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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352754/providing-ethical-healthcare-in-resource-poor-environments
#1
Kenneth V Iserson
The ethics of providing health care in resource-poor environments is a complex topic. It implies two related questions: What can we do with the resources on hand? Of all the things we can do, which ones should we do? "Resource-poor" (i.e., resource-challenged, resource-constrained) environments are situations in which clinicians, organizations, or healthcare systems have the knowledge and skills, but not the means, to carry out highly effective and beneficial interventions. Determinants of a population's health often rely less on disease and injury management than on recognizing and meeting their basic needs...
January 19, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352745/negative-supercoiling-of-dna-by-gyrase-is-inhibited-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-during-adaptation-to-acid-stress
#2
Aoife M Colgan, Heather J Quinn, Stefani C Kary, Lesley A Mitchenall, Anthony Maxwell, Andrew Ds Cameron, Charles J Dorman
DNA in intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium relaxes during growth in the acidified (pH 4 to 5) macrophage vacuole and DNA relaxation correlates with upregulation of Salmonella genes involved in adaptation to the macrophage environment. Bacterial ATP levels did not increase during adaptation to acid pH unless the bacterium was deficient in MgtC, a cytoplasmic-membrane-located inhibitor of proton-driven F1 F0 ATP synthase activity. Inhibiting ATP binding by DNA gyrase and topo IV with novobiocin enhanced the effect of low pH on DNA relaxation...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352728/differential-proteomic-analysis-of-synovial-fluid-from-hip-arthroplasty-patients-with-a-pseudotumor-vs-periprosthetic-osteolysis
#3
Isabelle Catelas, Eric A Lehoux, Zhibin Ning, Daniel Figeys, Stephen J Baskey, Paul E Beaulé
Adverse tissue reactions to metal implants, including pseudotumors, can compromise implant functionality and survivorship. The identification of specific proteins in the synovial fluid (SF) of hip arthroplasty patients with a pseudotumor may lead to a better understanding of the underlying pathomechanisms. The objective of the present study was to compare the protein content of SF from patients with a short-term metal-on-metal hip implant associated with a pseudotumor and patients with a long-term metal-on-polyethylene hip implant associated with periprosthetic osteolysis...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352721/hyperconnective-and-hypoconnective-cortical-and-subcortical-functional-networks-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#4
Johannes Rosskopf, Martin Gorges, Hans-Peter Müller, Elmar H Pinkhardt, Albert C Ludolph, Jan Kassubek
INTRODUCTION: In multiple system atrophy (MSA), the organization of the functional brain connectivity within cortical and subcortical networks and its clinical correlates remains to be investigated. METHODS: Whole-brain based 'resting-state' fMRI data were obtained from 22 MSA patients (11 MSA-C, 11 MSA-P) and 22 matched healthy controls, together with standardized clinical assessment and video-oculographic recordings (EyeLink®). RESULTS: MSA patients vs...
January 12, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352708/a-systematic-review-and-discussion-of-symptom-specific-cognitive-behavioural-approaches-to-delusions-and-hallucinations
#5
Tania M Lincoln, Emmanuelle Peters
Studies on cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) have developed from evaluating generic approaches to focusing on specific symptoms. The evidence for targeted studies on delusions and hallucinations was reviewed. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of individualized CBT-based interventions focusing either on delusions or on hallucinations. Twelve suitable RCTs were identified. Four RCTs focused on delusions, of which three took a focused approach targeting mechanisms assumed causal to persecutory delusions...
January 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352677/surface-structure-and-tribology-of-legless-squamate-reptiles
#6
REVIEW
Hisham A Abdel-Aal
Squamate reptiles (around 10,000 species of snakes and lizards) comprise a myriad of distinct terrestrial vertebrates. The diversity within this biological group offers a great opportunity for customized bio-inspired solutions that address a variety of current technological problems especially within the realm of surface engineering and tribology. One subgroup within squamata is of interest in that context, namely the legless reptiles (mainly snakes and few lizards). The promise of that group lies within their functional adaptation as manifested in optimized surface designs and locomotion that is distinguished by economy of effort even when functioning within hostile tribological environments...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352654/resistance-training-during-a-12-week-protein-supplemented-vlcd-treatment-enhances-weight-loss-outcomes-in-obese-patients
#7
Edward Jo, Phillip R Worts, Marcus L Elam, Ann Frost Brown, Andy V Khamoui, Do-Houn Kim, Ming-Chia Yeh, Michael J Ormsbee, Carla M Prado, Angelina Cain, Katie Snyder, Jeong-Su Kim
BACKGROUND: This investigation evaluated the efficacy by which resistance training enhances body composition, metabolic, and functional outcomes for obese patients undergoing a 12-week medically supervised hypocaloric treatment. METHODS: This was a single-blind, randomized, parallel-group prospective trial. Morbidly obese patients were prescribed a 12-week proprietary very low calorie diet (VLCD) treatment (Optifast®) with supplemental protein (1120 kcals/day) and were placed in one of two groups for 14 weeks: 1) Standard Treatment Control (CON) (n = 5) or 2) Resistance Training (RT) (n = 6)...
