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Is Inflammatory bowel disease reversible

Hana Brath, Nishila Mehta, Rachel D Savage, Sudeep S Gill, Wei Wu, Susan E Bronskill, Lynn Zhu, Jerry H Gurwitz, Paula A Rochon
OBJECTIVES: To systematically describe the resources available on preventing, detecting, and reversing prescribing cascades using a scoping review methodology. MEASUREMENTS: We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Sociological Abstracts from inception until July 2017. Other searches (Google Scholar, hand searches) and expert consultations were performed for resources examining how to prevent, detect, or reverse prescribing cascades...
October 18, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Avantika Mishra, Darren N Seril
Biological agents are frequently used in the management of inflammatory bowel disease, and it is important to understand the potential adverse effects of these therapies. Ustekinumab is a human monoclonal antibody that interferes with interleukin-12 and -23 cytokine signaling and is approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Crohn's disease. We report 2 cases of neurological adverse events, one of which is consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), in the setting of ustekinumab therapy for Crohn's disease...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Josephine M Ambruzs, Christopher P Larsen
Renal and urinary involvement has been reported to occur in 4% to 23% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Parenchymal renal disease is rare and most commonly affects glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. The most common findings on renal biopsy of IBD patients are IgA nephropathy and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Overall morbidity of IBD-related renal manifestations is significant, and there is often only a short window of injury reversibility. This, along with subtle clinical presentation, requires a high index of suspicion and routine monitoring of renal function...
November 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Zishuo Wang, Zhenlu Li, Dongcheng Feng, Guo Zu, Yang Li, Yan Zhao, Guangzhi Wang, Shili Ning, Jie Zhu, Feng Zhang, Jihong Yao, Xiaofeng Tian
Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced systemic inflammation leads to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Previous studies have indicated that the NLRP3 inflammasome modulates intestinal inflammation; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Autophagy is a critical metabolic mechanism that promotes cellular survival following ischemic injury. Recently, basal autophagy has been implicated in the alleviation of extensive inflammation. However, the role of autophagy in NLRP3 inflammasome activation in intestinal I/R-induced inflammatory injury remains undefined...
September 13, 2018: Shock
Hazel Tye, Chien-Hsiung Yu, Lisa A Simms, Marcel R de Zoete, Man Lyang Kim, Martha Zakrzewski, Jocelyn S Penington, Cassandra R Harapas, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Leesa F Wockner, Adele Preaudet, Lisa A Mielke, Stephen A Wilcox, Yasunori Ogura, Sinead C Corr, Komal Kanojia, Konstantinos A Kouremenos, David P De Souza, Malcolm J McConville, Richard A Flavell, Motti Gerlic, Benjamin T Kile, Anthony T Papenfuss, Tracy L Putoczki, Graham L Radford-Smith, Seth L Masters
Anti-microbial signaling pathways are normally triggered by innate immune receptors when detecting pathogenic microbes to provide protective immunity. Here we show that the inflammasome sensor Nlrp1 aggravates DSS-induced experimental mouse colitis by limiting beneficial, butyrate-producing Clostridiales in the gut. The colitis-protective effects of Nlrp1 deficiency are thus reversed by vancomycin treatment, but recapitulated with butyrate supplementation in wild-type mice. Moreover, an activating mutation in Nlrp1a increases IL-18 and IFNγ production, and decreases colonic butyrate to exacerbate colitis...
September 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Yomna Rashad, Lina Olsson, Anne Israelsson, Åke Öberg, Gudrun Lindmark, Marie-Louise Hammarström, Sten Hammarström, Basel Sitohy
Lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic characteristic of colorectal cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen messenger RNA was shown to detect tumor cells that have disseminated to lymph nodes of colorectal cancer patients and to be at least as good as the hematoxylin and eosin method to predict survival in colorectal cancer patients. CXCL17 was recently shown to be ectopically expressed in colon cancer tumors. Therefore, CXCL17 may serve as prognostic marker alone or in combination with carcinoembryonic antigen...
September 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Yun Ji, Zhaolai Dai, Shiqiang Sun, Xiaoshi Ma, Ying Yang, Patrick Tso, Guoyao Wu, Zhenlong Wu
SCOPE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of gastrointestinal tract in which oxidative stress and overactivation of inflammatory response are implicated. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that hydroxyproline (Hyp), an amino acid with an antioxidative property, attenuates DSS-induced colitis in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 supplemented with or without 1% Hyp were subjected to 2.5% DSS to induce colitis. Hyp attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by reduced disease activity index scores, decreased myeloperoxidase activity, histological damage, and apoptosis...
