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Is crohn’s disease reversible

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097894/il-17a-promotes-initiation-and-development-of-intestinal-fibrosis-through-emt
#1
Hui-Jing Zhang, Yi-Ning Zhang, Huan Zhou, Lin Guan, Yue Li, Ming-Jun Sun
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of Crohn's disease (CD). Its exact mechanism is still unclear, and effective treatments to control or reverse the fibrosis process are unavailable. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may promote intestinal fibrosis by increasing deposition of extracellular matrix protein. IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and it has been shown as a profibrotic factor as its association with fibrosis of multiple organs was reported. AIMS: To assess the roles of IL-17A and EMT in the initiation and development of intestinal fibrosis and to verify the potential inductive effect of IL-17A on EMT...
August 10, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090037/%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-derived-from-candida-albicans-induces-inflammatory-cytokines-from-macrophages-and-lamina-propria-mononuclear-cells-derived-from-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#2
Kiyoto Mori, Makoto Naganuma, Shinta Mizuno, Hiroaki Suzuki, Mina T Kitazume, Katsuyoshi Shimamura, Sayako Chiba, Akira Sugita, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, Takanori Kanai
Background/Aims: Recent research has highlighted the importance of interactions between commensal fungi and intestinal inflammation. However, there are few studies investigating whether commensal fungi contribute to inflammation in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study is to investigate reveal interactions between commensal fungi and host immune cells in CD. Methods: CD14-positive monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy human volunteers and then differentiated in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) (referred to as M-macrophages, M-Mϕs) or M-CSF and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (referred to as M-gamma macrophages, Mγ-Mϕs)...
July 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923651/hepcidin-in-newly-diagnosed-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-children
#3
Eva Karaskova, Jana Volejnikova, Dusan Holub, Maria Velganova-Veghova, Lucie Sulovska, Vladimír Mihal, Monika Horvathova, Dagmar Pospisilova
AIM: Hepcidin is a central regulator of iron homeostasis. Its production is also influenced by systemic inflammation. The aims of this study were to compare hepcidin levels in paediatric patients newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and to determine the association of hepcidin levels with laboratory and clinical parameters of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity. METHODS: Children with newly diagnosed IBD between January 2012 and September 2016 were enrolled in this comparative cross-sectional study...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912405/alphae-integrin-expression-is-increased-in-the-ileum-relative-to-the-colon-and-unaffected-by-inflammation
#4
Ryan Ichikawa, Christopher A Lamb, Jeff Eastham-Anderson, Alexis Scherl, Laura Raffals, William A Faubion, Miriam R Bennett, Anna K Long, John C Mansfield, John A Kirby, Mary E Keir
Background: Recent findings suggest that αE expression is enriched on effector T cells and that intestinal αE+ T cells have increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. αE integrin expression is a potential predictive biomarker for response to etrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against β7 integrin that targets both α4β7 and αEβ7. We evaluated the prevalence and localisation of αE+ cells as well as total αE gene expression in healthy subjects and inflammatory bowel disease patients...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862296/a-synbiotic-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-inhibitory-activity-ameliorates-experimental-jejunoileal-mucosal-injury
#5
Ryoki Takahashi, Takayasu Noguchi, Yoko Mizoguchi, Tadashi Shimoyama, Teruko Nakazawa, Tohru Ikuta
Despite the recent development of biological modifiers for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), there continues to be considerable interest in fermented medicines because of its negligible adverse effects. We previously showed that the synbiotic Gut Working Tablet (GWT) alleviates experimental colitis. Here we show that GWT is capable of ameliorating jejunoileal mucosal injury, which is frequently seen with IBD. We created experimental jejunoileal mucositis in rats by injection of methotrexate (MTX) which increases intestinal permeability, a hallmark finding of IBD...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704139/anti-fibrogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-treating-fibrosis-in-crohn-s-disease
#6
Lei Lian, Qunsheng Huang, Longjuan Zhang, Huabo Qin, Xiaosheng He, Xin He, Jia Ke, Minghao Xie, Ping Lan
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of CD and may result in stricture formation leading to intestinal obstruction. MSCs play multiple roles in active CD and fibrosis-associated diseases. AIMS: This study was designed to investigate the role of MSCs in CD-associated intestinal fibrosis. METHODS: Intestinal fibrosis was induced over 7 weeks of enema with increasing doses of TNBS and assessed by Masson's trichrome staining...
