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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931254/cavernomas-and-arteriovenous-malformations-in-the-mesial-temporal-region-microsurgical-anatomy-and-approaches
#1
Alvaro Campero, Pablo Ajler, Carlos Rica, Albert Rhoton
BACKGROUND: The mesial temporal region (MTR) is located deep in the temporal lobe and it is surrounded by important vascular and nervous structures that should be preserved during surgery. OBJECTIVE: To describe microsurgical anatomy and approaches to the MTR in relation to cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). METHODS: Five formalin-fixed and red silicone-embedded heads of adult cadavers were used for this study. Between January 2003 and June 2014, 7 patients with cavernomas and 6 patients with AVMs in the MTR underwent surgery...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931174/improvement-of-radiological-teaching-effects-of-focusing-of-learning-targets-and-increased-consideration-of-learning-theory-knowledge
#2
Stefan Wirth, York-Alexander William, Marco Paolini, Kathrin Wirth, Daniel Maxien, Maximilian Reiser, Martin R Fischer
Purpose Based on evaluation and examination results of students, a necessity for improvement of so far purely instructor-based radiological teaching at the local institution was determined. Aim of our study was to use one out of eight seminars to exemplify adaptation of the teaching concept according to learning theory knowledge, to determine the resulting effects and to interpret them. Materials and methods The institutional review board approved the prospective study of the seminar conversion, which was performed after the end of the winter semester 2015/2016...
September 20, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931142/malaria-prevention-strategies-and-recommendations-from-chemoprophylaxis-to-stand-by-emergency-treatment-a-10-year-prospective-study-in-a-swiss-travel-clinic
#3
Rim Boubaker, Annie Hérard Fossati, Pierrette Meige, Catherine Mialet, Chantal Ngarambe Buffat, Jacynthe Rochat, Manisinh Souvannaraj-Blanchant, Mediatrice Uwanyiligira, Francine Widmer, Sylvie Payot, Laurence Rochat, Serge de Vallière, Valérie D'Acremont, Blaise Genton
Background: There are several possible malaria prevention strategies for travellers. In Switzerland, chemoprophylaxis (CP) is recommended for persons visiting areas highly endemic for malaria and stand-by emergency treatment (SBET) for areas with moderate to low risk. Objective: To describe the type of malaria prevention prescribed to travel clinic attendees with a specific focus on changes over time following adaptation of recommendations. Methods: All pre-travel first consultation data recorded between November 2002 and December 2012 were included...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931102/-areas-and-challenges-of-oncopsychological-rehabilitation
#4
Péter Kovács, Zsuzsa Koncz, Julianna Peti, Anna Gõdény, Dóra Horváth, Csilla Gerlinger, Katalin Lacsán, Petra Molnár, Ágnes Riskó
Patients with cancer present a number of different difficulties that adversely affect their health care and recovery (e.g. poor communication with physicians, lack of knowledge about their illness and its management, financial problems). Furthermore, mental health problems, such as distress, depression and anxiety, are common amongst patients with cancer. These mental health problems are additional contributors to functional impairment in carrying out family, work, and other social roles, poor adherence to medical treatments, and adverse medical outcomes...
September 20, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931083/in-vivo-virulence-of-mhc-adapted-aids-virus-serially-passaged-through-mhc-mismatched-hosts
#5
Sayuri Seki, Takushi Nomura, Masako Nishizawa, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Hiroshi Ishii, Saori Matsuoka, Teiichiro Shiino, Hironori Sato, Kazuta Mizuta, Hiromi Sakawaki, Tomoyuki Miura, Taeko K Naruse, Akinori Kimura, Tetsuro Matano
CD8+ T-cell responses exert strong suppressive pressure on HIV replication and select for viral escape mutations. Some of these major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-associated mutations result in reduction of in vitro viral replicative capacity. While these mutations can revert after viral transmission to MHC-I-disparate hosts, recent studies have suggested that these MHC-I-associated mutations accumulate in populations and make viruses less pathogenic in vitro. Here, we directly show an increase in the in vivo virulence of an MHC-I-adapted virus serially-passaged through MHC-I-mismatched hosts in a macaque AIDS model despite a reduction in in vitro viral fitness...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931078/microgeographic-population-structuring-of-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae
#6
André Barretto Bruno Wilke, Ramon Wilk-da-Silva, Mauro Toledo Marrelli
Aedes aegypti is one of the species most favored by changes in the environment caused by urbanization. Its abundance increases rapidly in the face of such changes, increasing the risk of disease transmission. Previous studies have shown that mosquito species that have adapted to anthropogenic environmental changes benefit from urbanization and undergo population expansion. In light of this, we used microsatellite markers to explore how urbanization processes may be modulating Ae. aegypti populations collected from three areas with different levels of urbanization in the city of São Paulo, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931054/reconstruction-of-reaching-movement-trajectories-using-electrocorticographic-signals-in-humans
#7
Omid Talakoub, Cesar Marquez-Chin, Milos R Popovic, Jessie Navarro, Erich T Fonoff, Clement Hamani, Willy Wong
