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Is Ulcerative colitis reversible

Philip H Sossenheimer, Laura R Glick, Abraham Dachman, Kinga B Skowron, Michele Rubin, Konstantin Umanskiy, Radhika Smith, Lisa Cannon, Roger D Hurst, Russell D Cohen, Neil H Hyman, David T Rubin
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic complications after restorative total proctocolectomy with IPAA for ulcerative colitis alter functional outcomes and quality of life and may lead to pouch failure. Routine contrast enema of the pouch assesses anastomotic integrity before ileostomy reversal, but its clinical use is challenged. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to assess the relationship among preoperative clinical characteristics, abnormal pouchography, and long-term pouch complications...
November 28, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Ahmed E Khodir, Eman Said, Hoda Atif, Hassan A ElKashef, Hatem A Salem
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is usually a mildly active disease; however, it can be associated with serious systemic complications. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic and coloprotective properties of crocin; the major biologically active ingredient of saffron against experimentally-induced UC, by intracolonic instillation of AA (AA). Rats received either felodipine (3 mg/kg) or crocin (20 mg/kg) orally for 8 successive days as protective and curative therapies. Either as a protective or as a curative remedy, crocin significantly reversed AA-induced colonic damage...
December 4, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Huixia Zhang, Wei Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of miR-15 in ulcerative colitis (UC) is unclear. In this study, we found that miR-15 downregulated the expression of adenosine A2a receptor (A2aAR) in the colonic tissues of patients with UC and in HT-29 human colonic epithelial cells. METHODS: The study population comprised patients with UC (n=23), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n=22), and healthy subjects (n = 20). The levels of miR-15, A2aAR, and protein in colon tissue biopsies were determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blotting...
December 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Georgios Exarchos, Linda Metaxa, Antonios Gklavas, Vassilis Koutoulidis, Ioannis Papaconstantinou
OBJECTIVES: Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the "gold standard" procedure for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) requiring surgical intervention. A de-functioning ileostomy is usually performed, as a step for the IPAA procedure. The aim of this study is to present the methodology and results of the routine double assessment of IPAA integrity in asymptomatic patients prior to the ileostomy reversal and evaluate its necessity. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 61 UC patients, who underwent IPAA construction, in 2010-2016...
October 15, 2018: European Radiology
Bastian Schirmer, Luisa Bringmann, Roland Seifert, Detlef Neumann
Our previous in vitro studies revealed that histamine via histamine the H4 -receptors (H4 R), as compared to other stimuli, such as eotaxin or formylpeptides, rather partially activates eosinophilic granulocytes (eosinophils). In order to evaluate the H4 R-mediated activation of eosinophils in vivo , we employed dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, closely resembling human ulcerative colitis (UC), which is largely characterized by a local eosinophilic infiltration of the colon. IL-5-deficient BALB/c mice served as a model with reduced endogenous numbers of eosinophils, in which wild-type (H4 R+/+ ) or H4 R-deficient (H4 R-/- ) eosinophils were adoptively transferred during the course of DSS-induced colitis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hazel Tye, Chien-Hsiung Yu, Lisa A Simms, Marcel R de Zoete, Man Lyang Kim, Martha Zakrzewski, Jocelyn S Penington, Cassandra R Harapas, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Leesa F Wockner, Adele Preaudet, Lisa A Mielke, Stephen A Wilcox, Yasunori Ogura, Sinead C Corr, Komal Kanojia, Konstantinos A Kouremenos, David P De Souza, Malcolm J McConville, Richard A Flavell, Motti Gerlic, Benjamin T Kile, Anthony T Papenfuss, Tracy L Putoczki, Graham L Radford-Smith, Seth L Masters
Anti-microbial signaling pathways are normally triggered by innate immune receptors when detecting pathogenic microbes to provide protective immunity. Here we show that the inflammasome sensor Nlrp1 aggravates DSS-induced experimental mouse colitis by limiting beneficial, butyrate-producing Clostridiales in the gut. The colitis-protective effects of Nlrp1 deficiency are thus reversed by vancomycin treatment, but recapitulated with butyrate supplementation in wild-type mice. Moreover, an activating mutation in Nlrp1a increases IL-18 and IFNγ production, and decreases colonic butyrate to exacerbate colitis...
