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Cholinergic reserve

Angelika Więckowska, Olga Gajewska-Woźniak, Anna Głowacka, Benjun Ji, Kamil Grycz, Julita Czarkowska-Bauch, Małgorzata Skup
Complete thoracic spinal cord transection (SCT) impairs excitatory cholinergic inputs to ankle extensor (Soleus; Sol) but not to flexor (Tibialis Anterior; TA) α-motoneurons (MNs) modifiable by locomotor training applied post-transection. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Sol and TA MNs adapt to changes in cholinergic environment by differential regulation of their muscarinic receptors M2 (M2R). We examined Chrm2 (M2R gene) transcript level, high-affinity [3 H]QNB ligand binding, distribution and density of M2R immunolabeling in lumbar (L) segments in intact and SCT rats, with or without inclusion of 5-week treadmill locomotor training...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Karl-Dietrich Sievert, Jörg Hennenlotter, Thomas Dillenburg, Patricia Toomey, J Wöllner, P Zweers, J Pannek, Karl-Erik Andersson, Bastian Amend
OBJECTIVE: To perform descriptive microscopic study of prostatectomy specimens from 19 patients which anatomically characterizes distributions of periprostatic nerves qualities and visualize them using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Serial whole-mounted sections were stained for cholinergic(nNOS), adrenergic(TH), and sensory(CGRP) nerves. Extracapsular stained nerves were counted by prostate surface sector and classified by diameter. Stain-related relative density was calculated and distribution patterns were evaluated...
August 9, 2018: BJU International
Agnes Katalin Urban, Celine Foote, Frank P Brennan, Mark Brown, Brendon Lee
AIM: To explore the quality of deaths in the acute hospital under a Nephrology service at two teaching hospitals in Sydney with Renal Supportive Care services over time. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all deaths in the years 2004, 2009 and 2014 at St George Hospital (SGH) and in 2014 at Concord Repatriation General Hospital (CRGH). Domains assessed were recognition of dying, invasive interventions, symptom assessment, anticipatory prescribing, documentation of spiritual needs and bereavement information for families...
August 9, 2018: Nephrology
Chunhua Wan, Miaomiao Wu, Shusen Zhang, Yuyan Chen, Cuihua Lu
The cholinergic signaling pathways have been recently implicated in the development of various human cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unclear. In the present study, we reported that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), an important member of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, interacts with Protein Phosphatase-1γ (PP1γ) in human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) tissues. In addition, we found that α7nAChR facilitates the ubiquitination and activation of TRAF6 in a PP1γ-dependent manner in HCC cells...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Nicola Solari, Balázs Hangya
Spatial learning, including encoding and retrieval of spatial memories as well as holding spatial information in working memory generally serving navigation under a broad range of circumstances, relies on a network of structures. While central to this network are medial temporal lobe structures with a widely appreciated crucial function of the hippocampus, neocortical areas such as the posterior parietal cortex and the retrosplenial cortex also play essential roles. Since the hippocampus receives its main subcortical input from the medial septum of the basal forebrain cholinergic system, it is not surprising that the potential role of the septo-hippocampal pathway in spatial navigation has been investigated in many studies...
July 28, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Bartosz Caban, Agata Staszelis, Paulina Kaźmierska, Tomasz Kowalczyk, Jan Konopacki
Theta rhythms have been recorded from rat brain slices of the posterior hypothalamic area (PHa), including the supramammillary and posterior hypothalamic nuclei. Additionally, in numerous studies theta-related neurons were identified in the PHa according to the classification of Bland and Colom (1993). It is currently widely accepted that the PHa contributes to the process of HPC theta frequency programming at least in certain behavioral states. The postnatal development of the HPC and its ability to generate theta has also been a subject of studies...
