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Cholinergic reserve

Yu-Ting Hu, Xin-Lu Chen, Shu-Han Huang, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Si-Yang Yu, Yi Shen, Arja Sluiter, Joost Verhaagen, Juan Zhao, Dick Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
Our previous studies showed that the transcription factor early growth response-1 (EGR1) may play a role in keeping the brain cholinergic function intact in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved, we first performed data mining on our previous microarray study on postmortem human prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the changes in the expression of EGR1 and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the relationship between them during the course of AD. The study contained 49 patients, ranging from non-demented controls (Braak stage 0) to late AD patients (Braak stage VI)...
December 3, 2018: Brain Pathology
Carelis González-Salazar, Karen A G Takazaki, Alberto R M Martinez, Luciana R Pimentel-Silva, Laís Alves Jacinto-Scudeiro, Érika Yumi Nakagawa, Camila Emi Fujiwara Murakami, Jonas Alex M Saute, José Luiz Pedroso, Orlando Graziani P Barsottini, Helio Teive, Marcondes C França
INTRODUCTION: SPAST mutations are the most common cause of hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG4-HSP), which is characterized by progressive lower limb weakness, spasticity and hyperreflexia. There are few studies about non-motor manifestations in this disease and none about autonomic involvement. Therefore, our aim was to determine the frequency and pattern of autonomic complaints in patients with SPG4-HSP, as well as to determine the clinical relevance and the possible factors associated with these manifestations...
November 29, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Shin J Oh, Dushin Jeong, Ikjae Lee, Mohammad Alsharabati
INTRODUCTION: We are reporting our experience with the repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) test in myasthenia gravis (MG) crisis. METHODS: The various parameters of the RNS tests in 26 patients with MG crisis were analyzed. RESULTS: In 18 (69%) patients, MG crisis is the first manifestation of MG. The RNS tests were abnormal in 24 (92%) patients by decrement at low-rate stimulation in any of four tested muscles. Three patterns of abnormality were found: MG pattern (decrement at low-rate stimulation) in 23 patients, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome pattern in one patient, and cholinergic crisis pattern in one patient...
November 29, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Liqin Zhang, Calvin Wu, David T Martel, Michael West, Michael A Sutton, Susan E Shore
Here, we investigate remodeling of hippocampal cholinergic inputs after noise exposure and determine the relevance of these changes to tinnitus. To assess the effects of noise exposure on the hippocampus, guinea pigs were exposed to unilateral noise for 2 hr and 2 weeks later, immunohistochemistry was performed on hippocampal sections to examine vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expression. To evaluate whether the changes in VAChT were relevant to tinnitus, another group of animals was exposed to the same noise band twice to induce tinnitus, which was assessed using gap-prepulse Inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) 12 weeks after the first noise exposure, followed by immunohistochemistry...
November 24, 2018: Hippocampus
E Sherwood Brown, Erin Van Enkevort, Alexandra Kulikova, Chastity Escalante, Alyson Nakamura, Elena I Ivleva, Traci Holmes
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder is a major societal and individual burden that exacerbates health outcomes, decreases quality of life, and negatively affects U.S. healthcare spending. Although pharmacological treatments are available for alcohol use disorder, many of them are limited by small effect sizes and used infrequently. Citicoline is a widely available over-the-counter supplement with a favorable side effect profile. It acts through cholinergic pathways and phospholipid metabolism...
November 20, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Gail D Tillman, Jeffrey S Spence, Richard W Briggs, Robert W Haley, John Hart, Michael A Kraut
Our team previously reported event-related potential (ERP) and hyperarousal patterns from a study of one construction battalion of the U.S. Naval Reserve who served during the 1991 Persian Gulf War. We sought to replicate these findings in a sample that was more representative of the entire Gulf War-era veteran population, including male and female participants from four branches of the military. We collected ERP data from 40 veterans meeting Haley criteria for Gulf War syndromes 1-3 and from 22 matched Gulf War veteran controls while they performed an auditory oddball task...
November 10, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Yuri Aono, Yuriko Watanabe, Manabu Ishikawa, Noboru Kuboyama, John L Waddington, Tadashi Saigusa
Cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens contain GABAA and GABAB receptors that are thought to inhibit neural activity. We analyzed the roles of GABAA and GABAB receptors in regulating accumbal acetylcholine efflux of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. The effects of GABA receptor ligands on the accumbal dopamine efflux were also analyzed because accumbal cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons could mutually interact. Drugs were applied intracerebrally through the dialysis probe. Doses of compounds indicate total amount administered (mol) during 30-60 min infusions...
November 18, 2018: Synapse
Ehsan Negahbani, Stephen L Schmidt, Nadia Mishal, Flavio Fröhlich
Low-field magnetic stimulation (LFMS) is a gated high-frequency noninvasive brain stimulation method (500 Hz gated at 2 Hz) with a proposed antidepressant effect. However, it has remained unknown how such stimulation paradigms modulate neuronal network activity and how the induced changes depend on network state. Here we examined the immediate and outlasting effects of the gated high-frequency electric field associated with LFMS on the cortical activity as a function of neuromodulatory tone that defines network state...
November 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Eric D Melonakos, John A White, Fernando R Fernandez
Sharp wave-ripples (140-220 Hz) are patterns of brain activity observed in the local field potential of the hippocampus which are present during memory consolidation. As rodents switch from memory consolidation to memory encoding behaviors, cholinergic inputs to the hippocampus from neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca cause a marked reduction in ripple incidence. The mechanism for this disruption in ripple power is not fully understood. In isolated neurons, the major effect of cholinergic input on hippocampal neurons is depolarization of the membrane potential, which affects both hippocampal pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons...