September 13, 2018: Nature Communications
C-X Qiao, S Xu, D-D Wang, S-Y Gao, S-F Zhao, M-L Zhang, B Yu, Q Yin, G Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an unexplained inflammatory disease in bowel. Some studies reported that microRNA-19b (miR-19b) was closely related to cell inflammatory response. We aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of miR-19b on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human intestinal cell inflammatory injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Caco2 cells were treated with 10 ng/ml LPS to induce inflammatory injury. The expression of miR-19b and runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3) was changed in Caco2 cells by cell transfection...
August 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Forouzan Amerizadeh, Nastaran Rezaei, Farzad Rahmani, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Reyhaneh Moradi-Marjaneh, Hamid Fiuji, Nadia Boroumand, Abolfazl Nosrati-Tirkani, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Gordon A Ferns, Majid Khazaei, Amir Avan
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death, and hence there is a need for the identification of novel-agents to improve the efficacy of existing therapies. There is growing evidence for the antitumor activity of crocin, although its activity and molecular mechanisms in CRC remains to be elucidated. Here we explored the therapeutic application of crocin or its combination with 5-flurouracil in a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer. The antiproliferative activity of crocin was assessed in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell-culture models...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yan Zhou, Hanyang Liu, Jun Song, Liang Cao, Liming Tang, Chunjian Qi
Sinomenine (SIN), a pure alkaloid isolated from Sinomenium acutum, has been widely used in arthritis for its anti‑inflammatory effect, but little is known about the effect of SIN on human ulcerative colitis (UC). In the present study, the effect and mechanism of SIN was examined in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)‑induced murine colitis model, which mimics human UC. Oral administration of SIN significantly suppressed the elevated disease activity index and ameliorated colonic histological damage in a DSS‑induced colitis model...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kai Zhou, Rui Cheng, Bei Liu, Lei Wang, Haifeng Xie, Chaofeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Despite the higher morbidity of ulcerative colitis (UC), available treatments remain unsatisfactory in recent years. A natural flavone eupatilin (Eup) is known to inhibit the intestinal contraction. PURPOSE: The protective role of Eup in intestinal inflammation remains unclear. This study attempted to determine the bioactivity of Eup against colitis and clarify the mechanism of action. STUDY DESIGN: The in vitro effects of Eup on lipopolysaccharide-induced human THP-M macrophage activation and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-damaged intestinal epithelial (NCM460) cells were explored to clarify its potential protective effects...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Nao Kakizawa, Shingo Tsujinaka, Yasuyuki Miyakura, Rina Kikugawa, Fumi Hasegawa, Hideki Ishikawa, Sawako Tamaki, Jun Takahashi, Toshiki Rikiyama
BACKGROUND: Diversion colitis (DC) is characterized by nonspecific inflammation in the remaining colon or rectum, and loss of the fecal stream plays a major role in the disease's development. Although the majority of patients are asymptomatic, medical and/or surgical treatment is required for those who are symptomatic. There is a particular interest on how to manage patients with acute and severe clinical presentations, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We report the rare case of a man with acute and severe DC mimicking ulcerative colitis (UC) with extra-intestinal manifestations that was successfully managed with surgical treatment...
August 2, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Akos Ilias, Lorant Gonczi, Zuszsanna Kurti, Peter L Lakatos
The introduction of biological agents has revolutionized the management of ulcerative colitis (UC). Biosimilars are considered to be equivalent to the reference biologic products in terms of pharmacokinetic properties, clinical effectiveness and safety and have now been approved in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). CT-P13 was the first biosimilar to infliximab that obtained regulatory approval by the EMA and US FDA. Accumulating data on biosimilars led to an increased acceptance amongst practicing gastroenterologists and their use can be associated with a potential reduction in healthcare costs...
February 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Francesco Colombo, Gianluca Pellino, Francesco Selvaggi, Fabio Corsi, Guido Sciaudone, Gianluca M Sampietro, Diego Foschi
BACKGROUND: Although the creation of a stoma reduces the risk of septic pouch complications following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), the stoma itself and its reversal can give rise to substantial morbidity during the two- or three-stage concept. Aim of study is to compare stoma-related complications in Ulcerative Colitis patients undergoing laparoscopic versus open IPAA. METHODS: We collected data on 250 IPAA patients from two Italian Centres between 2005 and 2015...