July 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Danae A Apatzidou, Achilleas Iskas, Antonis Konstantinidis, Abeer M Alghamdi, Maria Tumelty, David F Lappin, Christopher J Nile
AIM: The oral mucosa possesses a non-neuronal cholinergic system. This study aimed to determine clinical evidence for a role of cholinergic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty healthy participants, 52 patients with gingivitis and 49 with periodontitis were recruited. Full periodontal parameters were recorded and saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected. Levels of acetylcholine and inflammatory mediators were quantified using commercially available assay kits...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Alan King Lun Liu, Ernest Junwei Lim, Idil Ahmed, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Ronald K B Pearce, Steve M Gentleman
Although the nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (nvlDBB) is the second largest cholinergic nucleus in the basal forebrain, after the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), it has not generally been a focus for studies of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the nvlDBB does have an important projection to the hippocampus and discrete lesions of the rostral basal forebrain have been shown to disrupt retrieval memory function, a major deficit seen in patients with Lewy body disorders. One reason for its neglect is that the anatomical boundaries of the nvlDBB are ill defined and this area of the brain is not part of routine diagnostic sampling protocols...
July 13, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Elisa Meroni, Nathalie Stakenborg, Maria Francesca Viola, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Over the past decades, there has been an increasing understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate modulation of the immune system by the autonomic nervous system. The discovery that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) attenuates endotoxin-induced experimental sepsis paved the way for further studies investigating neuro-immune interaction. In particular, great attention is now given to intestinal macrophages: several studies report the existence of both intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms by which intestinal immune homeostasis can be regulated in different layers of the intestine, mainly by affecting macrophage activation through neurotransmitter release...
July 11, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Iliona Malaspinas, Ferenc Petak, Aurélie Baudat, Camille Doras, Philippe A Eigenmann, Walid Habre
Although acute prophylactic administration of atropine modulates airway responsiveness, the role of the parasympathetic nervous system in the pathogenesis of sensitization and in antigen-induced bronchoconstriction remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether blocking muscarinic receptors during chronic allergen exposure modulates lung responsiveness to the specific allergen. Forty rats were randomly assigned to one of the following five treatment groups: sensitization with saline vehicle, intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (1 mg) with or without atropine treatment (10 mg/kg/day), and repeated ovalbumin aerosol (1...
July 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Luca Rizzi, Cecilia Gotti, Marco De Amici, Clelia Dallanoce, Carlo Matera
Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is emerging as a central regulator in inflammatory processes, as documented by increasing studies reported in the literature. For instance, the activation of this nicotinic receptor subtype in resident macrophages inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby attenuating local inflammatory responses, and may open a new window in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease, such as Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and asthma. In continuation of our ongoing research for the development of new cholinergic drug candidates, we selected the nicotine derivative CAP55, which was previously shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects via nicotinic stimulation, as a suitable compound for lead optimization...
June 28, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Dick Jaarsma, Francois G C Blot, Bin Wu, Subramanian Venkatesan, Jan Voogd, Dies Meijer, Tom J H Ruigrok, Zhenyu Gao, Martijn Schonewille, Chris I De Zeeuw
The basal interstitial nucleus (BIN) in the white matter of the vestibulocerebellum has been defined more than three decades ago, but has since been largely ignored. It is still unclear which neurotransmitters are being used by BIN neurons, how these neurons are connected to the rest of the brain and what their activity patterns look like. Here, we studied BIN neurons in a range of mammals, including macaque, human, rat, mouse, rabbit and ferret, using tracing, immunohistological and electrophysiological approaches...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Baoguo He, Zhiqiang Qu, Zibin Tian, Kun Zhao, Liangzhou Wei, Li Ma
Although 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a synthetic agonist specific for tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), has been reported to promote intestinal dynamics, its effect on gastric dynamics has not been studied as yet. In this study, we explored how 7,8-DHF affected the carbachol (CCh)-induced contraction of rat gastric muscle by way of measuring the contractile tension of muscular strips. We found that although 7,8-DHF did not directly cause contraction of gastric muscle, it enhanced CCh-induced, instead of substance P- or high K+ -induced, contraction...
