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Long term use of antibiotics in children and the effects

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30052271/treatment-for-chronic-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-pulmonary-infection-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Molla Imaduddin Ahmed, Saptarshi Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited life-threatening multisystem disorder with lung disease characterized by abnormally thick airway secretions and persistent bacterial infection. Chronic, progressive lung disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the condition and is therefore the main focus of clinical care and research. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of chest infection in people with cystic fibrosis. Early onset, as well as chronic, lung infection with this organism in young children and adults results in worsening lung function, poorer nutrition and increases the airway inflammatory response, thus leading to a poor overall clinical outcome...
July 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897844/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-rifaximin-for-treatment-of-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Eugenia Bruzzese, Marcella Pesce, Giovanni Sarnelli, Alfredo Guarino
Rifaximin is a poorly absorbable antibiotic with a broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. It is active in the small intestine due to its high bile solubility, whereas in the aqueous environment of the colon, it shows limited efficacy against highly susceptible bacteria. These unique pharmacokinetic properties limit its systemic effects and can correct gut microflora imbalances. Thus, rifaximin has become a major therapeutic agent in several gastrointestinal diseases in which an imbalance in gut microflora may play a role, including diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D)...
July 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889304/dual-antibiotics-for-bronchiectasis
#3
REVIEW
Lambert M Felix, Seamus Grundy, Stephen J Milan, Ross Armstrong, Haley Harrison, Dave Lynes, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation of the smaller airways and associated with a mortality rate greater than twice that of the general population. Antibiotics serve as front-line therapy for managing bacterial load, but their use is weighed against the development of antibiotic resistance. Dual antibiotic therapy has the potential to suppress infection from multiple strains of bacteria, leading to more successful treatment of exacerbations, reduced symptoms, and improved quality of life...
June 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870460/hypersensitivity-reactions-to-beta-lactams-in-children
#4
François Graham, Sophia Tsabouri, Jean-Christoph Caubet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present the most recent evidence on beta-lactam hypersensitivity reactions in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Drug provocation tests (DPTs) are the gold standard when investigating beta-lactam allergy in children and evidence is increasingly supporting DPTs without skin tests as a safe approach when evaluating children with nonimmediate mild reactions to beta-lactams. Of note, data are limited in the adolescent population, and this attitude may not apply to this age group...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860722/continuous-versus-intermittent-antibiotics-for-bronchiectasis
#5
REVIEW
Tim Donovan, Lambert M Felix, James D Chalmers, Stephen J Milan, Alexander G Mathioudakis, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic airway disease characterised by a destructive cycle of recurrent airway infection, inflammation and tissue damage. Antibiotics are a main treatment for bronchiectasis. The aim of continuous therapy with prophylactic antibiotics is to suppress bacterial load, but bacteria may become resistant to the antibiotic, leading to a loss of effectiveness. On the other hand, intermittent prophylactic antibiotics, given over a predefined duration and interval, may reduce antibiotic selection pressure and reduce or prevent the development of resistance...
June 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846302/oral-fluoroquinolone-prescribing-to-children-in-the-united-states-from-2006-to-2015
#6
Mahyar Etminan, Michael Guo, Bruce Carleton
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolone (FQ) prescription rates have increased over the last 10 years despite recent warnings of serious adverse effects such as peripheral neuropathy and tendinopathy. Currently, there are no published data on the extent or appropriateness of FQ prescribing in children METHODS:: Drug prescription data from the PharMetrics Plus™ health claims database (United States) were analyzed to examine dispensing of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, or gemifloxacin to children from 2006 to 2015...