November 12, 2018: Hippocampus
Jean-Marie Delpuech
BACKGROUND: Endosulfan is a semi-permanent pollutant that can be transported long distances through the atmosphere. Although phased out in many countries, it is still used in some populated areas and thus largely contributes to environmental pollution. It can impact non-target species such as Leptopilina boulardi, a hymenopteran parasitoid that is a beneficial insect because it controls the populations of its host. Only one L. boulardi egg can successfully develop in its host, a Drosophila larva...
November 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Justine Benevent, Caroline Hurault-Delarue, Mélanie Araujo, François Montastruc, Jean-Louis Montastruc, Isabelle Lacroix, Christine Damase-Michel
Childhood digestive disorders are a common occurrence, and are sometimes unexplained. Maternal medication during the development of the foetus' digestive system may contribute to the increase of childhood digestive disorders, especially with drugs acting on the cholinergic system. This study investigated the association between prenatal exposure to drugs with atropinic properties and the use of digestive disorder medications in childhood (0 - 3 years). Children from POMME (PrescriptiOn Médicaments Mères Enfants), a French database of reimbursed drugs for pregnant women and their children, were included (N=8,372)...
October 26, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Beryl Y T Chung, Craig D C Bailey
The hippocampal formation (HF) plays an important role to facilitate higher-order cognitive functions. Cholinergic activation of heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) within the HF is critical for the normal development of principal neurons within this brain region. However, previous research investigating the expression and function of heteromeric nAChRs in principal neurons of the HF is limited to males or does not differentiate between sexes. We used whole-cell electrophysiology to show that principal neurons in the CA1 region of the female mouse HF are excited by heteromeric nAChRs throughout postnatal development, with the greatest response occurring during the first two weeks of postnatal life...
October 24, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Duncan A A MacLaren, Trisha L Ljungberg, Meghan E Griffin, Stewart D Clark
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is the most common atypical Parkinsonism. Although PSP shares some symptomology with Parkinson's disease (PD), PSP has a different underlying pathology characterized by tau aggregation. Furthermore, PSP sufferers respond poorly to PD medications and there are no effective alternative therapeutics. The development of both palliative and disease altering therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that displays relevant PSP-like pathology and behavioral deficits...
October 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Mari Kishibe, Tina M Griffin, Melissa Goslawski, James Sinacore, Sascha A Kristian, Katherine A Radek
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can directly affect skin antibacterial responses via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In particular, α7 nAChR (CHRNA7) present in the epidermis modulates the host response to wounding and/or wound bacterial infection. While physiologic inflammation is required to initiate normal wound repair and can be triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, chronic inflammation is frequently observed in diabetic wounds and can occur, in part, via excessive TLR2 activation or production...
September 27, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Burt M Sharp, Hao Chen
The single most preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States is tobacco use. Decades of study show that the risk of becoming addicted to smoked cigarettes varies greatly amongst individuals and is heritable, yet environmental factors are also important contributors. In this review, we consider a wide range of methodologies and key published reports that have defined the inheritance of different stages of nicotine-dependent smoking behavior, including preference, initiation, regular use, withdrawal and dependence as well as cessation and relapse...
September 26, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Roger L Albin, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Martijn L T M Muller, William T Dauer, Martin Sarter, Kirk A Frey, Robert A Koeppe
Prior efforts to image cholinergic projections in human brain in vivo had significant technical limitations. We used the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) ligand [18 F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([18 F]FEOBV) and positron emission tomography to determine the regional distribution of VAChT binding sites in normal human brain. We studied 29 subjects (mean age 47 [range 20-81] years; 18 men; 11 women). [18 F]FEOBV binding was highest in striatum, intermediate in the amygdala, hippocampal formation, thalamus, rostral brainstem, some cerebellar regions, and lower in other regions...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
L Mahady, M Nadeem, M Malek-Ahmadi, K Chen, S E Perez, E J Mufson
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by degeneration of cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), which provides the major cholinergic input to the cortical mantle and is related to cognitive decline in patients with AD. Cortical histone deacetylase (HDAC) dysregulation has been associated with neuronal degeneration during AD progression. However, whether HDAC alterations play a role in CBF degeneration during AD onset is unknown. We investigated global HDAC protein levels and nuclear HDAC2 immunoreactivity in tissue containing the nbM, changes and their association with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) during the progression of AD...
September 25, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Samira Ztaou, Juliette Lhost, Isabelle Watabe, Giulia Torromino, Marianne Amalric
Early non-motor symptoms such as mood disorders and cognitive deficits are increasingly recognised in Parkinson's disease (PD). They may precede the characteristic motor symptomatology caused by dopamine (DA) neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). It is well known that striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) are emerging as key regulators of PD motor symptom, however, their involvement in the cognitive and affective alterations occurring in the premotor phase of PD is poorly understood...
September 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Claudia V Turco, Jenin El-Sayes, Mitchell B Locke, Robert Chen, Steven Baker, Aimee J Nelson
KEY POINTS: Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is modulated by GABAA receptor activity, whereas the pharmacological origin of long-latency afferent inhibition remains unknown. This is the first study to report that long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) is reduced by the GABAA positive allosteric modulator lorazepam, and that both SAI and LAI are not modulated by the GABAB agonist baclofen. These findings advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying afferent inhibition...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology
Liangliang Zhu, Feihu Yan, Zhen Wang, Haiyan Dong, Chengling Bian, Ting Wang, Enda Yu, Jing Li
Colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) grow to extremely large size while rarely invade deeply. Also, there is a low tendency to become cancerous. We used the Illumina Human Methylation 450K array to query the main epigenetic difference of LSTs. We built a discovery cohort with 10 matched cases, and a validation cohort with 9 additional matched cases. Our results suggest that LST displays significant decrease in DNA methylation, highlighted by the discovery of 1,018 hypomethylated intergenic regions (IGRs)...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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