July 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672662/fibrostenotic-phenotype-of-myofibroblasts-in-crohn-s-disease-is-dependent-on-tissue-stiffness-and-reversed-by-lox-inhibition
#7
Jessica R de Bruyn, Gijs R van den Brink, Jessica Steenkamer, Christianne J Buskens, Willem A Bemelman, Sander Meisner, Vanesa Muncan, Anje A Te Velde, Geert R D'Haens, Manon E Wildenberg
Background and Aims: Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine and often leads to fibrosis, characterized by excess extracellular matrix [ECM] deposition, increased tissue stiffness, and stricture formation. Here we evaluated the contribution of myofibroblast-ECM interactions to the development of intestinal fibrosis in Crohn's disease. Methods: Matched primary human myofibroblasts were isolated from stenotic, inflamed and normal-appearing small intestine within the same Crohn's disease patient [n = 10]...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573237/vitamin-d-administration-leads-to-a-shift-of-the-intestinal-bacterial-composition-in-crohn-s-disease-patients-but-not-in-healthy-controls
#8
Holger Schäffler, Daniel Pr Herlemann, Paul Klinitzke, Peggy Berlin, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Robert Jaster, Georg Lamprecht
OBJECTIVE: Dysbiosis is a common feature in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Environmental factors, such as vitamin D deficiency, seem to play a role in the intestinal inflammation of IBD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether vitamin D administration has an impact on the bacterial composition in Crohn's disease (CD) compared to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, controlled interventional analysis was conducted in seven patients with CD in clinical remission and 10 HC to investigate the effect of orally administrated vitamin D on the intestinal bacterial composition using 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing...
April 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567541/epiisopiloturine-an-imidazole-alkaloid-reverses-inflammation-and-lipid-peroxidation-parameters-in-the-crohn-disease-model-induced-by-trinitrobenzenosulfonic-acid-in-wistar-rats
#9
Lucas Rodrigues de Carvalho, Tarcisio Vieira de Brito, José Simião da C Júnior, Genilson José Dias Júnior, Diva de Aguiar Magalhãres, Stefany Guimarães Sousa, Renan Oliveira Silva, Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da Silva, Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos, Leiz Maria Costa Véras, José Roberto de Sousa de Almeida Leite, Dainesy Santos Martins, Conceição da Silva Martins, Jefferson Soares de Oliveira, André Luiz Dos Reis Barbosa
Epiisopiloturine (EPI) is an important imidazole alkaloid because of its pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of epiisopiloturine on inflammatory parameters of the colonic mucosa in a rat model of Crohn's disease (CD). For this, we induced colitis using trinitrobenzenosulfonic acid and determined myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin 1 β (IL-1β), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the intestinal mucosa. The location and expression of the inflammatory markers in the colon were investigated by immunohistochemistry for NO synthase induced (iNOS), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and western blotting (iNOS and COX-2), respectively...
