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Cholinergic reserve

Duncan A A MacLaren, Trisha L Ljungberg, Meghan E Griffin, Stewart D Clark
PSP is the most common atypical Parkinsonism. Although Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) shares some symptomology with Parkinson's Disease (PD), PSP has a different underlying pathology characterized by tau aggregation. Furthermore, PSP sufferers respond poorly to PD medications and there are no effective alternative therapeutics. The development of both palliative and disease altering therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that displays relevant PSP-like pathology and behavioral deficits...
October 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Mari Kishibe, Tina M Griffin, Melissa Goslawski, James Sinacore, Sascha A Kristian, Katherine A Radek
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can directly affect skin antibacterial responses via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In particular, α7 nAChR (CHRNA7) present in the epidermis modulates the host response to wounding and/or wound bacterial infection. While physiologic inflammation is required to initiate normal wound repair and can be triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, chronic inflammation is frequently observed in diabetic wounds, and can occur, in part, via excessive TLR2 activation or production...
September 27, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Burt M Sharp, Hao Chen
The single most preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States is tobacco use. Decades of study show that the risk of becoming addicted to smoked cigarettes varies greatly amongst individuals and is heritable, yet environmental factors are also important contributors. In this review, we consider a wide range of methodologies and key published reports that have defined the inheritance of different stages of nicotine-dependent smoking behavior, including preference, initiation, regular use, withdrawal and dependence, as well as cessation and relapse...
September 26, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Roger L Albin, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Martijn Lt Muller, William T Dauer, Martin Sarter, Kirk A Frey, Robert A Koeppe
Prior efforts to image cholinergic projections in human brain in vivo had significant technical limitations. We used the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) ligand [18 F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([18 F]FEOBV) and positron emission tomography to determine the regional distribution of VAChT binding sites in normal human brain. We studied 29 subjects (mean age 47 [range 20-81] years; 18 men; 11 women). [18 F]FEOBV binding was highest in striatum, intermediate in the amygdala, hippocampal formation, thalamus, rostral brainstem, some cerebellar regions, and lower in other regions...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Laura Mahady, Muhammad Nadeem, Michael Malek-Ahmadi, Kewei Chen, Sylvia E Perez, Elliott J Mufson
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by degeneration of cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), which provides the major cholinergic input to the cortical mantle and is related to cognitive decline in patients with AD. Cortical histone deacetylase (HDAC) dysregulation has been associated with neuronal degeneration during AD progression. However, whether HDAC alterations play a role in CBF degeneration during AD onset is unknown. We investigated HDAC protein levels from tissue containing nbM and changes in nuclear HDAC2 and its association with neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) development during AD progression...
September 25, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Samira Ztaou, Juliette Lhost, Isabelle Watabe, Giulia Torromino, Marianne Amalric
Early non-motor symptoms such as mood disorders and cognitive deficits are increasingly recognized in Parkinson's disease (PD). They may precede the characteristic motor symptomatology caused by dopamine (DA) neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). It is well-known that striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) are emerging as key regulators of PD motor symptom, however, their involvement in the cognitive and affective alterations occurring in the premotor phase of PD is poorly understood...
September 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Claudia V Turco, Jenin El-Sayes, Mitchell B Locke, Robert Chen, Steven Baker, Aimee J Nelson
KEY POINTS: Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is modulated by GABAA receptor activity, whereas the pharmacological origin of long-latency afferent inhibition remains unknown. This is the first study to report that long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) is reduced by the GABAA positive allosteric modulator lorazepam, and that both SAI and LAI are not modulated by the GABAB agonist baclofen. These findings advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying afferent inhibition...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Liangliang Zhu, Feihu Yan, Zhen Wang, Haiyan Dong, Chengling Bian, Ting Wang, Enda Yu, Jing Li
Colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) grow to extremely large size while rarely invade deeply. Also, there is a low tendency to become cancerous. We used the Illumina Human Methylation 450K array to query the main epigenetic difference of LSTs. We built a discovery cohort with 10 matched cases, and a validation cohort with 9 additional matched cases. Our results suggest that LST displays significant decrease in DNA methylation, highlighted by the discovery of 1,018 hypomethylated intergenic regions (IGRs)...
September 5, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Giovanni Di Pinto, Maria Di Bari, Rocío Martin-Alvarez, Samantha Sperduti, Silvia Serrano-Acedo, Valentina Gatta, Ada M Tata, Guadalupe Mengod
Acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in the modulation of the inflammatory response. ACh levels are regulated by its synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and by its hydrolyzing enzymes, mainly acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). A more comprehensive understanding of the cholinergic system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) disease progression could pave the path for the development of therapies to ameliorate multiple sclerosis (MS). In this work, we analyzed possible alterations of the CNS cholinergic system in the neuroinflammation process by using a MOG-induced EAE mice model...