In this study, we used electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals to extract the onset of arm movement as well as the velocity of the hand as a function of time. ECoG recordings were obtained from three individuals while they performed reaching tasks in the left, right and forward directions. The ECoG electrodes were placed over the motor cortex contralateral to the moving arm. Movement onset was detected from gamma activity with near perfect accuracy (> 98%), and a multiple linear regression model was used to predict the trajectory of the reaching task in three-dimensional space with an accuracy exceeding 85%...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931051/interleukin-17-positive-mast-cells-influence-outcomes-from-bcg-for-patients-with-cis-data-from-a-comprehensive-characterisation-of-the-immune-microenvironment-of-urothelial-bladder-cancer
#8
Alexander C Dowell, Ellen Cobby, Kaisheng Wen, Adam J Devall, Vinnie During, Jane Anderson, Nicholas D James, Kar K Cheng, Maurice P Zeegers, Richard T Bryan, Graham S Taylor
The tumour immune microenvironment is considered to influence cancer behaviour and outcome. Using a panel of markers for innate and adaptive immune cells we set out to characterise and understand the bladder tumour microenvironment of 114 patients from a prospective multicentre cohort of newly-diagnosed bladder cancer patients, followed-up for 4.33±1.71 years. We found IL-17-positive cells were significantly increased in primary and concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), p<0.0001, a highly malignant lesion which is the most significant single risk factor for disease progression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931046/clinical-relevance-of-histologic-subtypes-in-locally-advanced-esophageal-carcinoma-treated-with-pre-operative-chemoradiotherapy-experience-of-a-monographic-oncologic-centre
#9
Maria Saigí, Marc Oliva, Luisa Aliste, Mariona Calvo, Gloria Hormigo, Òlbia Serra, Anna Boladeras, Leandre Farran, Javier Robles, Gloria Creus, Ma José Paúles, Joan B Gornals, Eugenia de Lama, Josep Ma Borràs, Núria Sala, Maica Galán
BACKGROUND: Locally advanced esophageal carcinoma (LAEC) represents less than 30% of all diagnosed esophageal carcinoma worldwide. The standard of care for resectable tumours consists of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery. Despite the curative intent, the prognosis is still poor mainly due to relapse. A multidisciplinary approach is required in order to optimize the therapeutic strategy and follow-up. Differences in outcomes between the two main histological subtypes, adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), have been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931045/effect-of-extracytoplasmic-function-sigma-factors-on-autoaggregation-hemagglutination-and-cell-surface-properties-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#10
Kazutaka Fujise, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a bacterium frequently isolated from chronic periodontal lesions and is involved in the development of chronic periodontitis. To colonize the gingival crevice, P. gingivalis has to adapt to environmental stresses. Microbial gene expression is regulated by transcription factors such as those in two-component systems and extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. ECF sigma factors are involved in the regulation of environmental stress response genes; however, the roles of individual ECF sigma factors are largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931036/quantifiable-effects-of-regular-exercise-on-zinc-status-in-a-healthy-population-a-systematic-review
#11
Anna Chu, Trishala Varma, Peter Petocz, Samir Samman
Zinc is an essential mineral of which its functions have potential implications on exercise performance and beneficial adaptations of physical activity. While the effects of aerobic exercise on zinc metabolism acutely have been well described, the effect of long-term exercise training on zinc status remains unclear. The present review aims to determine the effects of exercise training on markers of zinc status in an apparently healthy adult population. We conducted a systematic literature search on PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Library from inception to 28 January 2016 to identify interventional or cohort studies that investigated the effects of exercise training on indices of zinc status...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930992/a-cell-culture-model-of-resistance-arteries
#12
Lauren A Biwer, Christophe Lechauve, Sheri Vanhoose, Mitchell J Weiss, Brant E Isakson
The myoendothelial junction (MEJ), a unique signaling microdomain in small diameter resistance arteries, exhibits localization of specific proteins and signaling processes that can control vascular tone and blood pressure. As it is a projection from either the endothelial or smooth muscle cell, and due to its small size (on average, an area of ~1 µm(2)), the MEJ is difficult to study in isolation. However, we have developed a cell culture model called the vascular cell co-culture (VCCC) that allows for in vitro MEJ formation, endothelial cell polarization, and dissection of signaling proteins and processes in the vascular wall of resistance arteries...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930991/using-an-adapted-microfluidic-olfactory-chip-for-the-imaging-of-neuronal-activity-in-response-to-pheromones-in-male-c-elegans-head-neurons
#13
Douglas K Reilly, Daniel E Lawler, Dirk R Albrecht, Jagan Srinivasan
The use of calcium indicators has greatly enhanced our understanding of neural dynamics and regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, with its completely mapped nervous system and transparent anatomy, presents an ideal model for understanding real-time neural dynamics using calcium indicators. In combination with microfluidic technologies and experimental designs, calcium-imaging studies using these indicators are performed in both free-moving and trapped animals. However, most previous studies utilizing trapping devices, such as the olfactory chip described in Chronis et al...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930975/streamlined-single-cell-tcr-isolation-and-generation-of-retroviral-vectors-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-expression-of-human-tcrs
