidin levels in paediatric patients newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and to determine the association of hepcidin levels with laboratory and clinical parameters of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity. METHODS: Children with newly diagnosed IBD between January 2012 and September 2016 were enrolled in this comparative cross-sectional study...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912405/alphae-integrin-expression-is-increased-in-the-ileum-relative-to-the-colon-and-unaffected-by-inflammation
#8
Ryan Ichikawa, Christopher A Lamb, Jeff Eastham-Anderson, Alexis Scherl, Laura Raffals, William A Faubion, Miriam R Bennett, Anna K Long, John C Mansfield, John A Kirby, Mary E Keir
Background: Recent findings suggest that αE expression is enriched on effector T cells and that intestinal αE+ T cells have increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. αE integrin expression is a potential predictive biomarker for response to etrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against β7 integrin that targets both α4β7 and αEβ7. We evaluated the prevalence and localisation of αE+ cells as well as total αE gene expression in healthy subjects and inflammatory bowel disease patients...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891588/berberine-upregulates-p-glycoprotein-in-human-caco-2-cells-and-in-an-experimental-model-of-colitis-in-the-rat-via-activation-of-nrf2-dependent-mechanisms
#9
Wanghui Jing, Yasaman Safarpour, Ting Zhang, Pengqi Guo, Guoning Chen, Xiaoming Wu, Qiang Fu, Yitao Wang
Downregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Berberine, a principal isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Berberis species, has been reported to exhibit therapeutic potential in IBD. In this study, we used a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis rat model to evaluate the effect of berberine on P-gp and explore its mechanism of action. Berberine treatment improved DSS-induced colitis symptoms, attenuated inflammatory markers (myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor- α , and interleukin-1 β and -6), and enhanced P-gp expression in a dose-dependent manner...
August 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862296/a-synbiotic-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-inhibitory-activity-ameliorates-experimental-jejunoileal-mucosal-injury
#10
Ryoki Takahashi, Takayasu Noguchi, Yoko Mizoguchi, Tadashi Shimoyama, Teruko Nakazawa, Tohru Ikuta
Despite the recent development of biological modifiers for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), there continues to be considerable interest in fermented medicines because of its negligible adverse effects. We previously showed that the synbiotic Gut Working Tablet (GWT) alleviates experimental colitis. Here we show that GWT is capable of ameliorating jejunoileal mucosal injury, which is frequently seen with IBD. We created experimental jejunoileal mucositis in rats by injection of methotrexate (MTX) which increases intestinal permeability, a hallmark finding of IBD...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803175/echinacoside-alleviated-lps-induced-cell-apoptosis-and-inflammation-in-rat-intestine-epithelial-cells-by-inhibiting-the-mtor-stat3-pathway
#11
Lei Li, Guangwen Wan, Bing Han, Zhaowei Zhang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and progressive inflammatory condition of colon and small intestine. Echinacoside (ECH) is a phenylethanoid glycoside that possesses various activities, including anti-inflammatory effect. However, the role of ECH in IBD is unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ECH on LPS-induced rat intestine epithelial cells and the potential mechanisms. The results showed that LPS inhibited cell viability in time- and dose-dependent manners. ECH treatment attenuated the inhibition effect of LPS on cell viability...
August 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788266/dietary-magnesium-alleviates-experimental-murine-colitis-through-upregulation-of-the-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-6-channel
#12
Valentina Trapani, Valentina Petito, Angelica Di Agostini, Daniela Arduini, Willem Hamersma, Giuseppe Pietropaolo, Francesca Luongo, Vincenzo Arena, Egidio Stigliano, Loris R Lopetuso, Antonio Gasbarrini, Federica I Wolf, Franco Scaldaferri
Background: Magnesium (Mg) is essential for human health and is absorbed mainly in the intestine. In view of the likely occurrence of an Mg deficit in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the documented role of Mg in modulating inflammation, the present study addresses whether Mg availability can affect the onset and progression of intestinal inflammation. Methods: To study the correlation between Mg status and disease activity, we measured magnesemia by atomic absorption spectroscopy in a cohort of IBD patients...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788053/reversing-ongoing-chronic-intestinal-inflammation-and-fibrosis-by-sustained-block-of-il-12-and-il-23-using-a-vaccine-in-mice
#13
Qingdong Guan, Carolyn R Weiss, Shuhe Wang, Gefei Qing, Xi Yang, Richard J Warrington, Charles N Bernstein, Zhikang Peng
Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 that share subunit p40 are important cytokines in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We reported that mouse p40 peptide-based vaccines ameliorated intestinal inflammation in the prevention of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced murine colitis model. Here, we evaluated whether administration of the vaccine after establishment of colitis would be effective in modifying both TNBS-induced and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis and the underlying immune mechanisms...