September 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
C-X Qiao, S Xu, D-D Wang, S-Y Gao, S-F Zhao, M-L Zhang, B Yu, Q Yin, G Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an unexplained inflammatory disease in bowel. Some studies reported that microRNA-19b (miR-19b) was closely related to cell inflammatory response. We aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of miR-19b on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human intestinal cell inflammatory injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Caco2 cells were treated with 10 ng/ml LPS to induce inflammatory injury. The expression of miR-19b and runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3) was changed in Caco2 cells by cell transfection...
August 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Feiby L Nassan, Tim I M Korevaar, Brent A Coull, Niels E Skakkebæk, Stephen A Krawetz, Molly Estill, Elizabeth J Hait, Joshua R Korzenik, Jennifer B Ford, Ralph A De Poortere, Maarten A Broeren, Alan C Moss, Thomas R Zoeller, Russ Hauser
BACKGROUND: Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is an endocrine disruptor and used in some medication coatings, such as mesalamine for treatment inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether high-DBP from some mesalamine medications alters thyroid function. METHODS: Seventy men with IBD, without thyroid disease or any radiation history participated in a crossover-crossback prospective study and provided up to 6 serum samples (2:baseline, 2:crossover, 2:crossback)...
August 28, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Murtaza M Tambuwala, Prashant Kesharwani, Rahul Shukla, Paul D Thompson, Paul A McCarron
Fibrosis is known to be the hallmarks of chronic inflammation of the bowel. Epithelial damage due to inflammation compromises the barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract. This barrier dysfunction leads to further spread of inflammation resulting in a chronic state of inflammation. This chronic inflammation leads to development of fibrosis, which has very limited therapeutic options and usually requires surgical removal of the affected tissue. Our previous work has shown that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent, found in propolis, has been found to be protective in experimental colitis via enhancement of epithelial barrier function...
August 24, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Hideyuki Nakagawa, Ryoukichi Koyama, Yusuke Kamada, Atsuko Ochida, Mitsunori Kono, Junya Shirai, Satoshi Yamamoto, Geza Ambrus-Aikelin, Bi-Ching Sang, Masaharu Nakayama
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) is a master regulator of T helper 17 cells that plays a pivotal role in the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-17. Therefore, RORγt has attracted much attention as a target receptor for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and psoriasis. This study aims to characterize TAK-828F, a potent and selective RORγt inverse agonist...
August 22, 2018: Pharmacology
Rui Liu, Anliu Tang, Xiaoyan Wang, Xiong Chen, Lian Zhao, Zhiming Xiao, Shourong Shen
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial inflammatory disease, and increasing evidence has demonstrated that the mechanism of the pathogenesis of IBD is associated with intestinal epithelial barrier injury. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of transcripts >200 nucleotides in length with limited protein‑coding capability. Nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) is a recently identified nuclear‑restricted lncRNA, which localizes in subnuclear structures, termed paraspeckles, and is involved in the immune response in a variety of ways...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
S Florim, A Almeida, D Rocha, P Portugal
Acute mesenteric ischaemia (AMI) is an uncommon cause of acute hospital admission with high mortality rates (50-90%) that requires early diagnosis and treatment. With the increase in average life expectancy, AMI represents one of the most threatening abdominal conditions in elderly patients. Untreated, AMI will cause mesenteric infarction, intestinal necrosis, an overwhelming inflammatory response and death. Early intervention can reverse this process leading to a full recovery, but the diagnosis of AMI is difficult...