July 24, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Emilien Billon, Anne-Marie Stoppa, Lena Mescam, Massimo Bocci, Audrey Monneur, Delphine Perrot, François Bertucci
Background: Kaposi's sarcoma is a low-grade mesenchymal angioproliferative tumor, most commonly observed in immunocompromised individuals, such as HIV-infected patients. Iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma occurs in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapies. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeted against the pan B cell marker CD20. Because of its immunosuppressive effects through reduction of mature B-cells, it may exacerbate Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-positive patients. Rituximab-related Kaposi's sarcomas have been previously reported in only two HIV-negative patients and were treated surgically...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
Keiichi Hiramoto, Yurika Yamate, Emiko Kasahara, Eisuke F Sato
Although we previously reported the exacerbation of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis by ultraviolet (UV) B eye irradiation, we do not yet understand the mechanism behind this phenomenon. In this study, we examined the relationship between the deterioration of DSS-induced ulcerative colitis and clock genes. We induced a mouse model of ulcerative colitis by administering DSS for 5 days, and administered UVB eye irradiation on each day of the DSS treatment period. The DSS-induced ulcerative colitis was deteriorated by the UVB eye irradiation...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Eva Karaskova, Jana Volejnikova, Dusan Holub, Maria Velganova-Veghova, Lucie Sulovska, Vladimír Mihal, Monika Horvathova, Dagmar Pospisilova
AIM: Hepcidin is a central regulator of iron homeostasis. Its production is also influenced by systemic inflammation. The aims of this study were to compare hepcidin levels in paediatric patients newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and to determine the association of hepcidin levels with laboratory and clinical parameters of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity. METHODS: Children with newly diagnosed IBD between January 2012 and September 2016 were enrolled in this comparative cross-sectional study...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Wolfgang Stremmel, Simone Staffer, Nicole Stuhrmann, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Annika Gauss, Nina Burger, Daniel Hornuss
Background: Attack by commensal microbiota is one component of induction of inflammatory episodes in ulcerative colitis (UC). In UC, the mucus layer is intrinsically devoid of phosphatidylcholine (PC) resulting in low hydrophobicity which facilitates bacterial invasion. Colonic ectophospholipase-carrying bacterial strains are likely candidates to further thinning the PC mucus barrier and to precipitate inflammatory episodes. Objective: To evaluate the effect of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) inhibitors on inflammation in a genetic UC mouse model...
March 2018: Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases
Ryan Ichikawa, Christopher A Lamb, Jeff Eastham-Anderson, Alexis Scherl, Laura Raffals, William A Faubion, Miriam R Bennett, Anna K Long, John C Mansfield, John A Kirby, Mary E Keir
Background: Recent findings suggest that αE expression is enriched on effector T cells and that intestinal αE+ T cells have increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. αE integrin expression is a potential predictive biomarker for response to etrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against β7 integrin that targets both α4β7 and αEβ7. We evaluated the prevalence and localization of αE+ cells as well as total αE gene expression in healthy and inflammatory bowel disease patients...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Predrag Sikiric, Rudolf Rucman, Branko Turkovic, Marko Sever, Robert Klicek, Bozo Radic, Domagoj Drmic, Mirjana Stupnisek, Marija Misic, Lovorka Batelja Vuletic, Katarina Horvat Pavlov, Ivan Barisic, Antonio Kokot, Marina Peklic, Sanja Strbe, Alenka Boban Blagaic, Ante Tvrdeic, Dinko Stancic Rokotov, Hrvoje Vrcic, Mario Staresinic, Sven Seiwerth
Years ago, we revealed a novel cytoprotective mediator, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, particular anti-ulcer peptide that heals different organs lesions when given as a therapy, native in human gastric juice while maintaining GI-tract mucosal integrity, already tested in trials (ulcerative colitis and now multiple sclerosis). The stomach cytoprotection is the most fundamental concept, stomach cell protection and endothelium protection are largely elaborated, but so far cell, protection and endothelium protection outside of the stomach were not implemented in the therapy...
2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Hadas Sherman Horev, Keren M Rabinowitz, Hofit Elad, Revital Barkan, Shay Ben-Shachar, Metsada Pasmanik Chor, Iris Dotan
Background: A large-scale increase in microRNA (miRNA) expression was observed in patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent pouch surgery and developed inflammation of the pouch (pouchitis). In this study, we assessed miRNA expression in these patients and investigated how regulation of its expression changes in the setting of pouchitis. Methods: Autologous samples that included mucosal biopsies, peripheral blood cells, and plasma were collected from the patients...
April 23, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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