September 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
M Senthilkumaran, L Bobrovskaya, A J M Verberne, I J Llewellyn-Smith
Low blood glucose activates brainstem adrenergic and cholinergic neurons, driving adrenaline secretion from the adrenal medulla and glucagon release from the pancreas. Despite their roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis, the distributions of insulin-responsive adrenergic and cholinergic neurons in the medulla are unknown. We fasted rats overnight and gave them insulin (10 U/kg i.p.) or saline after 2 weeks of handling. Blood samples were collected before injection and before perfusion at 90 min. We immunoperoxidase-stained transverse sections of perfused medulla to show Fos plus either phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Aminu Imam, Adhil Bhagwandin, Moyosore S Ajao, Amadi O Ihunwo, Kjell Fuxe, Paul R Manger
Here, we used a range of immunohistochemical stains, focussing on tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-β-hydroxylase, to show that within the pons of tree pangolins clusters of noradrenergic neurons are present. No noradrenergic neurons were observed in the pontine periventricular gray matter (A6 and A4 groups missing), with all noradrenergic neurons being found within the pontine tegmentum (A7 and A5 groups). The tree pangolin is unique in lacking the locus coeruleus (A6) cell group observed in all vertebrates previously studied; however, noradrenergic axons and terminal networks were found throughout the cerebral cortex...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Angelika Więckowska, Olga Gajewska-Woźniak, Anna Głowacka, Benjun Ji, Kamil Grycz, Julita Czarkowska-Bauch, Małgorzata Skup
Complete thoracic spinal cord transection (SCT) impairs excitatory cholinergic inputs to ankle extensor (Soleus; Sol) but not to flexor (Tibialis Anterior; TA) α-motoneurons (MNs) modifiable by locomotor training applied post-transection. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Sol and TA MNs adapt to changes in cholinergic environment by differential regulation of their muscarinic receptors M2 (M2R). We examined Chrm2 (M2R gene) transcript level, high-affinity [3 H]QNB ligand binding, distribution and density of M2R immunolabeling in lumbar (L) segments in intact and SCT rats, with or without inclusion of 5-week treadmill locomotor training...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Karl-Dietrich Sievert, Jörg Hennenlotter, Thomas Dillenburg, Patricia Toomey, J Wöllner, P Zweers, J Pannek, Karl-Erik Andersson, Bastian Amend
OBJECTIVE: To perform descriptive microscopic study of prostatectomy specimens from 19 patients which anatomically characterizes distributions of periprostatic nerves qualities and visualize them using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Serial whole-mounted sections were stained for cholinergic(nNOS), adrenergic(TH), and sensory(CGRP) nerves. Extracapsular stained nerves were counted by prostate surface sector and classified by diameter. Stain-related relative density was calculated and distribution patterns were evaluated...
August 9, 2018: BJU International
Agnes Katalin Urban, Celine Foote, Frank P Brennan, Mark Brown, Brendon Lee
AIM: To explore the quality of deaths in the acute hospital under a Nephrology service at two teaching hospitals in Sydney with Renal Supportive Care services over time. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all deaths in the years 2004, 2009 and 2014 at St George Hospital (SGH) and in 2014 at Concord Repatriation General Hospital (CRGH). Domains assessed were recognition of dying, invasive interventions, symptom assessment, anticipatory prescribing, documentation of spiritual needs and bereavement information for families...
August 9, 2018: Nephrology
Chunhua Wan, Miaomiao Wu, Shusen Zhang, Yuyan Chen, Cuihua Lu
The cholinergic signaling pathways have been recently implicated in the development of various human cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unclear. In the present study, we reported that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), an important member of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, interacts with Protein Phosphatase-1γ (PP1γ) in human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) tissues. In addition, we found that α7nAChR facilitates the ubiquitination and activation of TRAF6 in a PP1γ-dependent manner in HCC cells...
November 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Nicola Solari, Balázs Hangya
Spatial learning, including encoding and retrieval of spatial memories as well as holding spatial information in working memory generally serving navigation under a broad range of circumstances, relies on a network of structures. While central to this network are medial temporal lobe structures with a widely appreciated crucial function of the hippocampus, neocortical areas such as the posterior parietal cortex and the retrosplenial cortex also play essential roles. Since the hippocampus receives its main subcortical input from the medial septum of the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system, it is not surprising that the potential role of the septo-hippocampal pathway in spatial navigation has been investigated in many studies...
September 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Bartosz Caban, Agata Staszelis, Paulina Kazmierska, Tomasz Kowalczyk, Jan Konopacki
Theta rhythms have been recorded from rat brain slices of the posterior hypothalamic area (PHa), including the supramammillary and posterior hypothalamic nuclei. Additionally, in numerous studies theta-related neurons were identified in the PHa according to the classification of Bland and Colom (Progress in Neurobiology, 41, 157-208, 1993). It is currently widely accepted that the PHa contributes to the process of HPC theta frequency programming at least in certain behavioral states. The postnatal development of the HPC and its ability to generate theta has also been a subject of studies...
July 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Danae A Apatzidou, Achilleas Iskas, Antonis Konstantinidis, Abeer M Alghamdi, Maria Tumelty, David F Lappin, Christopher J Nile
AIM: The oral mucosa possesses a non-neuronal cholinergic system. This study aimed to determine clinical evidence for a role of cholinergic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty healthy participants, 52 patients with gingivitis and 49 with periodontitis were recruited. Full periodontal parameters were recorded and saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected. Levels of acetylcholine and inflammatory mediators were quantified using commercially available assay kits...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
A K L Liu, E J Lim, I Ahmed, R C-C Chang, R K B Pearce, S M Gentleman
Although the nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (nvlDBB) is the second largest cholinergic nucleus in the basal forebrain, after the nucleus basalis of Meynert, it has not generally been a focus for studies of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the nvlDBB has an important projection to the hippocampus and discrete lesions of the rostral basal forebrain have been shown to disrupt retrieval memory function, a major deficit seen in patients with Lewy body disorders. One reason for its neglect is that the anatomical boundaries of the nvlDBB are ill defined and this area of the brain is not part of routine diagnostic sampling protocols...
July 13, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Elisa Meroni, Nathalie Stakenborg, Maria Francesca Viola, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Over the past decades, there has been an increasing understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate modulation of the immune system by the autonomic nervous system. The discovery that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) attenuates endotoxin-induced experimental sepsis paved the way for further studies investigating neuro-immune interaction. In particular, great attention is now given to intestinal macrophages: several studies report the existence of both intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms by which intestinal immune homoeostasis can be regulated in different layers of the intestine, mainly by affecting macrophage activation through neurotransmitter release...
July 11, 2018: Acta Physiologica
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