December 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352643/assessment-of-a-source-position-checking-tool-for-the-quality-assurance-of-transfer-tubes-used-in-hdr-192ir-brachytherapy-treatments
#8
O A Awunor
PURPOSE: The determination of source positions before treatment is an essential part of the quality assurance (QA) associated with high dose rate brachytherapy treatments. The purpose of this study was to design and commission a tool to allow the quantification of source positions across multiple transfer tube types. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A bespoke flexi-adapter jig, three transfer tube adapters, and a film piercing pointer were designed and built for source position QA across three transfer tube types-the standard, 6 French, and gynae transfer tubes...
January 15, 2018: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352630/surgical-damage-to-the-lymphatic-system-promotes-tumor-growth-via-impaired-adaptive-immune-response
#9
Yoshiyuki Nakamura, Yasuhiro Fujisawa, Naoko Okiyama, Rei Watanabe, Ryota Tanaka, Yosuke Ishitsuka, Hideaki Tahara, Manabu Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Both lymph nodes (LNs) and lymphatic channels from primary sites to regional LNs are critical for initiation of adaptive immunity. However, as LNs are common metastatic sites in skin cancers, LN biopsies or dissections are frequently performed. In addition, reconstructive skin flaps after tumor resection may damage lymphatic flow from primary sites to regional LNs. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the effect on tumor progression by such surgeries...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352615/gene-circuits-for-dynamically-regulating-metabolism
#10
Xiulai Chen, Liming Liu
Gene circuits are a functional innovation in synthetic biology for engineering cellular behavior. Recent advances have demonstrated that gene circuits can be exploited for dynamically controlling pathway redirection and pathway balance to produce valuable chemicals. The next frontier is to engineer robust, sensitive, and efficient circuits that adapt to changing conditions.
January 15, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352600/placental-control-of-metabolic-adaptations-in-the-mother-for-an-optimal-pregnancy-outcome-what-goes-wrong-in-gestational-diabetes
#11
David J Hill
As pregnancy progresses the placental syncytiotrophoblast increasingly assumes control of maternal glucose homeostasis through the release and counter-balancing effects of placental lactogen (PL) and placental variant growth hormone (GH-V). While local actions of these hormones on placental growth and function are likely to exist, each also exerts indirect actions to ensure fetal nutritional availability through modulation of the maternal insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. Peripheral insulin resistance results from the increasing levels of GH-V in the maternal circulation and is counter-balanced by an increase in insulin availability through an expansion of maternal pancreatic β-cell mass...
January 9, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352540/insight-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-relationship-with-behavior-mood-and-perceived-quality-of-life-underlying-causes-and-emerging-treatments
#12
Paul H Lysaker, Michelle L Pattison, Bethany L Leonhardt, Scott Phelps, Jenifer L Vohs
Poor insight in schizophrenia is prevalent across cultures and phases of illness. In this review, we examine the recent research on the relationship of insight with behavior, mood and perceived quality of life, on its complex roots, and on the effects of existing and emerging treatments. This research indicates that poor insight predicts poorer treatment adherence and therapeutic alliance, higher symptom severity and more impaired community function, while good insight predicts a higher frequency of depression and demoralization, especially when coupled with stigma and social disadvantage...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352530/psychotherapies-for-depression-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-meta-analysis
#13
Pim Cuijpers, Eirini Karyotaki, Mirjam Reijnders, Marianna Purgato, Corrado Barbui
Most psychotherapies for depression have been developed in high-income Western countries of North America, Europe and Australia. A growing number of randomized trials have examined the effects of these treatments in non-Western countries. We conducted a meta-analysis of these studies to examine whether these psychotherapies are effective and to compare their effects between studies from Western and non-Western countries. We conducted systematic searches in bibliographical databases and included 253 randomized controlled trials, of which 32 were conducted in non-Western countries...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352504/trophic-niche-capture-efficiency-and-venom-profiles-of-six-sympatric-ant-eating-spider-species-araneae-zodariidae
#14
Stano Pekár, Lenka Petráková, Ondrej Šedo, Stanislav Korenko, Zbyněk Zdráhal
The arms race between specialist predators and their prey has resulted in the evolution of a variety of specific adaptations. In venomous predators this can include venom composition, particularly if predators are specialised on dangerous prey. Here, we performed an integrative study using six species of highly specialised ant-eating spiders of the genus Zodarion in order to investigate their phylogeny, realised trophic niche, efficacy in the capture of various ant species, and venom composition. Data on natural diet obtained by next-generation sequencing and field observations showed that the six Zodarion species exploit different ant species...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352405/virus-particle-detection-by-convolutional-neural-network-in-transmission-electron-microscopy-images
#15
Eisuke Ito, Takaaki Sato, Daisuke Sano, Etsuko Utagawa, Tsuyoshi Kato
A new computational method for the detection of virus particles in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images is presented. Our approach is to use a convolutional neural network that transforms a TEM image to a probabilistic map that indicates where virus particles exist in the image. Our proposed approach automatically and simultaneously learns both discriminative features and classifier for virus particle detection by machine learning, in contrast to existing methods that are based on handcrafted features that yield many false positives and require several postprocessing steps...