May 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782546/chronic-use-of-psychotropic-medications-in-breastfeeding-women-is-it-safe
#7
Nirit Kronenfeld, Tomer Ziv Baran, Maya Berlin, Nour Karra, Natalie Dinavitser, Rana Cohen, Yifat Wiener, Eyal Schwartzberg, Matitiahu Bercovitch
BACKGROUND: Current knowledge regarding chronic use of psychotropic medications during breastfeeding is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of psychotropic monotherapy use during lactation on the breastfed infant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we followed 280 infants whose mothers contacted the Drug Consultation Center (DCC) at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center between January 2011 and December 2015, seeking information regarding the chronic use of psychotropic medications during lactation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741289/grommets-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Roderick P Venekamp, Paul Mick, Anne Gm Schilder, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood illnesses. While many children experience sporadic AOM episodes, an important group suffer from recurrent AOM (rAOM), defined as three or more episodes in six months, or four or more in one year. In this subset of children AOM poses a true burden through frequent episodes of ear pain, general illness, sleepless nights and time lost from nursery or school. Grommets, also called ventilation or tympanostomy tubes, can be offered for rAOM...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731926/practical-approach-to-lung-health-experience-from-the-republic-of-macedonia
#9
Biljana Ilievska-Poposka, Maja Zakoska, Stefan Talevski
BACKGROUND: Among the adults and children aged 5 yrs who attend PHC settings, 20-30% seeks to care for respiratory symptoms. Over 80-90% of the respiratory patients suffer from acute respiratory infections (ARI), followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), asthma, and less frequently with pneumonia and tuberculosis (TB). To improve the quality of care in patients who seek assistance for respiratory symptoms in PHC settings and the efficiency of respiratory service delivery within healthcare systems, WHO has designated several initiatives among which one is PAL (Practical Approach to Lung Health)...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684249/standard-head-down-tilt-versus-modified-without-head-down-tilt-postural-drainage-in-infants-and-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Diana A Freitas, Gabriela Ss Chaves, Thayla A Santino, Cibele Td Ribeiro, Fernando Al Dias, Ricardo O Guerra, Karla Mpp Mendonça
BACKGROUND: Postural drainage is used primarily in infants with cystic fibrosis from diagnosis up to the moment when they are mature enough to actively participate in self-administered treatments. However, there is a risk of gastroesophageal reflux associated with this technique.This is an update of a review published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of standard postural drainage (15º to 45º head-down tilt) with modified postural drainage (15º to 30º head-up tilt) with regard to gastroesophageal reflux in infants and young children up to six years old with cystic fibrosis in terms of safety and efficacy...
March 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600284/assembly-biochemical-characterization-immunogenicity-adjuvanticity-and-efficacy-of-shigella-artificial-invaplex
#11
K Ross Turbyfill, Kristen A Clarkson, Anthony R Vortherms, Edwin V Oaks, Robert W Kaminski
The native Invaplex (InvaplexNAT ) vaccine and adjuvant is an ion exchange-purified product derived from the water extract of virulent Shigella species. The key component of InvaplexNAT is a high-molecular-mass complex (HMMC) consisting of the Shigella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the invasin proteins IpaB and IpaC. To improve product purity and immunogenicity, artificial Invaplex (InvaplexAR ) was developed using recombinant IpaB and IpaC proteins and purified Shigella LPS to assemble an HMMC consisting of all three components...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593875/long-term-low-dose-of-clarithromycin-as-a-cause-of-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-5-year-old-boy
#12
Hirofumi Namiki, Tadashi Kobayashi
Clostridium difficile is one of the most common causes of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Despite C. difficile infection (CDI) has increased in all ages worldwide, episodes of CDI are often misdiagnosed due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Macrolides are also associated with CDI. Additionally, exposure to macrolides in the 12 weeks preceding infection is reported to be a significant risk factor of CDI in a child. We report here a 5-year-old Japanese boy who presented with acute onset of watery diarrhoea...
March 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587336/oral-versus-inhaled-antibiotics-for-bronchiectasis
#13
REVIEW
Sally Spencer, Lambert M Felix, Stephen J Milan, Rebecca Normansell, Pieter C Goeminne, James D Chalmers, Tim Donovan
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by a recurrent cycle of respiratory bacterial infections associated with cough, sputum production and impaired quality of life. Antibiotics are the main therapeutic option for managing bronchiectasis exacerbations. Evidence suggests that inhaled antibiotics may be associated with more effective eradication of infective organisms and a lower risk of developing antibiotic resistance when compared with orally administered antibiotics...