June 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562274/microrna-143-targets-atg2b-to-inhibit-autophagy-and-increase-inflammatory-responses-in-crohn-s-disease
#10
Xu-Tao Lin, Xiao-Bin Zheng, De-Jun Fan, Qiu-Qiong Yao, Jian-Cong Hu, Lei Lian, Xiao-Jian Wu, Ping Lan, Xiao-Sheng He
Background: Dysfunctional autophagy is recognized as a contributing factor in many chronic inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD). Genetic analyses have found that microRNA (miRNA) levels are altered in the intestinal tissues of CD patients. Methods: The Sequencing Alternative Poly-Adenylation Sites (SAPAS) method was used to compare the 3' end of the total mRNA sequence of 3 surgical specimens of CD patients (including inflamed tissues and corresponding noninflamed tissues in each case)...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545797/death-receptor-3-signaling-controls-the-balance-between-regulatory-and-effector-lymphocytes-in-samp1-yitfc-mice-with-crohn-s-disease-like-ileitis
#11
Zhaodong Li, Ludovica F Buttó, Kristine-Anne Buela, Li-Guo Jia, Minh Lam, John D Ward, Theresa T Pizarro, Fabio Cominelli
Death receptor 3 (DR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, has been implicated in regulating T-helper type-1 (TH 1), type-2 (TH 2), and type-17 (TH 17) responses as well as regulatory T cell (Treg ) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) functions during immune-mediated diseases. However, the role of DR3 in controlling lymphocyte functions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that activation of DR3 signaling modulates Treg expansion suggesting that stimulation of DR3 represents a potential therapeutic target in human inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337777/rescue-diverting-loop-ileostomy-an-alternative-to-emergent-colectomy-in-the-setting-of-severe-acute-refractory-ibd-colitis
#12
Tara A Russell, Aaron J Dawes, Danielle S Graham, Stephanie A K Angarita, Christina Ha, Jonathan Sack
BACKGROUND: Severe acute refractory colitis has traditionally been an indication for emergent colectomy in IBD, yet under these circumstances patients are at elevated risk for complications because of their heightened inflammatory state, nutritional deficiencies, and immunocompromised state. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that rescue diverting loop ileostomy may be a viable alternative to emergent colectomy, providing the opportunity for colonic healing and patient optimization before more definitive surgery...
February 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323428/enteral-nutrition-in-the-management-of-crohn-s-disease-reviewing-mechanisms-of-actions-and-highlighting-potential-venues-for-enhancing-the-efficacy
#13
REVIEW
Moftah H Alhagamhmad
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic condition that affects the gut and has adverse effects on growth and development. There is a global increase in the incidence and prevalence rates, and several factors are believed to contribute to this rise, including dietary habits. In contrast, the use of enteral nutrition (EN) as an exclusive source of nutrition is increasingly becoming the preferred induction treatment of pediatric CD patients in part to address the nutrition complications. However, EN therapy is considered less effective in adults with CD...
August 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034305/fecal-zonulin-is-elevated-in-crohn-s-disease-and-in-cigarette-smokers
#14
Karin Malíčková, Irena Francová, Milan Lukáš, Martin Kolář, Eva Králíková, Martin Bortlík, Dana Ďuricová, Lenka Štěpánková, Kamila Zvolská, Alexandra Pánková, Tomáš Zima
OBJECTIVES: Human zonulin is a protein that increases permeability in the epithelial layer of the small intestine by reversibly modulating the intercellular tight junctions. There is not sufficient information available about zonulin's participation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate fecal and serum zonulin in IBD patients and its relation to the disease localization, behavior and smoking status. DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty IBD patients and forty healthy persons were examined for fecal and serum zonulin concentrations by competitive ELISA (DRG International Inc)...