June 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Tanuja Bordia, Xiomara A Perez
L-dopa induced dyskinesias (LIDs) are a disabling motor complication of L-dopa therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) management. Treatment options remain limited and the underlying network mechanisms remain unclear due to a complex pathophysiology. What is well-known, however, is that aberrant striatal signaling plays a key role in LIDs development. Here, we discuss the specific contribution of striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) and GABAergic medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) with a particular focus on how cholinergic signaling may integrate multiple striatal systems to modulate LIDs expression...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Rubina Aktar, Madusha Peiris, Asma Fikree, Vincent Cibert-Goton, Maxim Walmsley, Iain R Tough, Paulo Watanabe, Eduardo J A Araujo, Sahar D Mohammed, Jean-Marie Delalande, David C Bulmer, S Mark Scott, Helen M Cox, Nicol C Voermans, Qasim Aziz, L Ashley Blackshaw
KEY POINTS: Tenascin-X (TNX) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein with anti-adhesive properties in skin and joints. Here we report the novel finding that TNX is expressed in human and mouse gut tissue where it is exclusive to specific subpopulations of neurones. Our studies with TNX-deficient mice show impaired defecation and neural control of distal colonic motility that can be rescued with a 5-HT4 receptor agonist. However, colonic secretion is unchanged. They are also susceptible to internal rectal intussusception...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Katja Lingelbach, Arian Hach, Rick E Bernardi, Rainer Spanagel, Hilmar Bading, C Peter Bengtson
Despite the reduced life expectancy and staggering financial burden of medical treatment associated with tobacco smoking, the molecular, cellular and ensemble adaptations associated with chronic nicotine consumption remain poorly understood. Complex circuitry interconnecting dopaminergic and cholinergic regions of the midbrain and mesopontine tegmentum are critical for nicotine associated reward. Yet our knowledge of the nicotine activation of these regions is incomplete, in part due to their cell type diversity...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
B M Sharp
The amygdala is involved in processing incoming information about rewarding stimuli and emotions that denote danger such as anxiety and fear. Bi-directional neural connections between basolateral amygdala (BLA) and brain regions such as nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hindbrain regions regulate motivation, cognition, and responses to stress. Altered local regulation of BLA excitability is pivotal to the behavioral disturbances characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and relapse to drug use induced by stress...
May 26, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Eva V L Roloff, Dawid Walas, Davi J A Moraes, Sergey Kasparov, Julian F R Paton
KEY POINTS: Essential hypertension is associated with hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypoperfusion of the brainstem area controlling arterial pressure. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of vertebrobasilar arteries may regulate blood perfusion to the brainstem. We examined the autonomic innervation of these arteries in pre-hypertensive (PHSH) and hypertensive spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats relative to age-matched Wistar rats. Our main findings were: (1) an unexpected decrease in noradrenergic sympathetic innervation in PHSH and SH compared to Wistar rats despite elevated sympathetic drive in PHSH rats; (2) a dramatic deficit in cholinergic and peptidergic parasympathetic innervation in PHSH and SH compared to Wistar rats; and (3) denervation of sympathetic fibres did not alter vertebrobasilar artery morphology or arterial pressure...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Nilupaer Abudukeyoumu, Teresa Hernandez-Flores, Marianela Garcia-Munoz, Gordon W Arbuthnott
The purpose of this review is to bridge the gap between earlier literature on striatal cholinergic interneurons and mechanisms of microcircuit interaction evidenced with the use of newly available tools. It is well known that the main source of the high level of acetylcholine in the striatum are the cholinergic interneurons. These interneurons provide an extensive local innervation that suggests they may be a key modulator of striatal microcircuits. Supporting this idea requires the consideration of functional properties of these interneurons, their influence on medium spiny neurons, other interneurons, and interactions with other synaptic regulators...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jyoti C Patel, Melissa A Stouffer, Maria Mancini, Charles Nicholson, Kenneth D Carr, Margaret E Rice
Diet influences dopamine transmission in motor- and reward-related basal ganglia circuitry. In part, this reflects diet-dependent regulation of circulating and brain insulin levels. Activation of striatal insulin receptors amplifies axonal dopamine release in brain slices, and regulates food preference in vivo. The effect of insulin on dopamine release is indirect, and requires striatal cholinergic interneurons that express insulin receptors. However, insulin also increases dopamine uptake by promoting dopamine transporter (DAT) surface expression, which counteracts enhanced dopamine release...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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