January 19, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352375/-aspects-of-liaison-psychiatry-care-of-patients-in-a%C3%A2-university-pain-clinic
#16
M Brinkers, G Pfau, C Schneemilch
BACKGROUND: Owing to a rise of psychosomatic comorbidities, the treatment of psychological disorders, which may negatively impact prognosis and therapy, is increasingly becoming a focus of attention for pain outpatient clinics. AIM: This study investigates and discusses the advantages of liaison psychiatric care in a university pain clinic. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we investigated all patients who presented to an anaesthesiologically led pain clinic between January and June 2014...
January 19, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352371/innate-and-adaptive-t-cells-in-influenza-disease
#17
REVIEW
Simone Nüssing, Sneha Sant, Marios Koutsakos, Kanta Subbarao, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska
Influenza is a major global health problem, causing infections of the respiratory tract, often leading to acute pneumonia, life-threatening complications and even deaths. Over the last seven decades, vaccination strategies have been utilized to protect people from complications of influenza, especially groups at high risk of severe disease. While current vaccination regimens elicit strain-specific antibody responses, they fail to generate cross-protection against seasonal, pandemic and avian viruses. Moreover, vaccines designed to generate influenza-specific T-cell responses are yet to be optimized...
January 20, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352355/physiological-responses-to-salt-stress-of-salt-adapted-and-directly-salt-nacl-and-nacl-na2so4-mixture-stressed-cyanobacterium-anabaena-fertilissima
#18
Prashant Swapnil, Ashwani K Rai
Soil salinity in nature is generally mixed type; however, most of the studies on salt toxicity are performed with NaCl and little is known about sulfur type of salinity (Na2SO4). Present study discerns the physiologic mechanisms responsible for salt tolerance in salt-adapted Anabaena fertilissima, and responses of directly stressed parent cells to NaCl and NaCl+Na2SO4 mixture. NaCl at 500 mM was lethal to the cyanobacterium, whereas salt-adapted cells grew luxuriantly. Salinity impaired gross photosynthesis, electron transport activities, and respiration in parent cells, but not in the salt-adapted cells, except a marginal increase in PSI activity...
January 19, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352301/crystal-structure-of-a-udp-glcnac-epimerase-for-surface-polysaccharide-biosynthesis-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#19
Bhumika S Shah, Heather E Ashwood, Stephen J Harrop, Daniel N Farrugia, Ian T Paulsen, Bridget C Mabbutt
With new strains of Acinetobacter baumannii undergoing genomic analysis, it has been possible to define regions of genomic plasticity (RGPs), encoding specific adaptive elements. For a selected RGP from a community-derived isolate of A. baumannii, we outline sequences compatible with biosynthetic machinery of surface polysaccharides, specifically enzymes utilized in the dehydration and conversion of UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDP-D-GlcNAc). We have determined the crystal structure of one of these, the epimerase Ab-WbjB...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352281/differential-dna-methylation-and-transcription-profiles-in-date-palm-roots-exposed-to-salinity
#20
Ibtisam Al-Harrasi, Rashid Al-Yahyai, Mahmoud W Yaish
As a salt-adaptive plant, the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) requires a suitable mechanism to adapt to the stress of saline soils. There is growing evidence that DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating gene expression in response to abiotic stresses, including salinity. Thus, the present study sought to examine the differential methylation status that occurs in the date palm genome when plants are exposed to salinity, and to identify salinity responsive genes that are regulated by DNA methylation...
2018: PloS One
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