December 2017: Practical Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966116/crohn-s-disease-disturbs-the-immune-properties-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-related-to-inflammasome-activation
#15
Carolina Serena, Noelia Keiran, Ana Madeira, Elsa Maymó-Masip, Miriam Ejarque, Margarida Terrón-Puig, Eloy Espin, Marc Martí, Natalia Borruel, Francisco Guarner, Margarida Menacho, Antonio Zorzano, Monica Millan, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Joan Vendrell
Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by the expansion of mesenteric fat, also known as "creeping fat." We explored the plasticity and immune properties of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in the context of CD as potential key players in the development of creeping fat. Mesenteric CD-derived ASCs presented a more proliferative, inflammatory, invasive, and phagocytic phenotype than equivalent cells from healthy donors, irrespective of the clinical stage. Remarkably, ASCs from the subcutaneous depot of patients with CD also showed an activated immune response that was associated with a reduction in their immunosuppressive properties...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937552/naspghan-clinical-report-on-postoperative-recurrence-in-pediatric-crohn-disease
#16
REVIEW
Judy B Splawski, Marian D Pffefferkorn, Marc E Schaefer, Andrew S Day, Oliver S Soldes, Todd A Ponsky, Philip Stein, Jess L Kaplan, Shehzad A Saeed
Pediatric Crohn disease is characterized by clinical and endoscopic relapses. The inflammatory process is considered to be progressive and may lead to strictures, fistulas, and penetrating disease that may require surgery. In addition, medically refractory disease may be treated by surgical resection of inflamed bowel in an effort to reverse growth failure. The need for surgery in childhood suggests severe disease and these patients have an increased risk for recurrent disease and potentially more surgery. Data show that up to 55% of patients had clinical recurrence in the first 2 years after initial surgery...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824915/the-role-of-cytokines-in-the-fibrotic-responses-in-crohn-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Renata Curciarello, Guillermo H Docena, Thomas T MacDonald
Crohn's disease is an idiopathic disorder of the gut thought to be caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors in susceptible individuals. It is characterized by chronic transmural inflammation of the terminal ileum and colon, with typical transmural lesions. Complications, including fibrosis, mean that between 40 and 70% of patients require surgery in the first 10 years after diagnosis. Presently, there is no evidence that the current therapies which dampen inflammation modulate or reverse intestinal fibrosis...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777338/effects-of-the-exclusive-enteral-nutrition-on-the-microbiota-profile-of-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Simona Gatti, Tiziana Galeazzi, Elisa Franceschini, Roberta Annibali, Veronica Albano, Anil Kumar Verma, Maria De Angelis, Maria Elena Lionetti, Carlo Catassi
The mechanisms behind the efficacy of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in Crohn's disease (CD) remain poorly understood, despite the high rate of treatment response. Evidence accumulated in the last 20 years suggests that a positive shift of the disrupted microbiota is one of the treatment effects. The purpose of this study was to critically review and summarize data reporting the microbiological effects of EEN in patients with CD. Fourteen studies were considered in the review, overall involving 216 CD patients on EEN...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736729/factors-promoting-development-of-fibrosis-in-crohn-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Gerhard Rogler, Martin Hausmann
The concepts on the pathophysiology of intestinal fibrosis in Crohn's disease (CD) have changed in recent years. Some years ago fibrosis was regarded to be a consequence of long-standing inflammation with subsequent destruction of the gut wall matrix followed by scar formation and collagen deposition. Fibrosis in CD patients appeared to be an irreversible process that could hardly be influenced. Therefore, the main target in CD therapy was to control inflammation to avoid fibrosis development. Many of these assumptions seem to be only partially true...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642198/treatment-of-intestinal-fibrosis-in-experimental-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-the-pleiotropic-actions-of-a-local-rho-kinase-inhibitor
#20
Tom Holvoet, Sarah Devriese, Karolien Castermans, Sandro Boland, Dirk Leysen, Yves-Paul Vandewynckel, Lindsey Devisscher, Lien Van den Bossche, Sophie Van Welden, Melissa Dullaers, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke, Riet De Rycke, Karel Geboes, Arnaud Bourin, Olivier Defert, Pieter Hindryckx, Martine De Vos, Debby Laukens
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis resulting in (sub)obstruction is a common complication of Crohn's disease (CD). Rho kinases (ROCKs) play multiple roles in TGFβ-induced myofibroblast activation that could be therapeutic targets. Because systemic ROCK inhibition causes cardiovascular side effects, we evaluated the effects of a locally acting ROCK inhibitor (AMA0825) on intestinal fibrosis. METHODS: Fibrosis was assessed in mouse models using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and adoptive T-cell transfer...
October 2017: Gastroenterology
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