August 17, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Pekka Määttänen, Eberhard Lurz, Steven R Botts, Richard Y Wu, Chiu William Yeung, Bo Li, Sumayyah Abiff, Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Dion Lepp, Krista A Power, Agostino Pierro, Marc E Surette, Philip M Sherman
Flaxseed is high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber and lignans known to lower cholesterol levels. However, its use for prevention or treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases has yielded mixed results, perhaps related to dietary interactions. In this study, we evaluated the impact of ground flaxseed supplementation on the severity of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis in the setting of either a high fat (HF; ~36 %kcal) or reduced fat (RF; ~12 %kcal) diet. After weaning, C57BL/6 mice (n=8-15/treatment) were fed ground flaxseed (7g/100g diet) with either HF (HF Flx) or RF (RF Flx) diets for four weeks prior to infection with C...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Nao Kakizawa, Shingo Tsujinaka, Yasuyuki Miyakura, Rina Kikugawa, Fumi Hasegawa, Hideki Ishikawa, Sawako Tamaki, Jun Takahashi, Toshiki Rikiyama
BACKGROUND: Diversion colitis (DC) is characterized by nonspecific inflammation in the remaining colon or rectum, and loss of the fecal stream plays a major role in the disease's development. Although the majority of patients are asymptomatic, medical and/or surgical treatment is required for those who are symptomatic. There is a particular interest on how to manage patients with acute and severe clinical presentations, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We report the rare case of a man with acute and severe DC mimicking ulcerative colitis (UC) with extra-intestinal manifestations that was successfully managed with surgical treatment...
August 2, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Akos Ilias, Lorant Gonczi, Zuszsanna Kurti, Peter L Lakatos
The introduction of biological agents has revolutionized the management of ulcerative colitis (UC). Biosimilars are considered to be equivalent to the reference biologic products in terms of pharmacokinetic properties, clinical effectiveness and safety and have now been approved in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). CT-P13 was the first biosimilar to infliximab that obtained regulatory approval by the EMA and US FDA. Accumulating data on biosimilars led to an increased acceptance amongst practicing gastroenterologists and their use can be associated with a potential reduction in healthcare costs...
February 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Delphine Cuchet-Lourenço, Davide Eletto, Changxin Wu, Vincent Plagnol, Olivier Papapietro, James Curtis, Lourdes Ceron-Gutierrez, Chris M Bacon, Scott Hackett, Badr Alsaleem, Mailis Maes, Miguel Gaspar, Ali Alisaac, Emma Goss, Eman AlIdrissi, Daniela Siegmund, Harald Wajant, Dinakantha Kumararatne, Mofareh S AlZahrani, Peter D Arkwright, Mario Abinun, Rainer Doffinger, Sergey Nejentsev
RIPK1 (receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1) is a master regulator of signaling pathways leading to inflammation and cell death and is of medical interest as a drug target. We report four patients from three unrelated families with complete RIPK1 deficiency caused by rare homozygous mutations. The patients suffered from recurrent infections, early-onset inflammatory bowel disease, and progressive polyarthritis. They had immunodeficiency with lymphopenia and altered production of various cytokines revealed by whole-blood assays...
August 24, 2018: Science
Guifang Yan, Huakan Zhao, Qi Zhang, Yu Zhou, Lei Wu, Juan Lei, Xiang Wang, Jiangang Zhang, Xiao Zhang, Lu Zheng, Guangsheng Du, Weidong Xiao, Bo Tang, Hongming Miao, Yongsheng Li
Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) is essential for mucosal repair in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colorectal cancer. However, its role in tumor immunity is unknown. Here, we report that decreased RIPK3 in colorectal cancer correlates with the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Deficiency of RIPK3 boosted tumorigenesis via accumulation and immunosuppressive activity of MDSCs. Reduction of RIPK3 in MDSC and colorectal cancer cells elicited NFκB-transcribed COX-2, which catalyzed the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 )...
October 1, 2018: Cancer Research
Eva Karaskova, Jana Volejnikova, Dusan Holub, Maria Velganova-Veghova, Lucie Sulovska, Vladimír Mihal, Monika Horvathova, Dagmar Pospisilova
AIM: Hepcidin is a central regulator of iron homeostasis. Its production is also influenced by systemic inflammation. The aims of this study were to compare hepcidin levels in paediatric patients newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and to determine the association of hepcidin levels with laboratory and clinical parameters of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity. METHODS: Children with newly diagnosed IBD between January 2012 and September 2016 were enrolled in this comparative cross-sectional study...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Ryan Ichikawa, Christopher A Lamb, Jeff Eastham-Anderson, Alexis Scherl, Laura Raffals, William A Faubion, Miriam R Bennett, Anna K Long, John C Mansfield, John A Kirby, Mary E Keir
Background: Recent findings suggest that αE expression is enriched on effector T cells and that intestinal αE+ T cells have increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. αE integrin expression is a potential predictive biomarker for response to etrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against β7 integrin that targets both α4β7 and αEβ7. We evaluated the prevalence and localisation of αE+ cells as well as total αE gene expression in healthy subjects and inflammatory bowel disease patients...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
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