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694309/malakoplakia-of-the-large-intestine-an-incidental-extremely-rare-finding
#14
C Koutserimpas, A Ioannidis, M Demonakou, P Siaperas, A Skarpas, G Velimezis, I Karanikas
Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disease, most commonly found in the urinary tract. It appears be related to a functional deficiency of macrophages, resulting in an inability to destroy digested bacteria and it is associated with various conditions that cause immunodeficiency. A rare case of malakoplakia of the colon in a healthy 68-year old male is presented. The patient underwent emergency surgery with colon resection and an end stoma with closure of the distal bowel (Hartmann's procedure), due to incarcerated ventral hernia and sigmoid-colon rupture...
March 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688797/progress-with-infliximab-biosimilars-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Zsuzsanna Kurti, Lorant Gonczi, Peter L Lakatos
Biological therapies have revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in the last two decades. Though biological drugs are effective, their use is associated with high costs and access to biological agents varies among countries. As the patent for the reference products expired, the advent of biosimilar monoclonal antibodies has been expected. Biosimilars represent less expensive alternatives compared to the reference product. Areas covered: In this review, authors will review the literature on the clinical efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of current and future biosimilar infliximabs...
June 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680209/6-formylindolo-3-2-b-carbazole-induced-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-prevents-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-through-regulation-of-claudin-2-expression
#16
Yuanhang Ma, Qimeng Wang, Kun Yu, Xin Fan, Weidong Xiao, Yujiao Cai, Pengyuan Xu, Min Yu, Hua Yang
6-Formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ), a high-affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, plays a protective role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through activation of AhR. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction is involved in the pathological process of IBD. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of FICZ on IL-6 induced intestinal epithelial barrier injury. Our data show that AhR activation by FICZ ameliorated colonic inflammation, decreased IL-6 and claudin-2 expression, and maintained intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis...
May 25, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677563/polysaccharide-of-hericium-erinaceus-attenuates-colitis-in-c57bl-6-mice-via-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-inflammation-related-signaling-pathways-and-modulating-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota
#17
Yilin Ren, Yan Geng, Yan Du, Wang Li, Zhen-Ming Lu, Hong-Yu Xu, Guo-Hua Xu, Jin-Song Shi, Zheng-Hong Xu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease caused by a dysregulated immune with unknown etiology. Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a Chinese medicinal fungus, with the effect of prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we have tested the anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharide of H. erinaceus (HECP, Mw: 86.67 kDa) in the model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. Our data indicated that HECP could improve clinical symptoms and down-regulate key markers of oxidative stresses, including nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO)...
July 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672155/an-endogenous-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ligand-ite-induces-regulatory-t-cells-and-ameliorates-experimental-colitis
#18
Jessica D Abron, Narendra P Singh, Manoj K Mishra, Robert L Price, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Udai P Singh
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that affects millions of people with high morbidity and health care costs. The precise etiology of IBD is unknown, but clear evidence suggests that intestinal inflammation is caused by an excessive immune response to mucosal antigens. Recent studies have shown that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppresses autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we investigated if a nontoxic ligand of AhR, 2-(1' H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), can attenuate dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662452/a-novel-epha2-inhibitor-exerts-beneficial-effects-in-pi-ibs-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-models-via-nrf2-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#19
Li Zeng, Kaixue Li, Hong Wei, Jingjing Hu, Lu Jiao, Shaoyong Yu, Ying Xiong
Though the detailed pathological mechanism of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) remains unclear, accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the process of PI-IBS. Oxidative stress and inflammation are regulated by Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways, respectively. EphA2, a member of Eph receptor family, promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory responses via regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways in various types of human diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which EphA2 regulate oxidative stress and inflammation in PI-IBS is important for the development of new strategies to treat PI-IBS...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644870/a-novel-polyphenolic-prebiotic-and-probiotic-formulation-have-synergistic-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-physiology
#20
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is a vast community of synergistic bacterial species providing health benefits to the host. Imbalances in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to diet, antibiotic use, age and stress contribute to disease development including diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammaging and neurodegeneration. Fortunately, a probiotic regime with a diet rich in prebiotics may reverse dysbiosis promoting health and wellness in age. The current study designs, optimizes and tests a novel probiotic and synbiotic formulation consisting of three metabolically active probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacteria infantis together with a novel polyphenol-rich prebiotic, Triphala...
April 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
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