March 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479553/outpatient-antibiotic-stewardship-a-growing-frontier-combining-myxovirus-resistance-protein-a-with-other-biomarkers-to-improve-antibiotic-use
#14
Patrick Joseph, Eliot Godofsky
Background: The majority of oral antibiotics are prescribed in outpatient primary and urgent care clinics for acute respiratory infections. Effective antibiotic stewardship must include proper prescribing for outpatients as well as for those in a hospital or long-term care facility. Methods: Major databases, including MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, were searched for prospective human clinical studies, including children and/or adults published between January 1966 and November 2017 that evaluated Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) as a biomarker for diagnosing viral infections as well as both C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) as potential biomarkers for identifying and differentiating true bacterial upper respiratory infection (URI) from colonization...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461265/severe-acute-malnutrition
#15
Etienne Nel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in our understanding of the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in a resource-limited environment are needed to improve outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) made from local products and with reduced milk content lower costs and may be effective in older children. None of the therapeutic foods used to treat severely malnourished children correct long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiencies.Routine short-term antibiotic (amoxicillin) treatment, in the context of adequate healthcare supervision, does not improve the recovery rate...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411860/self-management-for-bronchiectasis
#16
REVIEW
Carol Kelly, Seamus Grundy, Dave Lynes, David Jw Evans, Sharada Gudur, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a long term respiratory condition with an increasing rate of diagnosis. It is associated with persistent symptoms, repeated infective exacerbations, and reduced quality of life, imposing a burden on individuals and healthcare systems. The main aims of therapeutic management are to reduce exacerbations and improve quality of life. Self-management interventions are potentially important for empowering people with bronchiectasis to manage their condition more effectively and to seek care in a timely manner...
February 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398506/international-consensus-icon-on-management-of-otitis-media-with-effusion-in-children
#17
F Simon, M Haggard, R M Rosenfeld, H Jia, S Peer, M-N Calmels, V Couloigner, N Teissier
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common childhood disease defined as the presence of liquid in the middle ear without signs or symptoms of acute ear infection. Children can be impacted mainly with hearing impairment and/or co-occurring recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) thus requiring treatment. Although many meta-analyses and national guidelines have been issued, management remains difficult to standardize, and use of surgical and medical treatments continue to vary. We convened an international consensus conference as part of the 2017 International Federation of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies Congress, to identify best practices in OME management...
February 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071847/-a-commentary-of-literature-research-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-for-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Ping Rong, Rong Ma, Quan-Hui Liu, Hai-Hong Yan, Si-Yuan Hu, Xin-Min Li, Xi-Lian Zhang, Wen-Ke Zheng
Acute upper respiratory tract infection is the most common infectious disease in children's respiratory system. The pathogen to the main virus, can account for more than 90% of the primary upper respiratory tract infectio. However, there is no specific anti-viral drugs specifically for the disease, in addition to the existence of excessive, widespread use or even abuse of antibiotics.Long-term clinical practice has confirmed that Chinese medicine is safe and effective in treating acute upper respiratory tract infection in children...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023853/antibiotics-gut-microbiome-and-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Karen S W Leong, José G B Derraik, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield
Antibiotics have been hailed by many as "miracle drugs" that have been effectively treating infectious diseases for over a century, leading to a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality. However, with the increasing use of antibiotics, we are now faced not only with the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, but also with a rising concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on human health, including the development of obesity. The obesity pandemic continues to increase, a problem that affects both adults and children alike...
February 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417451/prophylactic-anti-staphylococcal-antibiotics-for-cystic-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Alan R Smyth, Margaret Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested these hypotheses...
April 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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