#14
Maran L Sprouse, Gabriele Blahnik, Thomas Lee, Natalie Tully, Pinaki Benarjee, Eddie A James, Maria J Redondo, Matthew L Bettini, Maria Bettini
Although, several methods for sequencing of paired T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains from single T cells have been developed, none so far have been conducive to downstream in vivo functional analysis of TCR heterodimers. We have developed an improved protocol based on a two-step multiplex-nested PCR, which results in a PCR product that spans entire variable regions of a human TCR alpha and beta chains. By identifying unique restriction sites and incorporating them into the PCR primers, we have made the PCR product compatible with direct sub-cloning into the template retroviral vector...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930883/reproducibility-and-agreement-of-anterior-segment-parameter-measurements-obtained-using-the-casia2-and-spectralis-oct2-optical-coherence-tomography-devices
#15
Benjamin Y Xu, Derek D Mai, Rafaella C Penteado, Luke Sanders, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To assess the reproducibility and agreement of measurement values obtained from the Tomey CASIA2 and Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) devices. METHODS: Twenty eyes from ten subjects ranging from age 28 to 45 years with no history of eye conditions or intraocular surgery were included. Two scans were obtained with each device in a standardized dark-room environment after a period of dark adaptation. One AS-OCT image along the horizontal (temporal-nasal) meridian was analyzed per eye and per scan...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930815/variability-in-usual-care-mechanical-ventilation-for-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-time-for-a-decision-support-protocol
#16
Christopher J L Newth, Katherine A Sward, Robinder G Khemani, Kent Page, Kathleen L Meert, Joseph A Carcillo, Thomas P Shanley, Frank W Moler, Murray M Pollack, Heidi J Dalton, David L Wessel, John T Berger, Robert A Berg, Rick E Harrison, Richard Holubkov, Allan Doctor, J Michael Dean, Tammara L Jenkins, Carol E Nicholson
OBJECTIVES: Although pediatric intensivists philosophically embrace lung protective ventilation for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, we hypothesized that ventilator management varies. We assessed ventilator management by evaluating changes to ventilator settings in response to blood gases, pulse oximetry, or end-tidal CO2. We also assessed the potential impact that a pediatric mechanical ventilation protocol adapted from National Heart Lung and Blood Institute acute respiratory distress syndrome network protocols could have on reducing variability by comparing actual changes in ventilator settings to those recommended by the protocol...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930685/human-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-are-defined-by-core-transcriptional-and-functional-signatures-in-lymphoid-and-mucosal-sites
#17
Brahma V Kumar, Wenji Ma, Michelle Miron, Tomer Granot, Rebecca S Guyer, Dustin J Carpenter, Takashi Senda, Xiaoyun Sun, Siu-Hong Ho, Harvey Lerner, Amy L Friedman, Yufeng Shen, Donna L Farber
Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) in mice mediate optimal protective immunity to infection and vaccination, while in humans, the existence and properties of TRMs remain unclear. Here, we use a unique human tissue resource to determine whether human tissue memory T cells constitute a distinct subset in diverse mucosal and lymphoid tissues. We identify a core transcriptional profile within the CD69(+) subset of memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in lung and spleen that is distinct from that of CD69(-) TEM cells in tissues and circulation and defines human TRMs based on homology to the transcriptional profile of mouse CD8(+) TRMs...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930678/dna-ligase-iv-guides-end-processing-choice-during-nonhomologous-end-joining
#18
Michael P Conlin, Dylan A Reid, George W Small, Howard H Chang, Go Watanabe, Michael R Lieber, Dale A Ramsden, Eli Rothenberg
Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) must adapt to diverse end structures during repair of chromosome breaks. Here, we investigate the mechanistic basis for this flexibility. DNA ends are aligned in a paired-end complex (PEC) by Ku, XLF, XRCC4, and DNA ligase IV (LIG4); we show by single-molecule analysis how terminal mispairs lead to mobilization of ends within PECs and consequent sampling of more end-alignment configurations. This remodeling is essential for direct ligation of damaged and mispaired ends during cellular NHEJ, since remodeling and ligation of such ends both require a LIG4-specific structural motif, insert1...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930602/molecular-biology-of-tick-acetylcholinesterases
#19
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930569/the-biology-of-the-platelet-with-special-reference-to-inflammation-wound-healing-and-immunity
#20
Alan T Nurden
While platelets have long been known to be essential for maintaining hemostasis in the vasculature, their role in tissue repair, inflammation and innate and adaptive immunity is a more recent science. The ability of platelets to attach to the vessel wall, form aggregates and promote fibrin formation, key elements of blood clotting, has been said to both favor and dampen inflammation, to fight infection and to assure an adequate immune response. To fulfill their different roles platelets often synchronize with leukocytes and cells of the immune system...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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